QFD Application in the Hospitality Industry Paper

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attached are the articles to be analyzed since my project is designing a hotel so the answer must be related to hotel and things like that I attached another student example and the articles and the rubric so 2 articles and the citation is APA

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ID 408 Journal Reflections JOURNAL REFLECTIONS: After reading three journal articles, you are to IDENTIFY/REACT/APPLY (IRA) for each Journal Article: • • • • • IDENTFY: The main question/hypothesis the author(s) investigated, the research methodology employed (surveys, observations, case study analysis, etc.), and finally the findings of the study. REACTION: Write a paragraph that includes your reactions to the reading and points that were new and surprising to you personally, or points that the article made that were especially significant. Other comments on the reading are also invited. The reaction section offers you an opportunity to reflect on your feelings, opinions, and thoughts about the reading. Please DO NOT summarize the article(s). Instead, provide an overview of your experience of reading and analyzing the article(s). APPLICATION: Write a paragraph about how the material covered in the article could be applied to behaviors or situations related to your project type. How does the reading apply to the design? How will these design applications be useful to the end-user(s) ? The application section offers you an opportunity to think about how the information presented could be used across various design settings and scenarios for your project. This section also addresses the “why does this matter” question DO NOT PLAGAIRIZE! Please cite work and in APA format. See handout on APA format and plagiarism June 4 - Due for peer review in class! BRING 4 copies of your journal reflections (MUST HAVE TWO COMPLETED and bring the other study to discuss) th Be sure to appropriately cite and reference these resources in APA format. NOTE: We encourage you to use sketches/photos/other visuals. Please cite all images (even cite your own photos) A minimum of 900 words (300 word minimum for each study). JOURNAL 1 The Coffee Shop: Social and Physical Factors Influencing Place Attachment Findings This study examines research findings about coffee shops as gathering places and environments that create community attachment. Public buildings are often referred to as “the third place” (or third space). They are social gathering spaces, different from the two usual social spaces of home ("first place") and the workplace ("second place"). The researcher chose coffee shops due to a 10% increase in the growth of new coffee shops opening from 2000 to 2004. Each of the coffee shops explored had regular patrons and staff who provided unique social situations “of belonging, territoriality and ownership, productivity and personal growth, opportunity for socialization, support and networking, and sense of community.” (Waxman, 2006, p46) The study attempted to answer three research questions: “1. What characteristics and design features attract people and cause them to feel attachment to the coffee shops? 2. What social interactions or human contacts attract people and cause them feel attachment to the coffee shops? 3. Is there a relationship between coffee shop patronage and feelings of attachment to community?” (Waxman, 2006, p38) • “What physical characteristics and design features attract people and cause them to feel attachment to the coffee shops?” (Waxman, 2006, p42) The top five physical qualities in a coffee shop are cleanliness, aroma, adequate lighting, comfortable furniture, and a view to the outside. • “What social interactions or human contacts attract people and cause them feel attachment to the coffee shops?” (Waxman, 2006, p45) The important social climate and culture included: the opportunity to linger, ownership and territoriality, trust, respect and anonymity, productivity and personal growth, social beings and familiar strangers, and support. • “Is there a relationship between coffee shop patronage and feelings of attachment to community?” (Waxman, 2006, p49) There is a measurable correlation between frequent patronage at the coffee shops and increased feelings of attachment to the community, including: “the opportunity to linger, feelings of ownership, ability to territorialize, …. “ (p49) Methodology The research methodologies used in the study were direct observations, surveys, and interviews in the examination of three popular coffee shops located in the southeast United States. Two of the shops were locally owned and one was a national chain. This analysis looked at design considerations, including: cleanliness, aroma, lighting, furniture, and views. It also explored the social climate and culture found in the three coffee shops. The research study explored the characteristics of the coffee shops and the patrons to answer the three research questions identified previously. How this journal article is related to the area of study? This study is helpful to the design project because the goal of the design is to attract young people to the center by creating an atmosphere where they can have a cup of coffee, converse, meet with their friends, work, study, and feel a part of the community. The design will include: adequate lighting, comfortable furniture, and a view to the outside. 13 JOURNAL 2 Just How Public Is the Seattle Public Library? Publicity, Posturing, and Politics in Public Design When the Seattle Public Library decided to construct a new main library, they began by passing $196.4 million bond measure and hiring a famous European architect. The library repeatedly sought input from the public and promised to incorporate the public’s wishes into the design. As the project evolved, the architect appeared to disregard opinions from staff and the library goers. This paper supports the authors contention that “despite the volume and robustness of public discourse in the Seattle Public Library’s design review process, the public’s commentary and criticism had only a limited effect on the form and character of the design.” (Mattern, 2003) Methodology Mattern used press and newspaper coverage, communication from the library, and communication from the public about the design and construction of the main Seattle Public Library and the branches. The author used the information to assess the effect that input from the public and the library staff had on final design. Findings Mattern concluded that the input from the public and the library staff had very little impact on the final design of the library for four main reasons: metaphors, personas and publicity, rhetorical skill, and rhetorical aggrandizement. • Commercial metaphors almost from the beginning created communication problem since this was a public space and not a commercial space. • The persona and public image of an architect with “star power” made it difficult to criticize the final design solutions. In addition, publicity from the press went from enthusiasm for a famous architect with innovative designs to criticism for the radical new design. Thus, the press ended up backing down and saying that the fears expressed might have been unfounded. The public was offended by the architect and alternately excited and appeased by the press. • The rhetorical skills of the architect and his “compelling performances” at public meetings were filled with humor, strong visuals and photographs that swept the audience along into acceptance of the design, while design concerns were overshadowed. • The rhetorical aggrandizement by the architect allowed him to present himself and his design as the redeemer the community of Seattle needed to become a major urban area. How this journal article is related to the area of study? The design will create an innovate design which will appeal to the community. It is important to undestand the community needs, and always be sensitive to the function of the design and regional aesthetics. 14 JOURNAL 3 Resonant Texts: Sounds of the American Public Library By Shannon Mattern Historically libraries have been expected to be quiet and organized places for scholars to do silent reading. The architecture of traditional libraries was expected to communicate, by a cultural code, that the structure was a place where noise was not allowed. The author looks at how modern libraries are being used differently from how they were used in the past. Establishing differences in sounds that are created in today’s libraries from conversations, media, and active learning. The illustrates trends in current library design using several new major libraries that do and do not work effectively with the layouts and acoustics, including two new libraries that failed acoustically. The author hypothesizes that libraries are evolving to include new uses and media format, and new library design ideas should reflect these changes to consider how sound can be orchestrated and programmed in the earliest stages of the design process. Methodology In traditional libraries, the architect expected the building to somehow communicate that this was a place to silently read. In addition to silent reading and collections, contemporary libraries should have areas for conversation, group meetings, use of media, and flexibility in how spaces are being used. Today architects and designers should be aware that people and sound cannot be controlled. Functional design should serve the needs of the people using the library, and orchestrate the sounds and activity that are part of a dynamic library. How this journal article is related to the area of study? This study is helpful to the project because the goal is to design an urban space that is a relevant destination for modern patrons, especially young people and people from diverse cultures. This article helps to identify design features that should be concentrated on (such as the relation between private and public, hushed and vibrant, closed and open spaces) and problems to be avoided (intimidating or uncomfortable spaces, acoustical failures, and unnecessary commotion). The study uses research of historical literature about libraries, contemporary articles about acoustics an architectural design, writings about recent major library projects, and an interview with an acoustical designer to compare and contrast how libraries were used in the past and are used today. Findings This study looked at how libraries have been traditionally used, the changes implemented in modern libraries, and how architects and designers can adapt their design solutions to meet the environment of the changing library. 15 REFERNCES H. D., H. (2017). Everyone’s WORKING TOGETHER, everywhere. Frame, (116), 120-125. Mattern, S. (2003). Just How Public is the Seattle Public Library? Journal of Architectural Education, 57(1), 5-18 doi:10.1162/104648803322336548 Mattern, S. (2007). Resonant Texts: Sounds of the American Public Library. The Senses and Society, 2(3), 277-302. doi:10.2752/174589307x233521 O’Brien, S. (2016, June 13). WeWork launches in Shanghai. Retrieved June 5, 2017, from http://money.cnn. com/2016/06/30/technology/wework-shanghai-china/index.html Waxman, L. (2006). The Coffee Shop: Social and Physical factors Influencing Place Attachment. Journal of Interior Design, 31(3), 35-53. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1668.2006.tb00530.x Webb, M. (2016). Zhongshuge Bookstore. Contract, 57(6), 118-125. Woodridge Library Construction News. (2016, December 16). Retrieved June 5, 2017, from https://www.dclibrary.org/ woodridgeconstruction Woodridge Neighborhood Library. (n.d.). Retrieved June 5, 2017, from http://bingthomarchitects.com/ 25 Received: 28 September 2018 Revised: 10 November 2018 Accepted: 26 November 2018 DOI: 10.1002/bse.2269 RESEARCH ARTICLE Green indoor and outdoor environment as nature‐based solution and its role in increasing customer/employee mental health, well‐being, and loyalty Heesup Han1 | Sunghyup S. Hyun2 1 College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract The present study was an empirical endeavor to explore the effect of nature‐based 2 School of Tourism, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea solutions (NBS) on the customer and employee loyalty generation process by considering the role of mental health and well‐being in the hotel industry. A quantitative Correspondence Sunghyup Sean Hyun, Ph. D, Associate Professor, School of Tourism, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang‐dong, Seongdonggu, Seoul 133‐791, Republic of Korea. Email: sshyun@hanyang.ac.kr approach was employed. A survey methodology with a convenience sampling technique was used to collect the data. A total of 303 responses and 301 responses for customer and employee groups, respectively, were used for data analysis. Our results of the structural analysis indicated that green indoor and outdoor environment as Funding information National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), Grant/Award Number: 2018R1A5A7059549; Ministry of Science and ICT NBS helps customers and employees improve mental health perception, emotional well‐being, and loyalty. In addition, the prominent role of emotional well‐being in building customer loyalty and of mental health perception in building employee loyalty was uncovered. The developed conceptual frameworks for customers and employees contained a satisfactory ability in predicting loyalty. Mental health perception and emotional well‐being were mediators. Moreover, the relationship strength among study variables differed between customer and employee groups. Overall, our findings significantly increased our understanding of NBS and its critical role in the hotel industry. KEY W ORDS customer/employee loyalty, green indoor/outdoor environment, mental health, nature‐based solutions, well‐being 1 | I N T RO D U CT I O N operational expenses, and green infrastructure), contributing to improving human health (European Commission, 2015; Vujcic et al., 2017). There has been increasing interest and awareness regarding the value of In a hotel, greening indoor and outdoor physical surroundings can greening the operation and using green environment as means to be important instances of NBS efforts that affect the occupants (cus- increase cost‐effectiveness and ensure consumers' and employees' pos- tomers and workers) of the hotel. Indeed, researchers agree that indoor itive responses in the business community (European Commission, and outdoor atmospherics influence both customers' and employees' 2015; Han, Lee, & Kim, 2018; Trang, Lee, & Han, 2018). Nature‐based approach/avoidance responses (e.g., cognitive, affective, and physio- solutions (NBS), which help resolve diverse environmental and societal logical) and behaviors (e.g., switching/turnover and loyalty/disloyalty; challenges in an environmentally responsible manner, have therefore Bitner, 1992; González‐Hernández and Orozco‐Gómez, González‐ received growing attention (Van den Bosch & Sang, 2017; Vujcic et al., Hernández & Orozco‐Gόmez, 2012; Han & Hyun, 2017; Liang et al., 2017). NBS utilizes the features and intricate systems of the nature 2014). Such physical surroundings as NBS can together create the sus- itself in order to attain the desired outcomes of any business (e.g., sus- tainable solutions for the improvement of occupants' health conditions tainable growth, steady profit increase, cost‐effective, reduction in (Pietilä et al., 2015; Van den Bosch & Sang, 2017; Vujcic et al., 2017). Bus Strat Env. 2018;1–13. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/bse © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment 1 2 HAN AND HYUN The efficient implementation of NBS in business is of importance for et al., 2015; Richardson et al., 2017; Van den Bosch & Sang, 2017; Vujcic improving mental health, increasing emotional well‐being, and address- et al., 2017). NBS can be described as “actions which are inspired by, ing various environmental/societal challenges (Pietilä et al., 2015; Van supported by, or copied from nature, and that are designed to address den Bosch & Sang, 2017). Likewise, the effective utilization of NBS in a range of environmental challenges in an efficient and adaptable man- operating a hotel is crucial in that as it can enhance both visitors' and ner, while at the same time providing economic, social, and environmen- workers' mental health and emotional well‐being. tal benefits” (Van den Bosch & Sang, 2017, p. 374). Several existing frameworks identified the importance of general Greening indoor and outdoor atmospherics are the important green environment for residents' mental health and well‐being improve- aspect of NBS (European Commission, 2015; Van den Bosch & Sang, ment in urban planning/development (e.g., Barton & Grant, 2006; 2017; Vujcic et al., 2017). A green physical environment is especially Coutts & Hahn, 2015; Zhao, Markevych, Romanos, Nowak, & Heinrich, important in eco‐friendly hotels/buildings where the performances 2018). Nevertheless, little empirical studies considered both green of green atmospherics along with the performances of services are indoor and outdoor physical environment in explicating occupants' the key facet of product quality assessment (Liang et al., 2014; Han approach/avoidance responses and behaviors. In addition, the criticality et al., Han, Lee, Trang, & Kim, 2018; Trang et al., 2018). Such physical of reliving individuals' anxiety/stress and boosting well‐being has been surroundings stimulate a set of customers' approach/avoidance previously stressed in the existing tourism/hospitality studies (e.g., behaviors as well as employees' approach/avoidance behaviors Hwang & Han, 2014; Kim, Chua, Lee, Boo, & Han, 2016). Yet, empirical (Bitner, 1992; González‐Hernández & Orozco‐Gόmez, 2012; Trang endeavors that link mental health perception and emotional well‐being et al., 2018). As approaches between two contrary types of behaviors to the green physical environment as NBS and to loyalty have been encompass all favorable responses, which are directed at a particular hardly made. Moreover, although the decision‐making process and product/brand, companies are undoubtedly eager to strengthen behaviors of customers and employees can be dissimilar (Glanfield, approach customer and employee approach responses/behaviors Ackfeldt, & Melewar, 2018; Han, 2013; Torres, van Niekerk, & Orlowski, (Bitner, 1992; Han & Hyun, 2017). 2017; Wheeler, Pulley, & Felix, 2007), the theoretical extension The indoor physical environment indicates the internal atmospher- outlining the difference in terms of the effect of NBS on customers' ics that influence the occupants of a building (e.g., customers and and employees' responses and behaviors has never been made. employees within a building; Shuang, Kamaruzzaman, & Zulkifli, 2014). The focus of our research was therefore on developing theoretical The concept of indoor physical environment includes all facets of the frameworks explicating the influence of the green indoor and outdoor interactions between such visitors/workers within a building and their environment as NBS on mental health perception, emotional well‐being, physical surroundings inside of the building (Cone, 1998; Han et al., and loyalty. Two theoretical models for hotel customers and hotel Han, Lee, & Kim, 2018;Jeong & Lee, 2006 ; Trang et al., 2018). The green employees were proposed. In particular, the objectives of the research indoor environment as a vital constituent of NBS within a hotel encom- were (a) to test the possible associations among green indoor and out- passes green spaces/places for both customers and employees, a vari- door environment, mental health perception, emotional well‐being, ety of green items (e.g., living/potted plants, flowers, and trees), green and customer/employee loyalty, (b) to assess the mediating effect of interior decorations, natural light through glass windows, fresh air, and mental health perception and emotional well‐being, (c) to uncover the so on (González‐Hernández & Orozco‐Gόmez, 2012; Han & Hyun, comparative 2017; Liang et al., 2014; Vujcic et al., 2017). importance of study variables in determining customer/employee loyalty, and (d) to unearth the probable difference The outdoor physical environment refers to the external atmo- on the relationships among study variables across customers and spherics that affects visitors and employees and both occupants' employees (i.e., the moderating effect of occupant types [customers responses/experiences (Jeong & Lee, 2006; Trang et al., 2018). The con- vs. employees]). In the following section, existing related studies in the cept of outdoor physical environmental encompasses all aspects of the literature are thoroughly reviewed. Methodology and results of the associations between such visitors/employees and the atmospherics study are then presented. Lastly, discussion, implications, and conclu- outside of the building (Pietilä et al., 2015; Van den Bosch & Sang, sion of this study are provided. 2017). The green outdoor environment of a hotel as a major element of NBS includes the natural environment (e.g., rivers, mountains, oceans, forests, natural parks, and lakes), comfortable weather (e.g., 2 | LITERATURE REVIEW temperature and humidity), dust‐free air, safety from natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, floods, and tsunamis/typoons), and so on (Bitner, 2.1 | Nature‐based solutions and green indoor/outdoor environment 1992; González‐Hernández and Orozco‐Gómez, 2012; Han & Hyun, 2017; Pietilä et al., 2015; Van den Bosch & Sang, 2017). NBS creates a variety of positive outcomes, which are advantageous to individuals' health and the society (Pietilä et al., 2015; Richardson et al., 2017). In particular, NBS contributes to decrease citizens' stress, 2.2 | Mental health perception and emotional well‐being enhances their mental health, increase physical activities, boost their well‐being, minimize health inequalities, improve the quality of air, In contemporary society, a growing number of individuals are at risk of decrease noise, increase water quality, decrease pollution, and reduce mental health issues (Ward & Scott, 2018). Although mental health is a the environmental deterioration (European Commission, 2015; Pietilä complex construct, and the term is often described as mental health 3 HAN AND HYUN perception (or self‐assessed mental health) in environmental behavior health and psychology (Ward & Scott, 2018). In the present research, mental space/environment and greening the grey surface as NBS benefit the perception and well‐being enhancement. Green health perception refers to individuals' cognitive self‐rated appraisal of recovery from mental fatigue/stress, having an advantageous effect their present mental health conditions (Kamimura et al., 2018; Pietilä on human well‐being and physical health (Qin et al., 2013). Yet, individ- et al., 2015). The global burden of individuals' mental health is also a uals' mental health and well‐being are also subject to the harmful impact vital issue in the business sector. Such mental health issues often of exposure to environmental factors (e.g., air pollution and ozone; Zhao include anxiety, depression, stress, relationship problems, and affec- et al., 2018). Harmful physical environment comprising polluted ambi- tive disorder (Kamimura et al., 2018; Lundberg & Manderbacka, ent conditions threatens individuals' mental health and central nervous 1996). Mental health improvement is a major concern not only for physiology, significantly affecting their cognitive processes, emotions, customers but also for employees. Indeed, employees can be the pop- and behaviors (Gackiere, Saliba, Baude, Bosler, & Strube, 2011). ulation that has a high risk for mental health issue as they are often In the leisure tourism sector, Pietilä et al. (2015) found that provid- exposed to the situations that induce stress, anxiety, affective burn- ing a green environment as NBS increased individuals' physical activities out, and relationship problems. Given this, the green environment as (e.g., number of outdoor recreation visits, number of everyday outings, NBS is of essence as it is broadly believed as an essential factor for and physical activities occurring indoors) and mental health perception. human mental health enhancements (Bertram & Rehdanz, 2015; They also asserted that green spaces in urban and suburban areas Gascon, Zijlema, Vert, White, & Nieuwenhuijsen, 2017). offered a fundamental resource for leisurers' emotional/physical Emotional well‐being is an important aspect of affective process well‐being. In the hotel context, Trang et al. (2018) attempted to and is a central concept in hospitality/tourism (Hwang & Han, 2014; identify the role of green hotel attributes in guests' decision‐making Hwang & Lyu, 2015; Kim et al., 2016) and organizational behavior processes. Their empirical result revealed that a hotel's green (Inceloglu, Thomas, Chu, Plans, & Gerbasi, 2018). Emotional well‐being atmospherics and eco‐friendly management efforts increase guests' refers to one's emotional assessment of the extent to which a specific cognition/perception, positive emotional responses, and favorable product/service and its attributes contribute to his/her quality of life behavioral intentions for the firm. Consistently, in their examination of enhancement (e.g., happiness/fulfillment/satisfaction with life; Kim hotel customers' postpurchase decision formation, Han et al. (Han, et al., 2016). According to Kolakowski (2013) and Hwang and Han Lee, & Kim, 2018) empirically demonstrated that greening a hotel and (2014), customers often feel happy, relaxed, calm, peaceful, or its proenvironmental practices are significant contributors to enhancing refreshed when consuming the product/service that provides a high occupants' cognitive experiences and enjoyable/pleasant emotional level of emotional well‐being. Similarly, a firm and its leadership that experiences, which in turn affects customer loyalty. offer high emotional well‐being to employees help them feel thriving, Using existing physical environment effectively and creating green fulfilled, engaged at work, less stressed, and less exhausted while spaces are undoubtedly important NBS efforts and are imperative for working for the company (Inceloglu et al., 2018). Emotional well‐being mental reflects customers' affective reactions to the product consumption residents/occupants of a place/building (Trang et al., 2018; Van den (Grzeskowiak & Sirgy, 2007; Sirgy, Lee, & Rahtz, 2007), whereas it Bosch & Sang, 2017; Vujcic et al., 2017). Bitner (1992) asserted that reflects employees' emotional responses elicited at work (Inceloglu both customers' and employees' cognitive/emotional responses and et al., 2018). The green environment of a building as NBS is a critical behaviors are under significant influence of such physical environ- factor influencing occupants' emotional well‐being and behaviors ment. Given this evidence, we posited that green indoor and outdoor (Liang et al., 2014; Trang et al., 2018). Employees along with visitors physical environment as NBS generates guests' (employees') mental are the two major occupants of a building. health perception, emotional well‐being, and loyalty for the hotel that health and well‐being improvement among the they stay at (work for). 2.3 | Effect of green environment as NBS H1a: The green indoor environment as NBS has a positive and significant influence on the mental health perception of hotel customers. Existing studies emphasized the critical relationships among green environment as NBS, mental health, and emotional well‐being (Bertram & H1b: The green indoor environment as NBS has a positive and Rehdanz, 2015; Qin, Zhous, Sun, Leng, & Lian, 2013; Trang et al., significant influence on the mental health perception of hotel 2018; Van den Bosch & Sang, 2017; Vujcic et al., 2017; Zhao et al., employees. 2018). Bertram and Rehdanz (2015) examined the role of urban green H2a: customers. environment played an important role in boosting residents' mental health and emotional well‐being that trigger the residents' life satisfac- H2b: employees. health, Zhao et al. (2018) concluded that individuals' ambient atmoH3a: finding demonstrated the effectiveness of NBS for residents' mental The green indoor environment as NBS has a positive and significant influence on the emotional well‐being of hotel customers. health perception. In the context of urban development, Vujcic et al. (2017) explored NBS and its influence on residents' behaviors. Their The green outdoor environment as NBS has a positive and significant influence on the mental health perception of hotel tion. In their meta‐analytic research about atmospherics and mental spherics (ozone exposure) is significantly associated with their mental The green outdoor environment as NBS has a positive and significant influence on the mental health perception of hotel space as NBS. Their empirical findings revealed that such urban green H3b: The green indoor environment as NBS has a positive and significant influence on the emotional well‐being of hotel employees. 