Bethel University United States Homeland Security Discussion

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With all of the terrorism we face today, do you feel Homeland Security does enough to protect the citizens of the United States? If not, what do you feel could be done to improve the situation?

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15 CHAPTER Homeland Security LEARNING OBJECTIVES M I L E S , AP Images/Kathy Willens OUTLINE Homeland Security Terrorism International Terrorism Domestic Terrorism Methods of Investigating Terrorism Proactive Methods Reactive Methods Post-9/11 Response to Terrorism and Homeland Defense 9/11 Commission’s Review of Efforts for Homeland Security S H A Federal Law Enforcement Efforts for N Homeland Security Department of Homeland Security N (DHS) O Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Secure N Communities: DHS and FBI Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) Other Federal Agencies 1 State and Local Law Enforcement 9 for Homeland Security Efforts Security 0 Versus Civil Liberties • Define terrorism, including threats posed to the United States both internationally and domestically. • Describe the response of the U.S. government immediately following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. • Identify and explain federal law enforcement efforts for homeland security. • Identify and explain state and local law enforcement efforts for homeland security. • Summarize both sides of the debate between security and civil liberties. 9 T S 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 526 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING INTRODUC TION On September 11, 2001, our world changed. A series of unthinkable and incomprehensible events led to ultimate disasters in New York City, Washington, D.C., and a grassy field in Pennsylvania. Those events shocked the world and changed history. The swiftness, scale, and sophisticated coordination of the operation, coupled with the extraordinary planning required, launched new awareness of terrorism and mass murder in the United States and, indeed, the world. In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, it was reported that almost 5,000 people were missing and more than 400 confirmed dead. Eventually, it was determined that the missing persons included 23 New M York City police officers, 35 New York and New Jersey I Port Authority officers, 3 New York State court offiL cers, and more than 300 New York City fire fighters. These attacks shocked us, even though there had been E similar events before, although not as massive. S Terrorism is, sadly, not new to the United States. , In 1993, there was the first terrorist attack on New York City’s World Trade Center, killing 6 and wounding 1,000. In 1995, there was the bombing of the Alfred P. S H A N Homeland Security N The term homeland security has been used since O the September 11 terrorism acts to describe defensive efforts within the borders of the United States. N Officials use it to separate the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) operations from those of the U.S. Department of Defense.1 Following 9/11, 1 the U.S. government prepared and published the 9 National Strategy for Homeland Security to mobilize 0 and organize the United States to secure its homeland from terrorist attacks. The objectives of the 9 strategy are to prevent terrorist attacks against the United States, to reduce America’s vulnerabilityTto terrorism, and to minimize the damage and recover S from attacks that do occur. The strategy provides direction to the federal government departments homeland security Efforts made since the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, to protect the United States against terrorist acts. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 persons and injuring 675 others. The 1996 bombing at the Olympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia, killed 1 person and wounded 111 others. During these years, there were also terrorist acts committed against churches and family planning clinics that provide abortions, as well as many other depraved, senseless incidents. All of these events awakened Americans to the fact that terrorism had actually come ashore. However, no other day in America’s history had been quite like September 11, 2001. The attacks jolted Americans out of a sense of complacency, and perhaps lethargy. The need for a strong homeland defense has been a primary interest of U.S. law enforcement since then. This chapter will discuss terrorism directed against Americans and American interests abroad, including foreign and domestic terrorism. We will discuss the immediate aftermath of September 11, and the rapid, unprecedented efforts made by the U.S. government. The chapter will describe federal, state, and local efforts for homeland security and the issue of security versus individual rights—how we can ensure a safe environment without threatening our civil liberties and individual freedoms granted under the U.S. Constitution. and agencies that have a role in homeland security and suggests steps that state and local governments, private companies and organizations, and individual Americans can take to improve our security.2 According to Jonathan R. White, professor of criminal justice and executive director of the Homeland Defense Initiative at Grand Valley State University in Grand Rapids, Michigan, America has no common definition of homeland security. Issues surrounding homeland security are confused because the country is dealing with a new concept, a new meaning of conflict, and a change in the procedures used to defend the United States. In the past, military forces protected the homeland, projecting power beyond U.S. borders.3 White, however, explains that homeland security simply means keeping the country safe. It protects lives, property, and infrastructure and is designed to secure the United States.4 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. M I L E S , The events of September 11, 2001, were an unprecedented challenge to the rescue personnel who responded. They tried to S restore some order and calm, despite their own physical and emotional responsesH to viewing the tragedy and its effects up A close. N N Terrorism O Terrorism has many definitions. The Federal N Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines terrorism as “the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the 1 civilian population, or a segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.”9The U.S. Defense Department defines it as “the unlawful use 0 or threatened use of force or violence against individ9 uals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, T or ideological