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Article III of the Constitution invests the judicial power of the United
States in the federal court system. Article III, Section 1 specifically
creates the U.S. Supreme Court and gives Congress the authority to
create the lower federal courts.
Congress has used this power to establish the 13 U.S. Courts of Appeals,
the 94 U.S. District Courts, the U.S. Court of Claims, and the U.S.
Court of International Trade. U.S. Bankruptcy Courts handle bankruptcy
cases. Magistrate Judges handle some District Court matters.
Parties dissatisfied with a decision of a U.S. District Court, the U.S.
Court of Claims, and/or the U.S. Court of International Trade may appeal
to a U.S. Court of Appeals
A party may ask the U.S. Supreme Court to review a decision of the U.S.
Court of Appeals, but the Supreme Court usually is under no obligation
to do so. The U.S. Supreme Court is the final arbiter of federal