4 H4a: H4b: H5a: H5b: H6a: H6b: HAN AND HYUN The green outdoor environment as NBS has a positive and signif- affects individuals' cognitive/emotional/physiological responses and icant influence on the emotional well‐being of hotel customers. approach/avoidance behaviors (Han, Lee, & Kim, 2018; Trang et al., The green outdoor environment as NBS has a positive and signif- 2018). Nonetheless, it is undeniable that the level of influence differs icant influence on the emotional well‐being of hotel employees. based on the occupant types (e.g., customers/visitors and workers). The green indoor environment as NBS has a positive and Indeed, an existing body of the literature within the field of consumer significant influence on loyalty among hotel customers. behavior and environmental behavior has indicated the difference on The green indoor environment as NBS has a positive and internal responses to physical environment and behaviors across cus- significant influence on the loyalty of hotel employees. tomers and employees (Glanfield et al., 2018; Han, 2013; Torres et al., The green outdoor environment as NBS has a positive and 2017; Wheeler et al., 2007). For instance, in their recent examination significant influence on the loyalty of hotel customers. of corporate branding and its effect, Glanfield et al. (2018) found that The green outdoor environment as NBS has a positive and the strength of the corporate branding and value relationship across significant influence on the loyalty of hotel employees. front‐line employees and customers was different. In their assessment of customer/employee attitude and behaviors, Wheeler et al. (2007) asserted that a clean air policy has a different level of effect on customer 2.4 | Effect of mental health perception and emotional well‐being Existing studies supported the importance of mental health perception and emotional well‐being in eliciting customer/employee responses and behaviors (Hwang & Lyu, 2015; Inceloglu et al., 2018; Kim et al., 2016; Nadinloyi, Sadeghi, & Hajloo, 2013). In the leisure tourism sector, Hwang and Lyu (2015) examined the antecedents and consequences of travelers' emotional well‐being. Their empirical findings showed that emotional well‐being significantly influences travelers' behavioral intentions. Consistently, Kim et al.'s (2016) empirical finding revealed that air travelers' well‐being perception and mental health perception formed based on quality airline lounge experiences have a positive effect on their loyalty intentions. In the context of organizational behavior, Nadinloyi et al. (2013) attempted to identify the role of employee mental health. Their finding revealed that employee mental health is significantly related to their job satisfaction and job‐related behaviors (e.g., retention, loyalty for the company, and responses and on employee responses. Torres et al. (2017) attempted to comprehend customer and employee incivility in the hospitality context. Their empirical findings revealed that the degree of the influence of customer incivility on its subsequent constructs (e.g., customer aggression, employee negative emotions and employee sensitivity to uncivil acts) was different from that of employee incivility. Although physical surroundings influence both customers' and employees' responses and behaviors, the magnitude of the impact differs across such two occupant types (Bitner, 1992). Similarly, in the airline context, Han (2013) identified that in‐ flight physical environment affects both passengers' and cabin crew's flight cognitive and emotional experiences. Yet, he asserted that the degree of such influence of atmospherics on passengers' and crew's flight experiences is not alike. On the basis of this evidence, it can be posited that the strength of the associations among green environment, mental health perception, emotional well‐being, and loyalty significantly differ across hotel customers and employees. H9a: job performance). In their research about employee behaviors, Inceloglu et al. (2018) showed that the likely outcomes of employees' H9b: emotional well‐being are employee retention, loyalty, and job satisfaction. Their finding also revealed that such emotional well‐being forms Mental health perception has a positive and significant influ- H9d: Mental health perception has a positive and significant influEmotional well‐being has a positive and significant influence H9f: Emotional well‐being has a positive and significant influence on the loyalty of hotel employees. The impact of the green outdoor environment as NBS on loyalty differs across customers and employees. H9g: The impact of mental health perception on loyalty differs across customers and employees. on the loyalty of hotel customers. H8b: The impact of the green indoor environment as NBS on loyalty differs across customers and employees. ence on the loyalty of hotel employees. H8a: The impact of the green outdoor environment as NBS on emotional well‐being differs across customers and employees. H9e: ence on the loyalty of hotel customers. H7b: The impact of the green indoor environment as NBS on emotional well‐being differs across customers and employees. loyalty among customers and employees. H7a: The impact of the green outdoor environment as NBS on mental health perception differs across customers and employees. H9c: based on effective leadership behaviors. Given this evidence, we posited that mental health perception and emotional well‐being build The impact of the green indoor environment as NBS on mental health perception differs across customers and employees. H9h: The impact of emotional well‐being on loyalty differs across customers and employees. 2.5 | Effect of occupant types (customers vs. employees) 2.6 | Proposed theoretical framework and research hypotheses Human beings and their behaviors are influenced by atmospherics The main goal of this research was to provide a clear explication of (Bitner, 1992; Trang et al., 2018). Likewise, green environment generally hotel customers' and employees' loyalty formation. Our conceptual 5 HAN AND HYUN framework developed to obtain this goal encompassed a total of five process, a total of 301 usable responses were gathered. These cases key research variables (green indoor environment as NBS, green out- were used for data analysis. door environment as NBS, mental health perception, emotional well‐ being, and loyalty). In addition, as shown in Figure 1, two identical models ([a] a model for customers and [b] a model for employees) were proposed for the identification of the difference across occupant types (customers vs. employees). 3.2 | Measurement tools and survey questionnaire The measures of study constructs were adopted from the existing tourism, consumer behavior, and marketing studies (Bitner, 1992; Byun & Jang, 2018; Byun & Jang, 2018b; Chua et al., 2017; Fullerton, 2003; Gascon et al., 2017; Han & Hyun, 2017; Han, Lee, & Kim, 3 METHODOLOGY | 2018; Han, Olya, Kim, & Kim, 2018; Hwang & Han, 2014; Hwang & Lyu, 2018; Hennig‐Thurau, 2004; Kim et al., 2016; Oliver, 1999; Pietilä et al., 2015; Vujcic et al., 2017; Van den Bosch & Sang, 2017). We used 3.1 | Data collection process multiple items and a seven‐point scale to measure research constructs. Specifically, a total of four items were used for the assess- In order to collect the data, a survey methodology was used. First, for the data collection targeting customers, an online panel survey was conducted by using an online market research company's survey system. A survey invitation was sent to general upscale hotel customers who were randomly chosen from the company's panel database. Only those customers whose most recent hotel stay was within the last 1 year were eligible to participate in the survey. An explanation of the research and the survey instruction were given to them in the beginning of the survey. The respondents were requested to write the name of the upscale hotel that they stayed most recently. Afterward, they were asked to fill out the questionnaire based on the experiences at the hotel. The participants spent about 10 min to complete the survey on average. A total of 303 usable cases were ment of green indoor environment as NBS. We also used four items to evaluate the green outdoor environment as NBS. In addition, a total of four times and five items were utilized to assess mental health perception and emotional well‐being, respectively. Moreover, loyalty was measured with four items. The measurement items used in this study are displayed in the Appendix. The survey questionnaire encompassed these measures for research constructs, survey instruction, and questions for the participants' demographic information. A pretest with hotel academics and industry practitioners was conducted on the original version of the questionnaire. A minor improvement was made based on the pretest results. The survey questionnaire was finalized with the thorough review of hospitality academic experts. obtained through this data collection process. The cases were utilized for analysis. Second, for the data collection targeting employees, a field survey 3.3 | Sample characteristics for customer group was conducted at upscale hotels that have an adequate level of internal and external physical environment quality. The hotels are located in metropolitan cities, South Korea. Well‐trained graduate students were delivered to the questionnaire to the employees of the hotels. The survey participation was voluntary. The purpose of the research was explained to the potential participants. They were also requested to thoroughly read the instruction of the survey prior to filling out the questionnaire. The completed questionnaire was returned onsite. The average time for survey completion was about 9 min. Through this Among 303 customers who participated in the survey, 44.6% (n = 135) were men and 55.4% (n = 168) were women. Of the participants, about 45.2% reported that their age is between 31 and 41 years old, followed by 30 years old or less (31.7%), 41–50 years old (19.8%), and 51 years old or more (3.3%). 70.6% of the respondents indicated that they are college graduates. In addition, about 19.1% indicated that they are graduate degree holders, and about 7.3% reported that they have a 2‐year college degree. About 3.0% indicated that they have a high school diploma or less. A majority of the respondents reported that their purpose of travel was for pleasure (81.2%), followed by business (18.5%) and others (0.3%). Regarding the frequency of hotel stay per year, approximately 49.2% of the participants indicated three to five times, followed by one to two times (25.1%), six to nine times (14.5%), and 10 times or more (11.2%). Their most recent hotel stay was within 1–2 months (44.2%), 3–4 months (36.0%), 5– 6 months (9.2%), 7–8 months (1.3%), 9–10 months (5.6%), and 11– 12 months (3.6%). 3.4 | Sample characteristics for employee group Of 301 employees who completed the survey questionnaire, 44.2% (n = 133) were male hoteliers whereas 55.8% (n = 168) were female hoteliers. Regarding age, about 44.9% were between 31 and 40 years FIGURE 1 Proposed model old, followed by less than 30 years old (33.6%), 41–50 years old 6 HAN AND HYUN (14.0%), 51 years old or more (7.6%). About 44.5% reported that they loyalty = 0.596). Thus, convergent validity was evident. In addition, have a college degree, followed by 2‐year college graduates (32.6%), these values were all greater than the between‐construct correlations graduate degree holders (21.6%), and high school graduates or less (squared), which established discriminant validity (Hair et al., 2010). (1.3%). Whereas 75.1% of the participants were permanent/full‐time The details pertinent to the result of the CFA for the customer group workers, 24.9% of them were temporary/part‐time workers. Regard- are displayed in Table 1–1. ing the employment period, 30.6% indicated 10 years or more, Subsequently, a CFA for the employee group was run. Our result followed by 3 years or less (29.6%), 4–6 years (21.9%), and 7 years revealed that the model for employees had a satisfactory fit to the (17.9%). data (χ2 = 567.287, df = 175, p < 0.001, χ2/df = 3.242, RMSEA = 0.076, CFI = 0.941, IFI = 0.941, TLI = 0.929). All standardized loadings 3.5 | between observed variables and latent variables were significant. Data Analysis Composite reliability values fell between 0.842 and 0.966, which In the present study, we utilized such tools as AMOS and SPSS to ana- exceeded Hair et al.'s (2010) suggested cutoff of 0.700 (green indoor lyze the collected data. The measurement model along with the quality environment as NBS = 0.914; green outdoor environment as of measures was evaluated by conducting a confirmatory factor anal- NBS = 0.842; mental health perception = 0.938; emotional well‐ ysis (CFA). Subsequently, a structural equation modeling (SEM) was being = 0.966; customer loyalty = 0.954). Thus, internal consistency used for the assessment of the proposed theoretical framework and of the construct measures was evident. AVE values ranged from the hypothesized relationships among research variables. In addition, 0.578 to 0.852, which were greater than Hair et al.'s (2010) minimum a test for metric invariance was utilized for the assessment of the threshold of 0.500 (green indoor environment as NBS = 0.728; green effect of occupant types. Our study objectives were obtained through outdoor environment as NBS = 0.578; mental health percep- these procedures. tion = 0.790; emotional well‐being = 0.852; customer loyalty = 0.840). The squared between‐construct correlations were also all smaller than these AVE values. Therefore, convergent and discriminant validity of 4 RESULTS | the multi‐item measures used in the present research was evident. Table 1–2 contains the details regarding the result of the CFA for 4.1 | Confirmatory factor analysis the employee group. A measurement model was generated prior to the assessment of the structural model. The CFA with a maximum likelihood estimation 4.2 | Structural equation modeling method was utilized. Our result of the CFA for the customer group indicated an adequate model fit (χ2 = 470.077, df = 175, p < 0.001, The SEM was conducted. First, for the customer group, our result indi- χ2/df = 2.686, RMSEA = 0.075, CFI = 0.836, IFI = 0.936, TLI = 0.923). cated that the model had an acceptable fit to the data (χ2 = 594.386, All items were significantly loaded to their associated latent construct. df = 177, p < 0.001, χ2/df = 3.358, RMSEA = 0.078, CFI = 0.909, A calculation of composite reliability showed that all constructs IFI = 0.909, TLI = 0.892). As shown in Table 2–1 and Figure 2. The pro- included the values greater than the minimum threshold of 0.700 posed framework accounted for 80.3%, 63.6%, and 76.5% of the total (Hair, Black, Babin, & Anderson, 2010; green indoor environment as variance in customer loyalty, mental health perception, and emotional NBS = 0.891; green outdoor environment as NBS = 0.830; mental well‐being, respectively. The proposed impact of the green environ- health perception = 0.902; emotional well‐being = 0.894; customer ment as NBS on its subsequent variables was tested (Hypotheses 1a– loyalty = 0.854). The values ranged from 0.830 to 0.902. Average var- 6a). Results of the SEM showed that green indoor environment exerted iance extracted (AVE) values were also found to be all greater than the a significant and positive influence on mental health (β = 0.250, suggested cutoff of 0.500 (Hair et al., 2010; green indoor environment p < 0.01), emotional well‐being (β = 0.263, p < 0.01), and customer loy- as NBS = 0.672; green outdoor environment as NBS = 0.553; mental alty (β = 0.135, p < 0.01). In addition, the effect of the green outdoor health perception = 0.698; emotional well‐being = 0.629; customer environment on mental health perception (β = 0.626, p < 0.01) and TABLE 1–1 Measurement model assessment (n = 303 [customers]) Variables 1 2 3 4 5 CR AVE Mean (SD) 1. Green indoor environment as nature‐based solution (NBS) 1.000 – – – – 0.891 0.672 4.872 (1.035) 2. Green outdoor environment as NBS 0.458a (0.210)b 1.000 – – – 0.830 0.553 4.607 (1.021) 3. Mental health perception 0.506 (0.256) 0.592 (0.350) 1.000 – – 0.902 0.698 4.842(1.038) 4. Emotional well‐being 0.561 (0.315) 0.670 (0.449) 0.788 (0.621) 1.000 – 0.894 0.629 4.892 (.947) 5. Customer loyalty 0.573 (0.328) 0.608 (0.370) 0.722 (0.521) 0.770 (0.593) 1.000 0.854 0.596 4.938 (.903) Note. Goodness‐of‐fit statistics for the measurement model: χ2 = 470.077, df = 175, p < 0.001, χ2/df = 2.686, RMSEA = 0.075, CFI = 0.836, IFI = 0.936, TLI = 0.923. a Correlations between variables are below the diagonal. b Squared correlations between variables are within parentheses. 