objectives.”5 Jonathan R. White sums up terS rorism simply: “Terrorism uses violence or threatened violence against innocent people to achieve a social or political goal.”6 The National Counterterrorism Center defines terrorism as “premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents.”7 © Robert Brenner/Photo Edit CHAPTER 15 HOMELAND SECURITY 527 Terrorism has a long tradition in world history. Terrorist tactics have been used frequently by radical and criminal groups to influence public opinion and to attempt to force authorities to do their will. Terrorists have criminal, political, and other nefarious motives. Some may remember the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, Germany, when terrorists attacked and took hostage the Israeli Olympic team and killed all of them; the 1988 explosion of Flight 103 in the air over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 270 persons aboard; and the actions of the Unabomber. Many Americans and most major U.S. firms have been targeted by terrorists in some way. Political extremists and terrorists use the violence and suspense of terrorist acts such as bombing, kidnapping, and hostage situations to put pressure on those in authority to comply with their demands and cause the authorities and public to recognize their power. Extremists and terrorists use their activities to obtain money for their causes, to alter business or government policies, or to change public opinion. Attacks against executives are common in Latin America, the Middle East, and Europe, and they have spread to the United States. Successful terrorist techniques employed in one country have spread to others. Governments and corporations have had to develop extensive plans to deal with terrorism. According to Louis J. Freeh, former director of the FBI, Terrorists are among the most ruthless of criminals, but their motivation rarely stems from personal need or a desire for material gain. Unlike the majority of violent criminals, terrorists do not know their victims; in fact, one of the hallmarks of terrorism is its indiscriminate victimization. Also, unlike most serious criminal activity, terrorism invites—and even depends upon—media attention to ensure a maximum yield of terror.8 The National Counter terrorism Center (NCTC) was created in 2004, under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA), to terrorism Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets. National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) The National Counterterrorism Center was created in 2004, under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA), to serve as the primary organization in the U.S. government for integrating and analyzing all intelligence pertaining to terrorism and counterterrorism and for conducting strategic operational planning by integrating all instruments of national power. 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 528 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING serve as the primary organization in the U.S. government for integrating and analyzing all intelligence pertaining to terrorism and counterterrorism and for conducting strategic operational planning by integrating all instruments of national power. The NCTC has the statutory mission to serve as the U.S. government’s knowledge bank on international terrorism and to provide the Department of State with required statistical information. It is under the administrative control of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI).9 The NCTC reported that there were over 10,000 terrorist attacks worldwide in 2011 that resulted in more than 12,500 deaths. These attacks were almost a 12 percent decrease from 2010 and nearly a 29 percent decrease from 2007.10 M I L According to John F. Lewis, Jr., retired assistant director of the FBI’s National Security Division, E the FBI divides the current international threat to S the United States into three categories.11 First, there are threats from foreign sponsors, of International Terrorism international terrorism. These sponsors view terrorism as a tool of foreign policy. Their activities have S changed over time. Past activities included direct H terrorist support and operations by official state agents. Now these sponsors generally seek to conceal A their support of terrorism by relying on surrogates to N conduct operations. State sponsors remain involved in terrorist activities by funding, organizing, netN working, and providing other support and instrucO tion to formal terrorist groups and loosely affiliated extremists. N Second, according to Lewis, there are threats from formalized terrorist groups, such as al-Qaeda, the Lebanese Hezbollah, Egyptian al-Gama’a1alIslamiyya, and the Palestinian Hamas. These auton9 omous organizations have their own infrastructures, personnel, financial arrangements, and training facil0 ities. They can plan and mount terrorist campaigns 9 overseas as well as support terrorist operations inside the United States. Some groups use supporters in T the United States to plan and coordinate acts of terrorism. S In the past, these formalized terrorist groups engaged in such criminal activities in the United States as illegally acquiring weapons, violating U.S. immigration laws, and providing safe havens to fugitives.12 Third, there are threats from loosely affiliated international radical extremists, such as those who attacked the World Trade Center in 1995. These extremists do not represent a particular nation. Loosely affiliated extremists may pose the most urgent threat to the United States at this time because they remain relatively unknown to law enforcement. They can travel freely, obtain a variety of identities, and recruit like-minded sympathizers from various countries.13 In 2005, the DHS reported that the threat of countries facilitating or supporting terrorism had diminished. It said that ideologically driven actors, particularly al-Qaeda, are the top terrorist threat against the United States today. The DHS also named several visual symbols such as the White House and the Statue of Liberty as the most likely targets of terrorism, and truck bombs and small explosives-laden boats as the most likely terrorism weapons.14 Many cases of international terrorism have involved the United States, primarily by targeting U.S. citizens and interests abroad. Some memorable attacks in addition to those mentioned earlier include the abduction of hostages in Lebanon in the mid-1980s; the 1996 detonation of an explosive device outside the Khobar Towers in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, in which 10 U.S. military personnel were killed; the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dares Salaam, Tanzania, YOU ARE THERE Fazul Abdullah Mohammed Killed in Somalia The mastermind of the 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya, Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, was killed in Somalia. Mohammed was considered the longest-serving and most senior al-Qaeda operative in East Africa. Fazul Abdullah Mohammed had been instrumental in bringing the extremist al-Shabab groups in Somalia into the al-Qaeda fold as well as attracting other militant groups from Africa. Counterterrorism chief advisor Brennan said that Mohammed’s death was a “huge setback” for al-Qaeda. Source: Based on Brian Bennett, “Al-Qaeda Operative Key to 1998 U.S. Embassy Bombings Killed in Somalia”, June 12, 2011, retrieved June 13, 2011, nationworl/world/la-fg-embassy-bombings-20110612,0,10. 