Grossmont-Cuyamaca Community College District What's Really Real?

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Phil 110 Page 1 What is Really Real? Chapter 8 / 9 Homework (This is chapter 8 in the 6 th edition, but it is chapter 9 in the 7 th edition.) Instructions There are four parts to this assignment. Each part requires you to type in information. 1. Definitions 2. What each philosopher thinks is really real 3. Compare each philosopher 4. Précis Part One / Definitions In your own words define/explain the following Concepts: Appearance - Reality - Ontology - Materialism - Idealism - Phil 110 Monism - Dualism - Pluralism - Process Ontology - Substance Ontology - The Dao - Yin/Yang - Being(Eastern) - Becoming/Nonbeing(Eastern) - Forms/Eidos/Ideas - Being(Western) - Becoming(Western) - Atman - Page 2 Phil 110 Brahman - Samsara - Karma - Naive Realism - Subjective Idealism - Esse es percippi - Page 3 Phil 110 Page 4 Part Two / What each philosopher thinks is really real Do the following: 1. Fill in the blanks for each philosopher. 2. Make sure explain what each philosopher believes and why he believes that. Lao Tsu What does Lao Tsu think is really real? _______________ Lao Tsu is a (process ontologist or a substance ontologist) ___________________regarding what is really real because _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Lao Tsu is a (monist, dualist, or a pluralist) _________________regarding what is really real because_____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Lao Tsu is a(materialist, or an idealist) _________________ regarding what is really real because_________________________________________________________________ Phil 110 Page 5 _______________________________________________________________________ Plato What does Plato think is really real? _________________ Plato is a (process ontologist or a substance ontologist) ___________________regarding what is really real because _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Plato is a (monist, dualist, or a pluralist) _________________regarding what is really real because_________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Plato is a (materialist, or an idealist) _________________ regarding what is really real because ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Phil 110 Page 6 Shankara What does Shankara think is really real? _________________ Shankara is a (process ontologist or a substance ontologist) ___________________ regarding what is really real because _______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Shankara is a (monist, dualist, or a pluralist) _________________regarding what is really real because______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Shankara is a (materialist, or an idealist) _________________ regarding what is really real because___________________________________________________________ Phil 110 Page 7 _____________________________________________________________________ Berkeley What does Berkeley think is really real? _________________ Berkeley is a (process ontologist or a substance ontologist) __________________ regarding what is really real because __________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Berkeley is a (monist, dualist, or a pluralist) _________________regarding what is really real because ___________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Berkeley is a (materialist, or an idealist) _________________ regarding what is really Phil 110 Page 8 real because______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Part Three / Compare and Contrast Do the following 1. Below is a list of each philosopher paired with every other philosopher. 2. Write what each believes is really real, along with a list of the appropriate concepts. 3. Then use the concepts to compare what each philosopher believes in a paragraph. I have done an example for you below. List of Philosophers 1. Lao Tsu and Plato 2. Lao Tsu and Shankara 3. Lao Tsu and Berkeley 4. Plato and Shankara 5. Plato and Berkeley 6. Berkeley and Shankara Phil 110 Page 9 Example Lao Tsu and Plato The Dao The Forms Idealist Idealist Monist Dualist Process Ontologist Substance Ontologist Comparison Plato believes that the forms are real, while Lao Tsu believes that Tao is real. Plato’s belief in the forms causes him to be an idealist. Lao Tsu also believes that the Dao is a non-physical substance which also makes him an idealist. Plato thinks that there are two parts to reality, the realm of being, also called the realm of the forms, and the realm of becoming which is also called the realm of appearances. This makes him a dualist. Lao Tsu thinks that while it is possible to divide the Tao into two things, reality is ultimately composed of one thing, thereby making him a monist. Plato believes that the ultimate stuff called the forms is unchanging, which makes him a substance ontologist. Lao Tsu thinks that the Tao is ever changing and it causes all the change in the world. He is, therefore, a process ontologist. Comments Please notice that in the example above I wrote what each philosopher thinks is really real and then compared them explaining why each philosopher believes what he believes. Phil 110 Page 10 Part 4 / Precise The topic for this précis is one of the readings for the ‘What is really real? chapter.’ The options are: Lao Tsu, Plato, Shankara, Berkeley, or Jorge Valdez (Pre-Colombian Cosmologies). Instructions 1. Read one of the readings from the book. 2. Fill out the précis form below or write it out in a paragraph Sentence 1 (Who/What?) __________________in the ______________, _______________________________ (Author’s Full Name) (A-noun) (Title of text) _________________, _______________, that ___________________________ (B-verb) (Point of Article/Book etc…) _________________________________________________________________ Sentence 2 (How?) _______________ supports his/her ____________ by ______________________ (Author’s Last Name) (B-noun) (C–verb / used as gerund) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Sentence 3 (Why?) The author’s purpose is to _____________________________________________ (D-verb / used as infinitive) __________________________ in order to/so that ________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Phil 110 Page 11 Sentence 4 (To Whom?) The author writes in a _____________ style for___________________________ (E–adjective) _________________________________________________________________ (his/her audience, the readers of) and others interested in the topic of ___________________________________ . (The point of the essay etc…) Word Bank These are merely suggestions. Feel free to use other words. Section A (news/magazine/ journal) article book review, editorial, first-hand report, personal or biographical essay, biography, research report Section B analyzes/analysis argues/argument, asserts/assertion, discusses/discussion, focuses on/focus explains/explanation Section C comparing / contrasting retelling, explaining, illustrating, defending, demonstrating, defining, describing, listing, arguing, showing, justifying, relating, Phil 110 reporting, noting, emphasizing, pointing out, highlighting the fact Section D argue, call attention to, deny, show, point out, prove suggest, inform, persuade, disclose, report, convince Section E (register/language) formal, impersonal casual, informal (tone) humorous, emotional, friendly, reasoned, logical, exaggerated, Page 12 Real? ed, Sharpen know this bliss. I Am B7 of himself. be no self- Brahman without a me Brahman. from any since it is other than one without a second, and who is the absolute Realize Brahman, and there will be no more returning to this world—the home of all sorrows. You must realize absolutely that the Atman is Then you will win Brahman for ever. He is the truth. He is existence and knowledge. He is ab- solute. He is pure and self-existent. He is eternal, unending joy. He is none other than the Atman. The Atman is one with Brahman: this is the none but He. When He is known as the s highest truth. Brahman alone is real. There is reality there is no other existence but Brahman. physical contact with them." neither be He is joy He tra fold, crea yond rea ing learly man- dreaming crienced as usness that hat experi- with their ed within The Universe and bliss shrine of supreme the secret of all truths, says in the Gita: “Although Sri Krishna, the Incarnate Lord, who knows I am not within any creature, all creatures exist within me. I do not mean that they exist within birth, but has no physically. That is my divine mystery. My Being sustains all creatures and brings them to If this universe were real, we should continue to perceive it in deep sleep. But we perceive noth- then. Therefore it is unreal, like our dreams. The universe does not exist apart from the Atman. Our perception of it as having an inde- blueness in the sky. How can a superimposed at- pendent existence is false, like our perception of tribute have any existence, apart from its sub- stratum? It is only our delusion which causes this misconception of the underlying reality. No matter what a deluded man may think he is perceiving, he is really seeing Brahman and noth- ing else but Brahman. He sees mother-of-pearl and imagines that it is silver. He sees Brahman and imagines that it is the universe. But this uni- verse, which is superimposed upon Brahman, is immea measured ferentiat light. H this uniy The most re the pur un in the an in the ection of knower The ther be the hu forms. It is Brahman alone. the po and mis- Brahman is the reality—the one existence, ab. Because of the ignorance of our human minds, solutely independent of human thought or idea. the universe seems to be composed of diverse A jar made of clay is not other than clay. It is clay essentially. The form of the jar has no inde- pendent existence. What, then, is the jar? Merely The form of the jar can never be perceived apart from the clay. What, then, is the jar? An a pearance! The reality is the clay itself. nothing but a name. glory. an invented name! ust turn 's reflec- se three he self- 8.5 Subjective Idealism OSS Or it, all- It has reflec- This universe is an effect of Brahman. It can these is never be anything else but Brahman. Apart from nfinite Brahman, it does not exist. There is nothing istinct beside Him. He who says that this universe has an independent existence is still suffering from delusion. He is like a man talking in his sleep. dden “The universe is Brahman”—so says the great truth seer of the Atharva Veda. The universe, therefore, rity, is nothing but Brahman. It is superimposed upon Him. It has no separate existence, apart from its and ground. this If the universe, as we perceive it, were real, you knowledge of the Atman would not put an end George Berkeley was born in 1685 in Ki Trinity College, Dublin, where he studie and controversial physics of Newton. In of his college and was ordained to the worked out the basic ideas of his philos Locke (1632-1704). He saw himself as age and a defender of religion against a machine operating according to blind r colonies for a while, married in 1728, a Ireland in 1734 after his attempt to four Native Americans, and Africans failed in 1753. Berkeley's metaphysics is called s riety of idealism because he argued tha infinite mind (God), and the ideas (the have. All of these things are immateri physical objects do not exist apart fro This kind of idealism stands in contra y of to our delusion. The scriptures would be untrue. The revelations of the Divine Incarnations would make no sense. These alternatives cannot be considered either desirable or beneficial by any of 1 IS though reality is mental, it does exist 1S thinking person.
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Phil 110