7 HAN AND HYUN TABLE 1–2 Measurement model assessment (n = 301 [employees]) Variables 1 1. Green indoor environment as nature‐based solution (NBS) 2. Green outdoor environment as NBS 3. Mental health perception 1.000 0.437a (0.191)b 0.386 (0.149) 2 3 4 5 CR AVE Mean (SD) – – – – 0.914 0.728 5.267 (1.403) 1.000 – – – 0.842 0.578 4.875 (1.418) 0.283 (0.080) 1.000 – – 0.938 0.790 4.514 (1.496) 4. Emotional well‐being 0.302 (0.091) 0.338 (0.114) 0.793 (0.629) 1.000 – 0.966 0.852 4.279 (1.571) 5. Employee loyalty 0.357 (0.127) 0.216 (0.047) 0.646 (0.417) 0.618 (0.382) 1.000 0.954 0.840 4.711 (1.561) Note. Goodness‐of‐fit statistics for the measurement model: χ2 = 567.287, df = 175, p < 0.001, χ2/df = 3.242, RMSEA = 0.076, CFI = 0.941, IFI = 0.941, TLI = 0.929. a Correlations between variables are below the diagonal. b Squared correlations between variables are within parentheses. TABLE 2–1 Structural model assessment (n = 303 [customers]) Hypothesized paths Coefficients t values H1a: Green indoor environment ➔ Mental health perception 0.250 3.710** H2a: Green outdoor environment ➔ Mental health perception 0.626 6.986** H3a: Green indoor environment ➔ Emotional well‐being 0.263 4.189** H4a: Green outdoor environment ➔ Emotional well‐being 0.696 7.942** H5a: Green indoor environment ➔ Customer loyalty 0.135 2.370* H6a: Green outdoor environment ➔ Customer loyalty 0.024 0.228 H7a: Mental health perception ➔ Customer loyalty 0.237 2.978** H8a: Emotional well‐being ➔ Customer loyalty 0.592 4.900** Indirect effect on customer loyalty: βGreen indoor environment = 0.215** βGreen outdoor environment = 0.560** Explained variance R2 (customer loyalty) = 0.803 R2 (mental health perception) = 0.636 R2 (emotional well‐being) = 0.765 Total effect on customer loyalty: Goodness‐of‐fit statistics for the structural model: χ2 = 594.386, df = 177, p < 0.001, χ2/df = 3.358, βGreen indoor environment = 0.350** βGreen outdoor environment = 0.584** RMSEA = 0.078, CFI = 0.909, IFI = 0.909, TLI = 0.892 βMental health perception = 0.237** βEmotional well‐being = 0.592** *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 emotional well‐being (β = 0.696, p < 0.01) was positive and significant. p < 0.001, χ2/df = 4.640, RMSEA = 0.079, CFI = 0.902, IFI = 0.903, This result supported Hypotheses 1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, and 5a. Yet, the impact TLI = 0.884). As displayed in Table 2–2 and Figure 2, the hypothesized of the green outdoor environment on customer loyalty was not signifi- framework explained 37.4%, 19.4%, and 17.2% of the variance in cant (β = 0.024, p > 0.05). Thus, Hypothesis 6a was not supported. employee loyalty, mental health perception, and emotional well‐being, Hypotheses 7a and 8a were tested. Our result revealed that both men- respectively. The hypothesized effect of green environment as NBS tal health perception (β = 0.237, p < 0.01) and emotional well‐being on its subsequent constructs was assessed (Hypotheses 1b–6b). Our (β = 0.592, p < 0.01) significantly and positively influenced customer loy- results revealed that green indoor environment significantly and posi- alty. Therefore, Hypotheses 7a and 8a were supported. tively affected mental health (β = 0.338, p < 0.01), emotional well‐being The indirect impact of study variables for the customer group (β = 0.218, p < 0.01), and customer loyalty (β = 0.175, p < 0.01). More- was examined. As shown in Table 2–1, the green indoor environ- over, the influence of green outdoor environment on mental health per- ment (β = 0.215, p < 0.01) and green outdoor environment ception (β = 0.169, p < 0.05) and emotional well‐being (β = 0.269, (β = 0.560, p < 0.01) significantly affected customer loyalty indirectly p < 0.01) was significant. Therefore, Hypotheses 1b, 2b, 3b, 4b, and 5b through mental health perception and emotional well‐being. That is, were supported. However, the effect of the green outdoor environment mental health perception and emotional well‐being played a signifi- on employee loyalty was not significant (β = −0.080, p > 0.05). Hence, cant mediating role within the proposed theoretical framework. Hypothesis 6b was not supported. Hypotheses 7b and 8b were tested. The total impact of study variables was then examined. Our results Both mental health perception (β = .408, p < 0.01) and emotional well‐ showed that emotional well‐being (β = 0.592, p < 0.01) had the being (β = 0.292, p < 0.01) were found to affect employee loyalty signif- greatest influence on customer loyalty, followed by the green out- icantly. This result supported Hypotheses 7b and 8b. door environment (β = 0.584, p < 0.01), the green indoor environ- The mediating effect of study variables for the employee group ment (β = 0.350, p < 0.01), and mental health perception was investigated. As displayed in Table 2–2, green indoor environ- (β = 0.237, p < 0.01). ment (β = 0.202, p < 0.01) significantly affected employee loyalty Subsequently, a structural equation modeling for the employee indirectly through mental health perception and emotional well‐ group was conducted. Our results revealed that the model contained being. Yet, the indirect effect of green outdoor environment an adequate level of goodness‐of‐fit statistics (χ2 = 821.322, df = 177, (β = 0.147, p > 0.05) was not significant. This result indicated that 8 HAN AND HYUN 0.80 (Hair et al., 2010), several between‐construct correlations among constructs were somewhat high. That is, our result is not perfectly free from multicollinearity problem. The insignificant result (Hypotheses 6a and 6b) may have been caused by such high between‐construct correlations. 4.3 | Baseline model evaluation and metric invariance test A test for metric invariance was conducted for the assessment of the proposed moderating effect of occupant types (customers vs. employees). A baseline model was initially generated. All factor loadings across customer and employee groups were constrained to be equivalent. Our result showed that the baseline model included an acceptable fit to the data (χ2 = 1451.919, df = 370, p < 0.001, χ2/df = 3.924, RMSEA = 0.070, CFI = 0.903, IFI = 0.904, TLI = 0.890). Subsequently, this baseline model encompassing customer and employee groups was compared with a series of nested models in which a particular path is equally constrained by employing a χ2 test. Table 3 and Figure 3 contained the details pertinent to the results of the baseline model assessment and the χ2 test. As shown in Table 3, our results indicated that there were no significant difference in the associations between green indoor environment and mental health perception (Δχ2 [1] = 0.927, p > 0.05), between green indoor environment and emotional well‐being (Δχ2 FIGURE 2 [1] = 0.048, p > 0.05), between green indoor environment and loyalty Structural model assessment results (Δχ2 [1] = 0.611, p > 0.05), and between green outdoor environment mental health perception and emotional well‐being played a signifi- and loyalty (Δχ2 [1] = 0.995, p > 0.05) across customer and employee cant mediating role only between green indoor environment and groups. Accordingly, Hypotheses 9a, 9c, 9e, and 9f were not sup- employee loyalty relationship. Next, the total effect of research con- ported. However, as indicated in Table 3, our invariance test assess- structs was assessed. According to the result, mental health percep- ment revealed that the linkages from green outdoor environment to tion (β = 0.408, p < 0.01) had a greater total influence on employee mental health perception (Δχ2 [1] = 16.936, p < 0.01), from green out- loyalty, followed by green indoor environment (β = 0.377, p < 0.01), door environment to emotional well‐being (Δχ2 [1] = 10.382, p < 0.01), emotional well‐being (β = 0.292, p < 0.01), and green outdoor envi- from mental health to loyalty (Δχ2 [1] = 4.455, p < 0.05), and from emo- ronment (β = 0.067, p > 0.05). tional well‐being to loyalty (Δχ2 [1] = 4.900, p < 0.05) significantly dif- As shown in Table 1–1 and Table 1–2, although the correlations among research variables were all below the problematic level of TABLE 2–2 fered between customer group and employee group. This result supported Hypotheses 9b, 9d, 9g, and 9h. Structural model assessment (n = 301 [employees]) Hypothesized paths Coefficients t values H1b: Green indoor environment ➔ Mental health perception 0.338 5.089** H2b: Green outdoor environment ➔ Mental health perception 0.169 2.444* H3b: Green indoor environment ➔ Emotional well‐being 0.218 3.258** H4b: Green outdoor environment ➔ Emotional well‐being 0.269 3.738** H5b: Green indoor environment ➔ Employee loyalty 0.175 2.886** H6b: Green outdoor environment ➔ Employee loyalty −0.080 −1.308 H7b: Mental health perception ➔ Employee loyalty 0.408 4.741** H8b: Emotional well‐being ➔ Employee loyalty 0.292 3.560** Indirect effect on employee loyalty: βGreen indoor environment = 0.202** βGreen outdoor environment = 0.147 Explained variance R2 (employee loyalty) = 0.374 R2 (mental health perception) = 0.194 R2 (emotional well‐being) = 0.172 Total effect on employee loyalty: Goodness‐of‐fit statistics for the structural model: χ2 = 821.322, df = 177, p < 0.001, χ2/df = 4.640, βGreen indoor environment = 0.377** βGreen outdoor environment = 0.067 RMSEA = 0.079, CFI = 0.902, IFI = 0.903, βMental health perception = 0.408** TLI = 0.884 βEmotional well‐being = 0.292** *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 9 HAN AND HYUN TABLE 3 Invariance model assessment—Moderating effect of customer types (internal vs. external) Customer group (n = 303) Employee group (n = 301) Paths β t value β H9a: Green indoor environment ➔ Mental health perception 0.254 3.764** 0.324 H9b: Green outdoor environment ➔ Mental health perception 0.617 7.383** H9c: Green indoor environment ➔ Emotional well‐being 0.262 H9d: Green outdoor environment ➔ Emotional well‐being Baseline model (freely estimated) Nested model (constrained to be equal) 4.750** χ2 (370) = 1,451.919 χ2 (371) = 1,452.846a 0.189 2.643** χ2 (370) = 1,451.919 χ2 (371) = 1,468.855b 4.182** 0.195 2.832** χ2 (370) = 1451.919 χ2 (371) = 1451.967c 0.694 8.517** 0.291 3.976** χ2 (370) = 1,451.919 χ2 (371) = 1,462.301d H9e: Green indoor environment ➔ Employee loyalty 0.139 2.442* 0.173 2.787** χ2 (370) = 1,451.919 χ2 (371) = 1,452.530e H9f: Green outdoor environment ➔ Employee loyalty 0.030 0.297 −0.082 χ2 (370) = 1,451.919 χ2 (371) = 1,452.914f 4.970** χ (370) = 1,451.919 χ2 (371) = 1,456.374g 3.464** χ (370) = 1,451.919 χ2 (371) = 1,456.819h H9g: Mental health perception ➔ Employee loyalty H9h: Emotional well‐being ➔ Employee loyalty χ difference test: Δχ2 (1) = 0.927, p > 0.05 b Δχ2 (1) = 16.936, p < 0.01 c Δχ2 (1) = 0.048, p > 0.05 d Δχ2 (1) = 10.382, p < 0.01 e Δχ2 (1) = 0.611, p > 0.05 f Δχ2 (1) = 0.995, p > 0.05 g Δχ2 (1) = 4.455, p < 0.05 h Δχ2 (1) = 4.900, p < 0.05 2 a 0.227 0.592 2.935** 5.192** t value 0.425 0.283 Hypotheses testing: H9a: Not supported H9b: Supported H9c: Not supported H9d: Supported H9e: Not supported H9f: Not supported H9g: Supported H9h: Supported −1.304 2 2 Goodness‐of‐fit statistics for the baseline model: χ2 = 1451.919, df = 370, p < 0.001, χ2/df = 3.924, RMSEA = 0.070, CFI = 0.903, IFI = 0.904, TLI = 0.890 *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 hypothesized links within the proposed models for both customers and employees was generally supported. The salient role of emotional well‐being for the customer group and of mental health perception for the employee group in determining loyalty was identified. Moreover, the relationships among research variables were moderated by occupant types. The proposed theoretical frameworks included the sufficient level of prediction power for both customer loyalty and employee loyalty. In general, the successful obtainment of the research objectives in the hotel industry was made. 5.2 | Overall value and originality of research Taking a vital step by filling the existing voids in the hospitality and tourism literature, our results can be importantly viewed in few ways. First, regardless of considerable interest in NBS among FIGURE 3 Structural invariance model estimation results researchers in environmental behavior, no theoretical development and empirical research has fully explored the influence of NBS on 5 DISCUSSION | customer/employee responses and behaviors. Our study findings offered an essential foundation concerning the role of NBS in the 5.1 | Synopsis of research customer/employee loyalty generation framework. Second, improving the mental health and well‐being of customers and employees is indis- Mental health, well‐being, and loyalty are undoubtedly central con- putably a major interest of every company. Nonetheless, little was cepts of every firm's success in the global business world. In this known about what triggers these important variables. The findings of research, we aimed to uncover the role of green environment as this research provided crucial information regarding how these impor- NBS in boosting customer and employee mental health perception, tant variables can be enhanced using a hotel's green indoor and out- emotional well‐being, and loyalty in the hotel context. Using the data door environment as NBS. Third, the theoretical base for obtained through a survey method, a quantitative approach was used. comprehending the complex concept of NBS in the hotel industry is The measurement quality was tested and confirmed. The green indoor still in the beginning stage. Given this, the empirical findings of the and outdoor environment as NBS was found to be of utmost criticality present research can be helpful for subsequent hotel research dealing in that its subsequent constructs (i.e., mental health perception, emo- with the topic of NBS, thus including high degree of value for both the- tional well‐being, and loyalty) were an important function of it. The ory and practice in the hotel industry. 