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 which resulted in the deaths of 12 Americans and 200 others; the terrorist attack on the U.S.S. Cole in the waters of Aden, which killed 19 U.S. sailors; and the abduction and subsequent murder of Wall Street Journal journalist Daniel Pearl in 2002. Before the September 11, 2001, attack, the most recent case of international terrorism occurring on our shores was on February 26, 1993, when foreign terrorists bombed the World Trade Center. Foreign terrorism has continued since 9/11. Nearly every day, terrorist acts occur in many parts of the world, including Iraq, Afghanistan, and Israel. In 2002, terrorist nightclub bombings in Bali, Indonesia, killed more than 200 people. The Indonesian capital of Jakarta was targeted by suicide bombings during 2003 and 2004.15 In 2004, M Russia lost at least 425 people in terrorist attacks, includI ing a bombing at a Moscow subway station, two bombed passenger jets, and a massacre at an L elementary school in which 32 terrorists seized the school, 2004, tertaking more than 1,000 hostages.16 Also inE rorist attacks on commuter trains in Madrid, S Spain, killed hundreds. , On July 7, 2005, during rush hour, a series of at least six explosions occurred on the London transportation network, including five attacks on the S underground system and one on a bus in the city’s Hinjuries. center, causing 56 deaths and more than 700 This was London’s worst attack since World War A II. The incidents took place on the day after it was N games announced that the 2012 Olympic summer were awarded to London. The attack alsoN coincided with a meeting of the leaders of the G8 (major offiO cials from eight highly industrialized nations) at 17 Gleneagles, Scotland. Four suspects were Narrested within a week; all were British citizens, three Britishborn and one Jamaican-born, and all were Islamic fanatics. Three lived in Leeds, an industrial 1 city in Northern England.18 A few weeks later, four bombs 9 underwent off almost simultaneously on London grounds trains and a bus again, but only the 0 detonators blew up.19 9 three Subsequent to the London bombings, bombings in the Egyptian resort townT of Sharm el-Sheikh, a vacationing hot spot for Europeans, S Israelis, and Arabs, killed at least 88 and wounded more than 200.20 Also in 2005, three suicide bombers wearing explosive vests blew themselves up in three crowded restaurants in the tourist resort of Bali, Indonesia, killing about 25 people and wounding 101 others. HOMELAND SECURITY 529 In April 2006, suicide bombers killed 24 persons and wounded 100 at a Sinai resort.21 In June 2006, Canadian police charged 12 men and 5 youths with planning a wave of terrorist attacks, ranging from blowing up the Toronto Stock Exchange to storming the national public broadcaster and Parliament buildings in Ottawa and beheading the prime minister. 22 Also in June 2006, 6 men were arrested in Miami and 1 in Atlanta for plotting to destroy Chicago’s Sears Tower. The arrest was the result of an FBI sting involving an informant who posed as an al-Qaeda operative. 23 In July 2006, about 190 persons were killed and about 600 were injured when bombs exploded on seven commuter trains during the evening rush hour in Mumbai, India. A few days earlier, a series of grenade explosions struck Srinagar, the summer capital of Indian-administered Kashmir, hitting a tourist bus and killing 8 persons and wounding more than 40.24 Also in 2006, extreme violence was reported in Somalia by Islamist militias operating under an umbrella group calling itself the Council of Islamic Courts.25 In August 2006, British authorities arrested 24 extremists who planned to use liquid explosives to blow up airplanes flying from Britain to the United States. The men were planning to carry the liquids in drink bottles and combine them into explosive cocktails to commit mass murder aboard as many as 10 flights over the Atlantic. The arrests caused massive alerts at airports and new rules regarding what could be brought aboard a plane.26 In June 2007, bungled terrorist attacks occurred in London and Glasgow, Scotland. In the London incident, two terrorists parked two vehicles laden with gas canisters and explosives near a popular nightclub. The cars, apparently positioned to strike people leaving the nightclub, failed to ignite. The next day, the two terrorists rammed a Jeep Cherokee loaded with gas canisters into the Glasgow airport. The vehicle erupted in flames; the driver was severely burned and died several weeks later.27 In December 2007, twin car bombs exploded in Algiers near United Nations offices and an Algerian government building, killing dozens of people.28 Also in December 2007, Benazir Bhutto, former Pakistan prime minister and the leader of Pakistan’s largest political party, was assassinated in a terrorist attack in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as she left a political rally. A suicide attacker detonated a bomb, 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 530 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING damaging one of the cars in Bhutto’s motorcade, killing more than 20 people, and wounding 50. Just two months earlier, in October 2007, Bhutto had survived a suicide bombing that killed 150 people in Karachi, Pakistan.29 In March 2008, Pakistani police formally accused militant leader Baitullah Mehsud of planning Bhutto’s assassination. Mehsud was the leader of the Tehrik-e-Taliban, an umbrella movement of Pakistani Taliban groups.30 Terrorist attacks and attempts have continued in Pakistan since the 2007 assassination of Benazir Bhutto; hundreds of people have been killed by terrorists, mostly in suicide bombings.31 Terrorist attacks have continued in other countries as well. In February 2008, a suicide bomber M blew himself up in a large crowd just outside the I city of Kandahar, Afghanistan, killing more than 100 people and wounding more than 90 othersLin the country’s worst single bombing since 2001.32 E On November 26, 2008, in Mumbai, India, at least 170 people were killed and several hundred injured S in a series of well-coordinated attacks by a terrorist , group at two five-star hotels, the city’s largest train station, a Jewish center, a movie theater, and a hospital. 