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prisoners are thought to be lawbreakers and are locked behind bars to deprive them most of their freedom such as movement and interaction with others.
For most of U.S. history, the treatment of prisoners was left entirely to the discretion of prison administrators. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the federal courts began to oversee state prison systems and develop a body of law dealing with prisoners' rights. During the 1980s, however, a more conservative Supreme Court limited prisoners' rights, and, in the 1990s, Congress enacted laws that severely restricted litigation and post-conviction appeals by prisoners.
Davis, A. Y., & Freeman, S. (2010). Are Prisons Obsolete?. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Carlson, P. M., & Garrett, J. S. (1999). Prison and jail administration: Practice ant theory. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publ.
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