10 HAN AND HYUN 5.3 | Importance of indoor and outdoor environments as NBS outdoor environment and mental health (customers: β = 0.617, p < 0.01 vs. employees: β = 0.189, p < 0.01), between green outdoor environment and emotional well‐being (customers: β = 0.694, p < 0.01 vs. The major aspect of our theoretical frameworks was the use of the employees: β = 0.291, p < 0.01), and between emotional well‐being green atmospherics of a hotel as NBS. Both the indoor and outdoor and loyalty (customers: β = 0.592, p < 0.01 vs. employees: β = 0.283, green environment of a hotel significantly and positively affected p < 0.01) were significantly greater in the customer group than in the customer/employee responses and behaviors. This result suggests that employee group. Meanwhile, the relationship strength between mental greening the indoor physical environment (e.g., green spaces/rest areas, health and loyalty (customers: β = 0.227, p < 0.01 vs. employees: a variety of green items, potted plants/trees, flowers, eco‐friendly inte- β = 0.425, p < 0.01) was significantly greater in the employee group rior decorations, and natural lights) and the availability of outdoor natu- than in the customer group. That is, at the similar level of green outdoor ral environment (e.g., rivers/lakes, mountains/forests, adequate physical environment performances, customers feel stronger mental ambient conditions [safe from fine dust, dust storm, ozone concentra- health and emotional well‐being than employees. In addition, emotional tion, and fresh air], adequate weather, and safe from natural disasters) well‐being is more likely to be resulted in loyalty among customers than can be efficient NBS increasing the mental health perception, emotional among employees. Yet, at the similar level of mental health perception, well‐being, and loyalty among customers and employees. Theoretically, employees form a greater level of loyalty than customers. our findings enrich the extant body of the hospitality/tourism literature Researchers in the hotel industry should recognize this difference as our conceptual model sufficiently boost our understanding regarding between customers and employees. They need to clearly comprehend the role of a hotel's green environment as NBS, serving as a sturdy the- that a hotel's green outdoor physical environment has a dissimilar level oretical framework. From the practical point out view, (a) greening grey of importance across occupant types when relating to mental health, surfaces (e.g., walls, rooftops, parking area, and entrance); (b) increasing emotional well‐being, and loyalty. Our result has an important theoret- green items in lobby areas, rooms, restaurants, restrooms, swimming ical value because to the best of our knowledge, it was the first to pools, and lounges; and (c) increasing green places/spaces and rest areas inform that the effect of NBS differs based on occupant types. From would be imperative for the enhancement of the performances of a a practical perspective, our finding provided hotel executives impor- hotel's physical environment. Moreover, enhancing the visibility of nat- tant information that green outdoor environment better contributes ural environments by increasing the number of glass windows/walls to mental health, emotional well‐being, and loyalty among customers within a hotel can be an efficient way to maximize the role of outdoor whereas mental health has a stronger role in loyalty enhancement pro- natural environment performances. cess among employees. The evidence found in the present research suggests that the incongruent loyalty improvement strategies for cus- 5.4 | Salient role of emotional well‐being for customers and mental health for employees tomers and for employees are necessary when utilizing and applying The results of this research demonstrated the salient role of emotional 5.6 NBS in a hotel. | Mediating effect and implications well‐being in determining customer loyalty and verified the prominent role of mental health perception in determining employee loyalty. Rec- The result of the present research demonstrates that mental health ognizing the criticality of customer emotional well‐being and employee perception and emotional well‐being played a significant mediating mental health, hotel proprietors need to make various endeavors to pro- role in the proposed conceptual frameworks. These variables medi- vide better emotional well‐being experiences to their customers and to ated the effect of green environment as NBS on customer loyalty increase employee mental health perception. Previous studies indicated and employee loyalty. This finding implies that while eliciting customer that dealing with core product quality and service encounter quality can and employee loyalty in a direct manner, these variables are crucial be efficient in helping patrons feel emotional well‐being while consum- factors that maximize the influence of a hotel's green indoor and out- ing a product/service (Hwang & Lyu, 2015; Hwang & Park, 2018; Kim door environment as NBS on customer and employee loyalty. To take et al., 2016). In addition, according to Inceoglu et al.'s (Inceloglu et al., a full advantage of the role of NBS, hotel executives need to focus on 2018) recent research, showing trustful leadership behaviors is helpful effectively managing such mediators. Elevating mental health percep- for employees' mental health. For hotel proprietors, placing available tion and emotional well‐being will contribute to fortifying the influ- resources on core product and service encounter quality enhancement ence of a hotel's NBS efforts on loyalty enhancement among and endeavors to make their leadership behaviors trustful will be good customers and employees. tactics in elevating customer emotional well‐being and employee mental health, respectively. Moreover, as our results revealed, NBS with a hotel's green environment can be a basic strategy to customer well‐ 6 | L I M I TA T I O N S A N D F U T U R E R E S E A R CH being and employee mental health management. This research contains a few limitations. First, this research centered 5.5 | Significance of occupant types as a moderator on mental health perception and emotional well‐being and customer/employee loyalty as the positive consequences of hotels' Our findings demonstrated the significant moderating impact of occu- NBS efforts. However, there could be other critical outcome variables pant types. Specifically, the strength of the relationships between green of NBS. Future research should identify other possible outcomes of 11 HAN AND HYUN NBS and integrate the uncovered factors into our theoretical framework. A qualitative approach would be needed for such identification process. Second, in the present research, we used the online survey to collect the filled questionnaires from customers whereas we utilized the filed survey to collect the data from employees. That is, the data collection method for customers and employees was incongruent. The mixed method was unavoidable because the online market research firm normally has a limited number of actual upscale hotel employees as its panels. For future research, a more thorough survey design that matches data collection methods for customers and employees is recommended. 7 | C O N CL U S I O N Despite its importance and effectiveness in addressing diverse environmental and societal challenges, NBS has received relatively little attention in the hotel industry. This research was a critical step toward a clear understanding of the role of NBS in occupants' loyalty formation. The present study successfully developed a sturdy conceptual framework that satisfactorily explicate customers' and employees' loyalty generation process by taking the green indoor and outdoor environment as NBS, mental health perception, and emotional well‐being into account. Despite few limitations pointed out previously, the findings of the present study hence considerably contribute to the hospitality and tourism literature. Moreover, our empirical findings offered valuable insights into how hotel executives should deal with NBS, which is a critical tool for the enhancement of mental health, well‐ being, and loyalty for both customers and employees. Furthermore, our findings provided new insights into why greening a hotel as a part of NBS efforts is essential in the fast‐changing hotel industry. In closing, the present research successfully advanced our knowledge regarding NBS and customer and employee behaviors having theoretical and managerial usefulness. ACKNOWLEDGEMEN TS This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government, Grant/Award Number: 2018R1A5A7059549; Ministry of Science and ICT. ORCID Sunghyup S. Hyun https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2969-9527 RE FE R ENC E S Barton, H., & Grant, M. 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(2017). Customer and employee incivility and its causal effects in the hospitality industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 26(1), 48–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2016.1178620 Trang, H. L. T., Lee, J., & Han, H. (2018). How do green attributes elicit pro‐ environmental behaviors in guests? The case of green hotels in Vietnam. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 1–15. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/10548408.2018.1486782 Van den Bosch, M., & Sang, Å. O. (2017). Urban natural environments as nature‐based solutions for improved public health—A systematic review of reviews. Environmental Research, 158, 373–384. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.05.040 Kim, H., Chua, B., Lee, S., Boo, S., & Han, H. (2016). Understanding airline travelers' perceptions of well‐being: The role of cognition, emotion, and sensory experiences in airline lounges. 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Journal of Marketing, 63, 33–44. https://doi.org/10.2307/1252099 Pietilä, M., Neuvonen, M., Borodulin, K., Korpela, K., Sievänen, T., & Tyrväinen, L. (2015). Relationships between exposure to urban green spaces, physical activity and self‐rated health. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 10, 44–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2015.06.006 How to cite this article: Han H, Hyun SS. Green indoor and outdoor environment as nature‐based solution and its role in increasing customer/employee mental health, well‐being, and loyalty. Bus Strat Env. 2018;1–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/ bse.2269 HAN AND HYUN APPENDIX A Green indoor environment as NBS (nature‐based solution) • I can easily see a variety of living plants and green interior decorations in the lobby area of this hotel. • Diverse green items and light through glass windows are easily observable in the restaurants of this hotel. • A variety of flowers, trees, and potted plants are placed in the lounge of this hotel. • Green space(s) is easily accessible throughout this hotel. Green outdoor environment as NBS • This hotel is located close to the natural environment (e.g., mountains, rivers, forests, lakes, and natural parks). • The weather (e.g., temperature, humidity, and precipitation) of the region surrounding this hotel is very good. • The quality of air (e.g., dust and ozone concentration) of the region surrounding this hotel is very good. • The region around this hotel is safe from natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, typhoons, tsunamis, and floods). Mental health perception • Staying (working) at this hotel is valuable as it plays an important role in relieving my mental anxiety/stress. • Staying (working) at this hotel is worthy as it helps boost my confidence in everyday life. • Staying (working) at this hotel makes feel that I am a valuable and important person. • Staying (working) at this hotel helps me turn any worry/anxiety into confidence. Emotional well‐being • I feel healthy and happy when staying (working) at this hotel. • I feel emotional well‐being while staying (working) at this hotel. • This hotel plays an important role in making me feel relaxed. • Thanking about this hotel makes me feel calm and peaceful. • This hotel plays an important role in making me feel refreshed. Loyalty • I feel emotionally attached and committed to this hotel. • This hotel has a great deal of personal meaning for me. • I feel like an important part of the family at this hotel. • I am loyal to this hotel. 13 Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 2018, 8, 285-295 http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojapps ISSN Online: 2165-3925 ISSN Print: 2165-3917 Application of Perception Theory in Hotel Interior Design Hui Yu, Ge Bai, Liang Wu School of Architecture and Fine Art, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China How to cite this paper: Yu, H., Bai, G. and Wu, L. (2018) Application of Perception Theory in Hotel Interior Design. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 8, 285-295. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojapps.2018.87021 Received: May 25, 2018 Accepted: July 21, 2018 Published: July 24, 2018 Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Abstract The purpose of this article is to explore the application of perception theory in hotel interior design. Through the analysis of the theory of perception, the article sums up its connection with the interior design of Modern Hotel, and sums up the hotel interior design method under the influence of three factors of visual perception, space-time perception, logical perception so as to improve the level of humanization. Finally it will provide a basis for hotel interior design in the future. Keywords Perception, Hotel, Interior Design, Application Open Access 1. Introduction In order to meet the needs of business and tourism arising from economic development, Hotel industry has developed rapidly in recent years. From the tourism data survey of the National Tourism Administration, the hotel industry has entered a golden age of rapid development. With the rapid growth of China’s tourism industry, and more frequent business activities in China, the hotel also showed an explosive growth in 2016 as lower travel industry. However, with the improvement of people’s living standards and the change of values, the simple provision of accommodation cannot meet the needs of the modern population. The theme hotel with regional culture, folk customs and urban memory is very popular. The interior design of Modern Hotel should not only meet the needs of the hotel itself and development, but also let the design reflect the characteristics of the hotel so as to attract customers to come. Humanization is the soul of hotel design, which puts forward higher requirements for designers. They should take into account the scale, scale, streamline and organization while ensuring the DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.87021 Jul. 24, 2018 285 Open Journal of Applied Sciences H. Yu et al. comfort of guest rooms and public spaces. Therefore, the designer should start with the human perception, and research the comprehensive experience and emotional input in the hotel environment space, in order to create a humanized hotel room space. 