33 Mumbai was targeted again in July 2011 S when a rush-hour triple bombing killed 18 people. H In a statement released through the media, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said, “I understand the A shock and outrage of the people of Mumbai. I share N their pain, anguish and anger.”34 In S eptember 2009, authorities arrested N Najibullah Zazi and others for an al-Qaeda plot O to detonate a bomb in the New York City subways. Zazi, an Afghan immigrant, pled guiltyNin February 2010 to what authorities described as one of the most serious threats to the United States since 9/11.35 1 On Ch ristmas Day in 2009, in a nother 9k a l- Qa e d a at t empt e d at t ack, Um a r Fa rou Abdulmutallab, a Nigerian, was arrested aboard 0a Northwest Airlines aircraft on its final approach to 9 Detroit Metropolitan Airport for placing a destructive device on the aircraft. Interviews of the pasT sengers and crew revealed that prior to the incident, S Abdulmutallab went to the bathroom for about 20 minutes. Upon returning to his seat, he stated biological weapons Weapons made from live bacterial, viral, or other microorganisms. that his stomach was upset and pulled a blanket over himself. Passengers then heard popping noises similar to firecrackers, smelled an odor, and observed his pants leg and the wall of the airplane on fire. Passengers and crew subdued Abdulmutallab and used blankets and fire extinguishers to put out the flames. It was revealed later that the U.S. intelligence community had early signals of the terrorist plot but, curiously, ignored them.36 In January 2010, President Barack Obama ordered intelligence agencies to take a series of steps to streamline how terrorism threats are pursued and analyzed, saying the government had to respond aggressively to the failures that allowed Abdulmutallab to ignite his explosive.37 In March 2010, huge explosions during the morning rush hour in two subway stations in central Moscow killed more than 33 people and injured hundreds. The investigation revealed that the bombings were attributed to two young women, “black widow” suicide bombers, who were linked with the Islamist underground in the North Caucasus.38 In July 2011, a single individual bombed the government center in Oslo, Norway, killing 7 people, and then went to an island summer camp for young members of the Labor Party and killed at least 80 more people. This was the deadliest attack on Norwegian soil since World War II. Acting Police Chief Sveinung Sponheim said the suspect had written Internet postings that suggested he had “some political traits directed toward the right, and anti-Muslin views.” The suspect, a 32-year-old Norwegian identified as Anders Behring Breivik, had posted on his Twitter account that “one person with a belief is equal to the force of 100,000 who have only interests.”39 One significant concern that falls under the umbrella of terrorism is bioterrorism or biological weapons . The anthrax attacks of 2001 caused numerous deaths and sicknesses, as well as significant panic in our nation. Mailed letters containing alleged anthrax paralyzed the nation’s postal system and forced the government to spend billions to install sophisticated detection equipment at postal centers throughout the country. Four types of biological agents can be weaponized: natural poisons or toxins that occur without human modification, viruses, bacteria, and plagues. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classify the most threatening agents as smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulism, tularemia, 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 and hemorrhagic fever. Smallpox is a deadly contagious virus. Anthrax is a noncontagious bacterial infection, while plague is transmitted by insects. Botulism is a food-borne illness. Hemorrhagic fevers are caused by viruses. One of the best-known hemorrhagic fevers is the Ebola virus.40 The U.S. General Accountability Off ice (GAO) reported in 2004 that the CDC, learning from the anthrax incidents, had developed databases and expertise on biological agents likely to be used in a terrorist attack.41 In 2004, the president signed a bill creating Project BioShield to help the United States purchase, develop, and deploy HOMELAND SECURITY 531 cutting-edge defenses against biological weapons attacks. The bill authorized the expenditure of $5.6 billion over 10 years for the government to purchase and stockpile vaccines and drugs to fight anthrax, smallpox, and other potential agents of bioterror. Project BioShield also purchased 75 million doses of an improved anthrax vaccine for the Strategic National Stockpile.42 Fortunately, a major drawback in the use of biological weapons is that they cannot be controlled. This means, for example, that if terrorists were to release a weaponized strain of smallpox, the disease might spread to the terrorist group and its allies.43 M Involvement in Major IncidentsI L I have always felt it is important for everyone in law enforcement to be aware of what isEgoing on in their jurisdiction as well as nationally—to know S about crime trends, unusual incidents, investiga, tions, and court rulings. I was no longer working for the police department when the attacks of September 11, 2001, occurred. Like everyone, I was glued S to the TV, and we discussed it quite a bit in class.H When the anthrax threat occurred several weeks later and we A didn’t know whether there was a relationship or not, again I watched events unfold. N The anthrax incidents held particular interest because the American Media buildingN is located in Boca Raton, where I was teaching.O When an employee died, another went to the hospital, and N almost 1,000 lined up in the hot sun at the Health Department to obtain testing and precautionary antibiotics, I also looked at the situation as a former 1 police administrator in that city. 9 to serve The logistics and cost to the agency in this highly unusual and unexpected0situation created a challenge that agency personnel had to 9 a day, meet quickly. Securing the building 24 hours documenting who came and went, interviewing T employees, conferencing with other emergency S mainresponse personnel and federal agencies, taining order among the anxious employees waiting for testing in the hot and humid conditions, collating information, and disseminating that information to a demanding press and a concerned ON THE JOB public would tax their resources