Page 1

What is Really Real?
Chapter 8 / 9 Homework
(This is chapter 8 in the 6 th edition, but it is chapter 9 in the 7 th
edition.)

Instructions
There are four parts to this assignment. Each part requires you to type in information.
1. Definitions
2. What each philosopher thinks is really real
3. Compare each philosopher
4. Précis

Part One / Definitions
In your own words define/explain the following Concepts:

Appearance What is perceived of something or a situation
Reality The truth about something or a situation
Ontology It is the study of existence of things
Materialism The idea that all reality is based on the physical or is physical
Idealism The idea that all reality stems from an immaterial space

Phil 110

Page 2

Monism Idea that both the physical and the mental elements are one entity
Dualism Idea that physical and mental elements are separate entities
Pluralism Idea that embraces multiplicity as opposed to monism
Process Ontology Study of how things come to be
Substance Ontology Study of the essence of things themselves
The Dao The moral or ethical path
Yin/Yang The principle of two contradictory sides for every thing both of which are necessary
Being(Eastern) Unchanging and definite existence
Becoming/Nonbeing(Eastern) Not being
Forms/Eidos/Ideas Mental representation of notions
Being(Western) An ever evolving entity as a result of outside influences
Becoming(Western) Possibility of change in a being
Atman True self

Phil 110

Page 3

Brahman One existence
Samsara Cycle of life and death
Karma Bind of own actions
Naive Realism Perception led by senses
Subjective Idealism Full commitment to the concept of everything including material being a perceptive element
Esse es percippi To exist is to be perceived

Phil 110

Page 4

Part Two / What each philosopher thinks is really real
Do the following:
1. Fill in the blanks for each philosopher.
2. Make sure explain what each philosopher believes and why he believes
that.

Lao Tsu

What does Lao Tsu think is really real? ______perception_________

Lao Tsu is a (process ontologist or a substance ontologist) ________process
ontologist___________regarding what is really real because _______he subscribes to Taoism
which is anchored in the way things be__________________________________________

Lao Tsu is a (monist, dualist, or ...


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