2. Perception Theory and Hotel Interior Space Design 2.1. An Overview of the Theory of Perception Perception is the core content of the relationship between human and space. It is a process based on the feeling which is the further organization, recognition and interpretation of sensory information, thus helping people to express and understand the environment. Sensation refers to the active or passive reception and response of human organs to sounds, colors, odors, temperatures, etc. in the environment. Perception adds time dimension, thinking and memory subjective factors on the basis of sensory basis, and there are differences in personality and commonality because of the different background of personal living environment [1]. Therefore, perception is not only the sum of the simple sense information of the environment, such as vision, hearing and touch, but also a comprehensive experience, understanding and emotional input to environmental information. James Gibson, an American cognitive psychologist, thinks that perception is an active pursuit mechanism, not just a passive receiver. 2.2. The Relationship between Perception Theory and Hotel Interior Design A successful hotel design should make use of its own geographical environment, space and regional cultural themes, and explore the material, surface layer and technology in depth that affect the comfort of the people, and make the customers unconsciously intoxicated in a micro and soft way. According to the theory of environmental availability proposed by James Gibson in 1970s [2]. The spatial layout, interface features, materials, components, modeling, furniture, color, ornaments, and lighting are the elements of the hotel’s interior design, which can be used to stimulate the active interaction of people and environment so as to find the availability in the environment through perception. For example, when the environment provides customers useful elements, and thereby generates behavior, guides them in the process of perceiving, listening, sniffing, tasting, and touching in the hotel space, and thus stimulates new possibilities. Paying attention to the application of perception theory in hotel interior design is an important procedure for building modern humanized hotel space. At present, the research of hotel interior design focuses on the orientation of the theme, the inheritance of regional culture, the integration of market economy and the humanized design care, but pay less attention on the space environment design based on the perception of human psychological needs. A study of regional cultural theme hotel interior design based on customer perceived value, from the perspective of customer perception, which has summarized the relaDOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.87021 286 Open Journal of Applied Sciences H. Yu et al. tionship with customer theme atmosphere experience, customer perceived value and customer behavior through a survey of regional cultural theme hotels in Suzhou [3]. Research on interior design style of architectural space based on user perception through different cases of 18 participants in the indoor design style and elements of the perception experiment, summed up the elements of the interior design which influences users’ perception [4]. All of these are instructive to the writing of this paper. 3. Application of Perception Theory in Hotel Interior Design The human experience indoor space through three kinds of perceptual levels. The first is visual perception which guides people l experience the environment directly, second is space-time perception based on the dynamic experience in the environment, and the third is the logical perception generated by the sports experience in the environment. This paper discusses the application of three kinds of perception in the hotel interior space to guide the humanized interior design method. 3.1. Visual Perception—Coincidentally Borrowed Vision is the direct way to perceive space. People receive information selectively by watching, and feedback information to the brain. The brain produces different psychological responses by judging information, processing and cognition, which is the formation process of visual perception [5]. The difference between it and vision is that vision is a simple presentation of things, and visual perception is the psychological control and grasp of the elements of shape, color, material, and light in space. The designer use the elements such as component modeling, decoration, material and color, which can directly cause visual stimulation in interior design of the hotel, which can directly cause visual stimulation and let customers to explore the space ,only in this way, can it infinites expansion of the limited space, and improves the aesthetic and visual feelings of the space. Due to the pursuit of customer attendance and economic benefits, the interior space of Modern Hotel has created many negative spaces. Using local conditions and landscape techniques can join space and function well, with the increase of narrative, the space is extended, and finally the spiritual resonance of the main body can be reached. Using borrow and delusion as means of enriching indoor visual perception to enhance visual perception. The room interior design of the Lucerne Hotel, designed by Jean Nouvel, pays attention to the use of the roof interface. Its painting inspiration comes from the Renaissance, forms a strong contrast with its elevation, and creates a mysterious and romantic atmosphere for the customers combine the light effect at night (Figure 1). It can also guide the refraction and reflection of light through a series of devices to emphasize the subordination of some function. The Lucerne restaurant is located in the underground space. The lighting is very unfavorable. The interior walls of the building are leaning forward DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.87021 287 Open Journal of Applied Sciences H. Yu et al. Figure 1. Lucerne hotel room ceiling. to place glass mirrors with a certain refraction angle. Jean Nouvel uses the angle between the glass mirror, which makes the indoor space abstract and deformed, subverts the normal visual feelings of the people, thus making the space interesting and fascinating. In the Wuyin hotel in Xiamen, China, the refraction glass mirror beside the shared hall will be used to create the borrowing space with the help of partition and natural light. It creates unique light and shadow effects through different angles of light, enrich people’s visual perception experience (Figure 2). The third way to enhance visual perception is to break the visual balance by increasing the contrast of spatial levels, emphasizing the special function of one space. For example, the reception hall of citizen M hotel in Paris, a group of visual devices called “refleting holons” is set up to increase the perceived integrity by limiting the area and layer height which can help establish the overall design tone of the hotel (Figure 3). The theme hotel, six Xifeng Road, Baoji, China has created a dramatic stage space. The “bamboo altar” in the central area, the falling red lantern grid, the continuous “immortals map” in the air, and the sinking display platform give the feelings of the public space inside and outside, high and low, far and close to different levels, which have a great visual impact (Figure 4). Coincidentally borrowed in hotel interior design can stimulate the human visual perception function, it sets up a series of guide devices and increase the space level contrast and other techniques to complete the extension and expansion of space through the rich interface style, but also can get some special space effect, point out the main problem of space environment. 3.2. Space-Time Perception—Dynamic Experience Steven Hall pointed out that changing time, light and sight are the foundation of human perception. The concept of “time” derives from the French philosopher DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.87021 288 Open Journal of Applied Sciences H. Yu et al. Figure 2. Wuyin Hotel corridor. Figure 3. Refleting holons device. Figure 4. Stage public space. Bergson, who believes that “the time of life is the real time”, space is the “mixture of homogeneous time” [6]. In the indoor space, people know the environment through the change of time and position. In the indoor space, people know the environment through the change of time and position. The concept of “space-time” comes from the integration of time and space, and time is embodied through the movement of space. Space-time perception is different from spatial perception. It is dynamic and continuous, giving users the initiative to explore the environment. In the interior design of the hotel, it breaks through the limit of space scale, and uses human space-time perception to grasp the inDOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.87021 289 Open Journal of Applied Sciences H. Yu et al. teraction of space material, shape, sequence and human, so that space can be used as a continuous experience. The interior design of Modern Hotel has paid the great attention to space experience and feeling, but the stratification and fragmentation is seriously, and there is a phenomenon that the functional cohesion of each part is stiff. If the interaction of man and space can be combined, designers should add dynamic experience to design, and the narrative flow space will be create, so that the whole environment will be enhance. There are three ways to enhance hotel interior space-time perception. First, we can choose materials with local characteristics as hotel interior decoration materials. In the interior design of Taichung red dot Culture& Tourism Hotel, designers combine different materials with time and space as the major concept of interior design in subtle ways. For example, a series of materials with time memory, such as firebrick, baked brick and pebble, are used as decorative materials. Furniture also used the old elements in order to achieve a sustainable dialogue between interior decoration and environment, so that completed the continuation of memories in this area (Figures 5-7). Second, designers can try to Figure 5. Changes in indoor materials of Taichung red dot Culture & Tourism Hotel. Figure 6. Changes in indoor materials of Taichung red dot Culture & Tourism Hotel. DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.87021 290 Open Journal of Applied Sciences H. Yu et al. Figure 7. Changes in indoor materials of Taichung Red Dot Culture & Tourism Hotel. create “linear” space, for example, taking use of corridors, traffic space, connecting the intersection of the different room and giving space mobility. The landmark stainless steel spiral slide of the public lobby of the hotel is a vertical space component connected to one layer and two layers, making use of the meaning of time and space tunnel to let people feel the controllability of time (Figure 8). Stephen Wooden, the designer of the slide, points out that “slide is not for pleasure, but the symbol of the time and space”. Third, in the creation of space sequence, we can use the continuous ceiling, or increase a sense of order with the contrast of high and low, dark, straight and simple, in order to optimize the perception and experience of indoor space. The design of the lobby of Novotel Century Hotel in Hong Kong is decorated with neutral colors, with the orderly arrangement of moss green and golden wood patterns, giving strong guidance to the space. The intention of the arc background also fits well with the dynamic and flexible design concept (Figure 9). Interior design of Beijing Tong Ying Central Continental Hotel spa area takes note of the simultaneous consideration of ceiling and vertical interface. The contrast between “light” and “dark”, “wide” and “narrow”, “real” and “virtual” strengthen the spatial attributes, give the space “moving” trend , and virtually enrich people’s space-time perception (Figure 10). People’s feeling in the hotel interior space is enhanced by delaying time in perceiving rhythm. The change of material, the contrast of the shape component and the construction of the sequence space all expand and extend the human consciousness, give the intention of the space experience and perception, and stimulate the people’s pursuit of the quality of the better life. 3.3. Logical Perception—Associative Inference The logical thinking is formed in the condensed stage. It is the deepest stage of the spatial emotion experience. And it is a complement and deep reaction process of people to perceive things. It is a purely subjective thinking process [7]. Gestalt psychology’s Gestalt theory points out that the blank design, the virtual reality and the minimalism in the interior design will exert the space experience DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.87021 291 Open Journal of Applied Sciences H. Yu et al. Figure 8. The slide of the space. Figure 9. Space sequence. Figure 10. Spa area ceiling. to the extreme. Artistic conception comes from human reflection experience. This reflection has a deep influence on the reconstruction of human consciousness and spatial cognition [8]. Logical perception is the evaluation of the environment after visual perception and space-time perception. It is a perceptual exDOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2018.87021 292 Open Journal of Applied Sciences H. Yu et al. pression transformed through the user’s experience, and is the subjective self feedback of the user. In the interior design of the hotel, the contrast of light and material and the creation of new technology are helpful to guide people to think and associate the space environment. It is an important means to create the spiritual space. With the development of the technolog...
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Running head: ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