to the maximum. The city still required protection, but clearly all sworn personnel suspended their normal activities except those of an emergency nature. The calls for service were also increased with citizens bringing in “suspicious” packages and substances as well as calling in information regarding “suspicious” individuals who might be accomplices to the terrorists, some of whom had been living in the South Florida area. These demands required the administration to reassign personnel, change schedules, examine vehicle demands, devise procedures for handling the suspicious substances, define roles among the multiple investigatory agencies, establish procedures for handling the American media scene, and clarify and disseminate information regarding the health risks to the public. These demands lasted quite a while, and though they eventually deescalated, the unusual level of activity continued. As the emergency nature of the situation slowly decreased, concern about paying for all these services did not. It was exciting to watch the coverage and see friends and former coworkers being interviewed, giving press conferences, and walking around at the scene. It would have been an exciting and challenging time to be on the Boca Raton Police Department. —Linda Forst 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 532 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING YOU ARE THERE Some Major International Terrorism Cases Affecting the United States 1993 World Trade Center Attack Six people were killed and more than 1,000 injured in the blast on February 26, 1993, in New York City. In 1994, four men were convicted of bombing the World Trade Center. Abdel Rahman, also known as Omar Ahmad Ali Abdel Rahman, a blind Egyptian religious leader, was charged with being one of the planners of the bombing conspiracy and leading a terrorist organization that sprang up in the United States in 1989. Investigators say he also participated in conversations involving the planned bombing of the United Nations building and the assassination of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Rahman andM 11 others were convicted in federal court on charges I of trying to assassinate political leaders and bomb L major New York City landmarks. In 1995, another man, Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, was arrested as the main E plotter behind the World Trade Center bombing. U.S. Embassy bombings S , On August 7, 1998, simultaneous bombings occurred in the U.S. embassies in Dares Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi, Kenya. These attacks killed more than 200 S people, including 20 Americans. Osama bin Laden— H who also used the aliases of Usama bin Muhammad bin Ladin, Shaykh Usama bin Ladin, the Prince, A the Emir, Abu Abdallah, Mujahid Shaykh, Hajj, and the N Director—was wanted by the FBI in connection with N these bombings. O On December 14, 1999, as the world was preparing N Millennium Bomb Plot terrorist attempted to enter the United States from Canada with the intention of setting off a bomb at the Los Angeles International Airport during the celebrations. The would-be bomber, Ahmed Ressam, was arrested at the border near Seattle with a trunk full of explosives. The FBI started a sweeping search for other suspects and information about the plot. Investigators developed information that the plot was linked to a worldwide network of terrorists orchestrated by Osama bin Laden. Ressam was convicted and sentenced to prison in May 2000. In July 2001, an Algerian-born shopkeeper, Mokhtar Haouari, age 32, who ran a gift shop in Montreal and as a sideline dealt in false identification documents and check and credit card scams, was also convicted in the conspiracy. A third suspect, Abdel Ghani Meskini, offered testimony against the other plotters in exchange for a reduced sentence. The suspects said they were trained in guerrilla camps in Afghanistan that were run by bin Laden. Bombing of the U.S.S. Cole On October 12, 2000, two suicide bombers attacked the U.S. destroyer Cole in the waters off Aden, killing 17 American sailors. The FBI linked the bombing once again to Osama bin Laden, the fugitive Saudi, who had declared a worldwide “holy war” against the United States. Six men were arrested soon after the bombing. © 2016 Cengage Learning ® to celebrate the year 2000 millennium, an Algerian 1 9 0 Domestic Terrorism According to Lewis, domestic terrorism involves 9 groups or individuals who operate without foreign T direction entirely within the United States and tarS get elements of the U.S. government or citizens. He states that the 1995 federal building explosion in Oklahoma City and the pipe bomb explosion in domestic terrorism Terrorism committed by citizens of the United States in the United States. Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games underscore the ever-present threat that exists from U.S. residents determined to use violence to advance their agendas.44 Lewis reports that domestic terrorist groups today represent extreme right-wing, extreme leftwing, and special-interest beliefs. The main themes espoused today by extremist right-wing groups are conspiracies having to do with the New World Order, gun control laws, and white supremacy. Many of these extremist groups also advocate 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 YOU ARE THERE The Hunt for Bin Laden After 9/11, Osama bin Laden was Public Enemy No. 1 for all in law enforcement and the military. Every effort was expended to either capture or kill bin Laden. In May 2011, U.S. Navy Seals infiltrated Pakistan in four helicopters and entered a secure compound 35 miles from the Pakistani capital. A short gunfight took place and five people were killed, among them bin Laden. Osama bin Laden was found on the third floor of his house and was shot while resisting capture. One of his wives identified the body, and later DNA analysis provided 99.9 percent confirmation. Bin Laden’s body was transported back to theMcarrier U.S.S. Carl Vinson and buried at sea in a weighted I bag. The 10-year hunt for bin Laden was over. L E S , Source: Based on Mark Mazzetti, Helene Cooper, and Peter Baker, “Behind the Hunt for Bin Laden,” May 2, 2011, retrieved May 4, 2011, from 2011/05/03/.world/asia/03intel.html. S antigovernment, antitaxation, or antiabortion sentiments and engage in survivalist training,H with their goal to ensure the perpetuation of the United States A as a white, Christian nation. The Nationwide Suspicious Activity N Reporting (SAR) Initiative (NSI) established a national N capacity for gathering, documenting, processing, analyzing, and sharing information on suspiciousO activities. The Office of Justice Program’s (OJP) N Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) runs the NSI Program Management Office (PMO) to facilitate implementation of NSI at all levels of the government. 