ID 408 Journal Reflections
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Institution

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ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

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ID 408 Journal Reflections
Article 1
The main aim of the study in the article, "Green indoor and outdoor as nature-based
solution and its role in increasing customer/employee mental health, wellbeing and loyalty" was
investigate whether natural-based solutions in interior design can enhance the enjoyment and
loyalty of both the employees and customers in a hotel (Han & Hyun, 2019). A quantitative
approach was used in the study, whereby online surveys were developed according to the
relevant constructs involving both highly-esteemed customers and the employees. The findings
indicated that the incorporation of green indoor and outdoor as a nature-based solution to interior
design had a positive influence on the emotional well-being, mental health, and loyalty of
customers (Han & Hyun, 2019).
After reading the article, I realized that customer and employee retention is highly
dependent on the environment in which they spend their time. Once their emotional wellbeing
and mental health are enhanced, they are highly likely to become loyal to a particular
establishment (Han & Hyun, 2019). The use of a quantitative approach was a great idea, but I
feel that the researchers could have learned more if they also employed a qualitative approach to
analyze other outcomes from the direct responses of the research participants.
Since my project is designing a hotel, the information in the article is quite useful for me
in the context of interior design. I will determine the best patterns in line with green indoor and
outdoor designs to develop a comfortable ambience to relax the minds of both the customers and
the employees (Han & Hyun, 2019). The main idea is to form customer and employee loyalty to
the hotel through their environmental experience in the establishment. Therefore, I will ensure