1 The PMO assists agencies with adopting consistent pro9 that cesses, policies, and standards, while ensuring privacy rights and civil liberties are protected. 0 45 In November 2009, a self-radicalized U.S. 9 facArmy psychiatrist, Major Nidal Malik Hasan, ing deployment to one of America’s war zones, T killed 13 people and wounded 30 others in a shooting S rampage with two handguns at the huge Fort Hood Army post in central Texas. Fort Hood is about 100 miles south of Dallas–Fort Worth and is the largest active duty military post in the United Sates. Hasan, who had been in the Army since 1995, sprayed his bullets inside a crowded medical processing center HOMELAND SECURITY 533 for soldiers returning from or about to be sent overseas. Sergeant Kimberly Denise Munley, a civilian police officer at Fort Hood, interrupted the attack and shot Hasan four times. She was wounded herself in an exchange of gunfire with him.46 Hasan, who is currently undergoing court-martial, is said to have shown signs of mental instability prior to the shootings but was also allegedly influenced by the writings of Anwar al-Awlaki, a U.S.-born al-Qaeda lea der.47 After a two-year manhunt, Anwar al-Awlaki was killed in a village in southwestern Yemen. Unmanned, armed drones were able to target alAwlaki while he was driving in Yemen. The missiles launched from a drone killed al-Awlaki and Samir Khan, the editor of the al-Qaeda English-language online magazine Inspire.48 Domestic terrorism was also responsible for the bombing in Centennial Olympic Park at the Atlanta Olympics Games on July 27, 1996. The media reported that the FBI originally suspected security guard Richard A. Jewell of complicity in the bombing, but the FBI later indicated there was no evidence that he had any criminal part in it. In June 1997, an FBI task force linked the Olympic bombing to the 1997 bombings at the Sandy Springs Professional Building (housing the Atlanta Northside Family Planning Services clinic, an abortion clinic) and an Atlanta lesbian nightclub.49 The FBI determined the primary suspect in the Atlanta bombings to be Eric Rudolph. Rudolph was arrested in 2003, after hiding in the mountains of North Carolina for five years. He had defeated all efforts to find him and was found not by an elite squad but by a rookie police officer in Murphy, North Carolina. The concern of the government is that it is doubtful that Rudolph was able to survive and hide in the wilderness unaided for five years; it is believed that he had help, illustrating, at the very least, that sympathy and support for some domestic terrorist groups does exist.50 One particularly troubling element of rightwing extremism is the militia, or patriot, movement. Militia members want to remove federal involvement from various issues. They generally are lawabiding citizens who have become intolerant of what they perceive as violations of their constitutional rights. Membership in a militia organization is not entirely illegal in the United States, but certain states have legislated limits on militias, including on the types of training (for example, paramilitary training) that they can offer. The FBI bases its interest in 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 534 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING the militia movement on the risk of violence or the potential for violence and criminal activity. Experts have traced the growth of the militia movement partly to the effective use of modern communication mediums. Videos, Internet forums, and other online platforms have been used with great effectiveness by militia sympathizers. Promilitia networks disseminate material from wellknown hate group figures and conspiracy theorists. Organizers can promote their ideologies at militia meetings, patriot rallies, and gatherings of various other groups espousing antigovernment sentiments. FBI Special Agents James E. Duffy and Alan C. Brantley give us this profile of the typical militia member: M Most militia organization members are white males who range in age from the early 20sI to the mid-50s. The majority of militia members L appear to be attracted to the movement because of gun control issues. . . . Militia members genE erally maintain strong Christian beliefs and S justify their actions by claiming to be ardent 51 defenders of the Constitution. , In March 2010, nine suspects tied to a Christian militia were charged with conspiring to kill an S unidentified local police officer, and then attack H a police funeral in the hopes of killing more law enforcement personnel who would come to the A funeral. Members of the group Hutaree, based about 70 miles southwest of Detroit, were charged in N the case, including their leader, David Brian Stone, also N known as Captain Hutaree. Stone and his wife made O no secret about the fact that they were part of a militia. They frequently let visitors in military fatigues N erect tents in front of their trailer home, and the sound of gunfire was routine. According to investigators, the Hutaree view local, state, and federal 1 law enforcement as an enemy, and they planned to attack 9 them as part of an armed struggle against the U.S. government. An undercover federal agent attended 0 training exercises with the Hutaree militia for at least eight months before the arrest. The charges 9 followed FBI raids on locations in Michigan, Ohio, and T Indiana.52 S Terrorism experts have reported that the number of paramilitary militia groups in the United States dwindled substantially after the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 because of public backlash and intense pressure from law enforcement. They say, however, that the terrorism threat posed by YOU ARE THERE The Ohio Defense Force The Ohio Defense Force is a private militia claiming more than 300 members who train all year for ambushes, sniper missions, close-quarters battle, and other infantry staples. The unit motto is “Today’s Minutemen,” and they have conducted practice and training around the abandoned Roseville State Prison near Zanesville, Ohio. In 2010, the group claimed that one exercise was designed against an “enemy” identified as an Islamic army that had traveled through the United States unchecked on orders from the president, but the exercise looked more like it was designed to combat the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF). Brian Vandersall, who designed the exercise, said, “I don’t know who the redcoats are. It could be U.N. troops. It could be federal troops. It could be Blackwater, which was used in Katrina. It could be Mexican troops who are crossing the border.” In any case, Vandersall said, “Whoever they are, we have to be ready.” Source: Based on Barton Gellman, “Locked and Loaded: The Secret World of Extreme Militias,” September 30, 2010, retrieved September 30, 2010, from time/printout/0,8816,2022516,00.html. individual “lone wolf ” extremists has remained strong, and that far-left environmental and animal rights groups also pose a serious threat.53 Another domestic terrorist movement is the “sovereign citizen” movement. Sovereign citizens are antigovernment extremists who believe that even though they physically reside in the United States, they are separate or “sovereign” from the country. As a result, they believe they do not have to answer to any government authority, including courts, taxing entities, motor vehicle departments, or law enforcement. According to the FBI, the sovereign citizens commit murder and physical assault; threaten judges, law enforcement professionals, and government personnel; impersonate police officers and diplomats; use fake currency, passports, license plates, and driver’s licenses; and engineer various white-collar scams, including mortgage fraud.54 While not all sovereign citizens commit crimes of violence, in August 2013 the Las Vegas Metro Police Department (LVMPD) arrested 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 two sovereigns, David Allan Brutsche and Devon Campbell Newman, on charges of attempted murder and conspiracy to commit murder. Brutsche and Campbell had met with undercover LVMPD officers over several months, expressing their hatred for law enforcement and describing how they wanted to kidnap cops from traffic stops, arrest them, try them in their court, and then kill them. Brutsche said he had the right to “stop cops by killing them because we as the people are kings and cops are servants.”55 Left-wing extremist groups represent another domestic terrorism threat. Generally these groups profess a revolutionary socialist doctrine and view themselves as protectors of the American people against capitalism and imperialism. They aim to change the nation through revolutionary M means rather than by participating in the regular political I and social process. During the 1970s, leftist-oriented extremist groups posed the predominantLdomestic terrorist threat in the United States. Beginning in the E of these 1980s, however, the FBI dismantled many groups by arresting key members for their Scriminal activities. The transformation of the former Soviet , a coherUnion also deprived many leftist groups of ent ideology or spiritual patron. As a result, membership and support for these groups have declined. S Special-interest terrorist groups are also domestic threats. They differ from both extremeHleft-wing and right-wing terrorist groups because their memA bers seek to resolve specific interests rather than N pursue widespread political change. Members of such groups include animal rights advocates, supN porters of environmental issues, and antiabortion O that advocates. Although some consider the causes these groups represent understandable orN even worthy, the groups remain separated from traditional law-abiding special-interest groups because of their criminal activity. 1 Groups such as the Animal Liberation Front 9 have (ALF) and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF) used violent actions to attempt to force various 0 segments of society, including the general public, to change their attitudes about issues they9consider important. These groups have released caged T animals into the wild, targeted buildings where experiS mentation on animals has been conducted, damaged vehicles they feel are not environmentally friendly, and burned down new residential communities. In 1998, ELF members were linked to the destruction of the Vail Ski Resort in Colorado, a fire that caused $12 million in damage. ELF members were YOU ARE THERE HOMELAND SECURITY 535 “Justice Department” Makes Threats Against UCLA Animal Researcher A group called the “Justice Department,” an offshoot of the Animal Liberation Front (ALF), sent a package containing razor blades to David Jentsch, an animal researcher at UCLA. This was a clear attempt to intimidate Jentsch. Jentsch is a frequent target of animal rights groups due to his research work using primates. A cofounder of the North American Animal Liberation Press Office, Jerry Vlasak, said Jentsch has “made himself an even bigger target” by saying he will continue “torturing” animals in his research. Jentsch had his car fire-bombed in March 2009 while parked in the driveway of his home. He has also been the target of regular harassment and demonstrations outside his home. The “Justice Department” has also claimed responsibility for mailing needles covered with rat poison to two primate researchers at Wake Forest University in North Carolina, and razor blades covered with rat poison to at least one other primate researcher at UCLA. Source: Based on “‘Justice Department’ Claims Responsibility for Threats Against UCLA Animal Researcher,” December 3, 2010, retrieved on April 4, 2012, from extremism_in_america_updates/movements/ecoterrorism/ justice_department_ucla.htm. also charged with firebombing the University of Washington’s Center for Urban Horticulture in 2001.56 In August 2003, several car dealerships in Southern California were targeted by ELF members who burned dozens of SUVs, as well as an auto dealership warehouse, and spray-painted vehicles with sayings such as “Fat, Lazy Americans.” ELF has claimed responsibility for many arsons against commercial establishments that ELF members say damage the environment.57 In December 2005, federal agents made the most extensive arrest of eco-saboteurs in U.S. history, charging seven people with a series of arsons and vandalism that plagued the Pacific Northwest for nearly three years. Agents took six men and one woman into custody from Oregon to New York, tying them to nearly $5 million in arson and 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 536 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING vandalism damage from 1998 to 2001. Several were members of ELF and ALF. Agents used a provision of the USA Patriot Act to close in on them by getting search warrants from a U.S. magistrate in Oregon to search in other states for evidence.58 In 2008, ELF was linked to fires that gutted five multimillion-dollar model homes in Seattle, Washington, that were marketed as “built green.”59 Researchers presenting at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in February 2008 reported that, while most people in the United States focus on foreign-based radical groups when thinking about terrorism, it is actually domestic extremists committing violence