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

3

that my project design is based on aspects of emotional appeal to both the customers and the
employees. This process will involve all rooms in the establishment, including the kitchen, the
corridors, and the restrooms.

Reference

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS
Han, H., & Hyun, S. S. (2019). Green indoor and outdoor environment as nature‐based solution
and its role in increasing customer/employee mental health, well‐being, and
loyalty. Business Strategy and the Environment, 28(4), 629-641.

4

Attached.

Running head: ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2

ID 408 Journal Reflections 2
Name
Institution

1

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2

2

ID 408 Journal Reflections 2
Article 2
The article "Application of Perception in Hotel Interior Design" focuses on the study of
logical, space-time, and visual perceptions in the context of developing an interior design of
modern hotel (Yu, Bai & Wu, 2018). The main idea is to determine how to optimize the indoor
space of a hotel through creative interior design strategies that are bound to enhance the
customer experience. The information in the article stems from the case analysis and the review
of the related literature. The findings suggest that the logical, space-time, and visual perceptions
can be connected to create an excellent ambiance that enhances customer experience and loyalty
to a hotel (Yu, Bai & Wu, 2018). The application of the perception theory ensures that the hotel
meets the customers' diversified needs.
From the information in the article, I learned that perception plays a crucial role in the
interior design process for a hotel because it provides a combination of practical solutions which
enhance customer experience and the hotel business. The inclusion of picture examples in the
case analysis enabled me to understand the aspects of creativity which are related to
humanization and space (Yu, Bai & Wu, 2018). I realized that people have perception rules
regarding their environment, and an establishment must be willing to explore those rules to
achieve the customers' affirmation and retention.
The information in the article is vital to my project because it provides an in-depth
analysis of the perception theory based on the establishment of outstanding and practical interior
design. Therefore, I will apply the theory by combining the logical, space-time, and visual
aspects of achieving a final design that will ensure the sustainability of the hotel business (Yu,

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2
Bai & Wu, 2018). Thus, the reading applies to my design in that it introduces a comprehensive
approach for a layout that is bound to enhance the significant development of the hotel in the
future.

3

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2

4
Reference

Yu, H., Bai, G. & Wu, L. (2018). Application of Perception in Hotel Interior Design. Open
Journal of Applied Sciences, 8, 285-295.

Attached.

Running head: ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2

ID 408 Journal Reflections 2
Name
Institution

1

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2

2

ID 408 Journal Reflections 2
Article 2
The article "Application of Perception in Hotel Interior Design" focuses on the study of
logical, space-time, and visual perceptions in the context of developing an interior design of
modern hotel (Yu, Bai & Wu, 2018). The main idea is to determine how to optimize the indoor
space of a hotel through creative interior design strategies that are bound to enhance the
customer experience. The information in the article stems from the case analysis and the review
of the related literature. Case analysis is therefore the methodology in the study. The findings
suggest that the logical, space-time, and visual perceptions can be connected to create an
excellent ambiance that enhances customer experience and loyalty to a hotel (Yu, Bai & Wu,
2018). The application of the perception theory ensures that the hotel meets the customers'
diversified needs.
From the information in the article, I learned that perception plays a crucial role in the
interior design process for a hotel because it provides a combination of practical solutions which
enhance customer experience and the hotel business. The inclusion of picture examples in the
case analysis enabled me to understand the aspects of creativity which are related to
humanization and space (Yu, Bai & Wu, 2018). I realized that people have perception rules
regarding their environment, and an establishment must be willing to explore those rules to
achieve the customers' affirmation and retention. One thing I have learned from the article is that
customers appreciate having the controllability of time when the environment around them
provides them with a nostalgic feeling regarding a particular time.

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2

3

The information in the article is vital to my project because it provides an in-depth
analysis of the perception theory based on the establishment of outstanding and practical interior
design. Therefore, I will apply the theory by combining the logical, space-time, and visual
aspects of achieving a final design that will ensure the sustainability of the hotel business (Yu,
Bai & Wu, 2018). I will incorporate a creative color scheme and use complementary materials to
influence the perception of the clients. Also, as per the article, adding a dynamic experience to
the design such as the angle of the material used such as glass or wood will elicit an excellent
feeling. Thus, the reading applies to my design in that it introduces a comprehensive approach
for a layout that is bound to enhance the significant development of the hotel in the future.

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2

4
Reference

Yu, H., Bai, G. & Wu, L. (2018). Application of Perception in Hotel Interior Design. Open
Journal of Applied Sciences, 8, 285-295.

Attached.

Running head: ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

ID 408 Journal Reflections
Name
Institution

1

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

2

ID 408 Journal Reflections
Article 1
The main aim of the study in the article, "Green indoor and outdoor as nature-based
solution and its role in increasing customer/employee mental health, wellbeing and loyalty" was
investigate whether natural-based solutions in interior design can enhance the enjoyment and
loyalty of both the employees and customers in a hotel (Han & Hyun, 2019). A quantitative
approach was used in the study, whereby online surveys were developed according to the
relevant constructs involving both highly-esteemed customers and the employees. This was the
methodology. The findings indicated that the incorporation of green indoor and outdoor as a
nature-based solution to interior design had a positive influence on the emotional well-being,
mental health, and loyalty of customers (Han & Hyun, 2019).
After reading the article, I realized that customer and employee retention is highly
dependent on the environment in which they spend their time. Once their emotional wellbeing
and mental health are enhanced, they are highly likely to become loyal to a particular
establishment (Han & Hyun, 2019). The use of a quantitative approach was a great idea, but I
feel that the researchers could have learned more if they also employed a qualitative approach to
analyze other outcomes from the direct responses of the research participants.
Since my project is designing a hotel, the information in the article is quite useful for me
in the context of interior design. I will determine the best patterns in line with green indoor and
outdoor designs to develop a comfortable ambience to relax the minds of both the customers and
the employees (Han & Hyun, 2019). The main idea is to form customer and employee loyalty to
the hotel through their environmental experience in the establishment. Therefore, I will ensure

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS
that my project design is based on aspects of emotional appeal to both the customers and the
employees. This process will involve all rooms in the establishment, including the kitchen, the
corridors, and the restrooms.

3

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

4
Reference

Han, H., & Hyun, S. S. (2019). Green indoor and outdoor environment as nature‐based solution
and its role in increasing customer/employee mental health, well‐being, and
loyalty. Business Strategy and the Environment, 28(4), 629-641.

Attached.

Running head: ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

ID 408 Journal Reflections
Name
Institution

1

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

2

ID 408 Journal Reflections
Article 1
The main aim of the study in the article, "Green indoor and outdoor as nature-based
solution and its role in increasing customer/employee mental health, wellbeing and loyalty" was
investigate whether natural-based solutions in interior design can enhance the enjoyment and
loyalty of both the employees and customers in a hotel (Han & Hyun, 2019). A quantitative
approach was used in the study, whereby online surveys were developed according to the
relevant constructs involving both highly-esteemed customers and the employees. This was the
methodology. The findings indicated that the incorporation of green indoor and outdoor as a
nature-based solution to interior design had a positive influence on the emotional well-being,
mental health, and loyalty of customers (Han & Hyun, 2019). The implementation of green
indoor and outdoor aspects in the hotel design includes greening grey surfaces such as the
rooftop and walls and ensuring the lobby areas, swimming pool, lounges and restrooms have
green items. Also, the research findings showed that increasing the visibility of the natural
environment by adding the number of glass windows is important.
After reading the article, I realized that customer and employee retention is highly
dependent on the environment in which they spend their time. Once their emotional wellbeing
and mental health are enhanced, they are highly likely to become loyal to a particular
establishment (Han & Hyun, 2019). The use of a quantitative approach was a great idea, but I
feel that the researchers could have learned more if they also employed a qualitative approach to
analyze other outcomes from the direct responses of the research participants. The quantitative
approach involved the collection of data through an online panel survey and the data obtained

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

3

was analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS tools. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was
employed for the hypotheses assessment.
Since my project is designing a hotel, the information in the article is quite useful for me
in the context of interior design. I will determine the best patterns in line with green indoor and
outdoor designs to develop a comfortable ambience to relax the minds of both the customers and
the employees (Han & Hyun, 2019). The main idea is to form customer and employee loyalty to
the hotel through their environmental experience in the establishment. Therefore, I will ensure
that my project design is based on aspects of emotional appeal to both the customers and the
employees. For example, I will insert green elements in the indoor spaces and ensure that the
clients have easy visibility of the natural environment through various stylish glass designs. This
process will involve all rooms in the establishment, including the kitchen, the corridors, and the
restrooms.

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS

4
Reference

Han, H., & Hyun, S. S. (2019). Green indoor and outdoor environment as nature‐based solution
and its role in increasing customer/employee mental health, well‐being, and
loyalty. Business Strategy and the Environment, 28(4), 629-641.

Attached.

Running head: ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2

ID 408 Journal Reflections 2
Name
Institution

1

ID 408 JOURNAL REFLECTIONS 2

2

ID 408 Journal Reflections 2
Article 2
The article "Application of Perception in Hotel Interior Design" focuses on the study of
logical, space-time, and visual perceptions in the context of developing an interior design of
modern hotel (Yu, Bai & Wu, 2018). The main idea is to determine how to optimize the indoor
space of a hotel through creative interior design strategies that are bound to enhance the
customer experience. The information in the article stems from the case analysis and the review
of the related literature. Case analysis is therefore the methodology in the study. The findings
suggest that the logical, space-time, and visual perceptions can be connected to create an
excellent ambiance that enhances customer experience and loyalty to a hotel (Yu, Bai & Wu,
2018). In essence, perception theory refers to the concept of humanizing the environmental
experience of people through logical, space-time, and visual perception to achieve sustainable
emotional appeal. Visual perception refers to how elements such as light, color, and shapes in
one’s surroundings control his or psychology. Space-time perception refers to the combination
of both the time and space concept to evoke emotion from one’s interaction with dynamic items
and patterns in space. On the other hand, logical perception refers to the client’s subjective
feedback of the environment after experiencing both visual and space-time perceptions. The
application of the theory ensures that the hotel meets the customers' diversified needs.
From the information in the article, I learned that perception plays a crucial role in the
interior design process for a hotel because it provides a combination of practical solutions which
enhance customer experience and the hotel business. The inclusion of pict...


Anonymous
Excellent resource! Really helped me get the gist of things.

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