in the name of their cause that account for most of the damage from terrorist incidents in the United States. M The researchers stated that these homegrown groups are seven times more likely than overseas groupsI to commit some kind of violence in the nation.60 L Radical, extremist, and hate groups have long E presented a serious problem to society. Throughout a major part of our history, the Ku Klux Klan terS rorized and killed thousands of citizens. In the 1960s and 1970s, radical hate groups, such as ,the Black Panthers and the Black Liberation Army, raged urban warfare against the police, maiming S and killing scores of police officers. Also during that H period of our history, militant student and antiwar groups caused tremendous problems for the police. A Historically, radical groups have been involved N in assassinations, bombings, terrorism, and other crimes and acts of violence to protest the policies N of the United States and to attempt to impose their O views on all members of our society. One noted extremist group was the Branch N Davidians. A 51-day siege of the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas, ended in April 1993 when 80 members of the sect died after a fire and 1 a shootout with police and federal agents. David 9 Koresh, leader of the group, died of a gunshot wound to the head sometime during the blaze. The 0 FBI’s actions in Waco prompted much criticism. 9 Another controversial action against an extremist group occurred in 1992 when U.S. Marshals T tried to arrest white separatist Randall C. Weaver S on firearms charges. During the resulting siege in Ruby Ridge, Idaho, Weaver’s unarmed wife, Vicki, and his 14-year-old son, Sammy (as well as U.S. Marshal William Degan), were killed. In 1995, the U.S. government, without admitting guilt in the case, agreed to pay $3.1 million to Weaver and his three surviving children.61 One news source stated, “Like Waco, Ruby Ridge long ago entered the political mythology of the ultraright. Like Waco, it attests to the emergence of a reckless mentality that sullies the image of the FBI and plays straight into the hands of those who like to demagogue the federal government.”62 Anarchists also have been operating in the United States protesting global and trade issues. Some of their members advocate violence and destruction of property and travel to trade meetings with the goal of disrupting the meetings and causing chaos and destruction in the streets. An example of a “lone wolf” (an individual who operates alone without ties to any group) extremist is Jared Loughner who, in January 2011, gunned down U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords and at least 17 others in Arizona. Six of the victims died, including U.S. District Court (Arizona) Chief Judge John M. Roll and a nine-year-old girl.63 In a search of Loughner’s home, the FBI recovered evidence from his safe indicating that Loughner had planned an assassination attempt specifically targeted on Giffords and that it was not the work of an extremist group.64 Recently, attention has focused on homegrown terrorists who reflect violent Islamic extremism. In 2007, Willie T. Hulon, the executive assistant director of the National Security Branch of the FBI, after acknowledging that al-Qaeda has been the driving force of terrorism for the past decade, wrote that he has increasingly seen the emergence of individuals and groups that will carry out attacks on their own soil: Homegrown terrorists or extremists, acting in concert with other like-minded individuals or as lone wolves, have become one of the gravest domestic threats we face. Largely self-recruited and self-trained, these terrorists may have no direct connection to al-Qaeda or other terrorist groups.65 A 2007 article by Carol Dyer, Ryan E. McCoy, and Joel Rodriquez, intelligence analysts in the FBI’s Counterterrorism Division, and Donald N. Van Duyn, the deputy assistant director of the FBI’s Counterterrorism Division, reflected on the disruption of recent terrorist plots in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. In addition to the 2005 terrorist bombings in London, the authors reported that significant attention is now being 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 YOU ARE THERE Some Major Domestic Terrorism Cases in the United States Oklahoma City Federal Building At 9:05 A . M . on April 19, 1995, an explosion occurred at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. The bombing destroyed the structure, killed 168 people, and injured 675. Later that day, an Oklahoma state trooper arrested Timothy McVeigh on Interstate 35 for driving without license plates. Several days later, McVeigh was charged with the bombing. He was alleged to have links to white supremacist and patriot groups. McVeigh was convicted for his crimes in 1997 and executed in 2001. M Atlanta Olympic Games I On July 27, 1996, a bombing occurred in Centennial L Olympic Park at the Atlanta Olympic Games; a E were woman was killed and 111 other people injured. In June 1997, the FBI linked the Olympic S bombing to the January 16, 1997, bombing at the Sandy Springs Professional Building, which, housed the Atlanta Northside Family Planning Services clinic (a clinic that provided abortions) and the February S 2, 1997, bombing of an Atlanta lesbian nightclub. The FBI claimed that letters mailed to the H press by a militant religious cell known as the Army of God A connected the group to the bombings. N After a five-year manhunt, Eric Robert Rudolph was arrested in the small town of Murphy, North N Carolina, on May 31, 2003, by rookie police offiO these cer Jeff Postell. Rudolph was charged with crimes, which killed and injured hundreds.N Sources: “FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives: Eric Robert Rudolph,” retrieved from w w ; Kevin Sack, “Officials Link Atlanta Bombings and Ask for Help,” New York Times, June 10, 1997, p. A1; Jo Thomas, “McVeigh Guilty on All Counts in the Oklahoma City Bombing,” New York Times, June 3, 1997, p. A1. 1 9 0 9 T given to the concept of homegrown radicalization, S particularly violent Islamic extremism. They stated that the exploitation of religion by Islamic extremists to use violence both overseas and at home is one of the gravest dangers facing the United States today.66 The authors of the article concluded that the Islamic radicalization of U.S. persons, foreign-born HOMELAND SECURITY 537 or native, increasingly concerns law enforcement leaders because of its potential to lead to violent action. The key to success in countering violent Islamic extremists, they wrote, lies in identifying patterns and trends of extremist behavior in its early stages. They argued that law enforcement professionals must convey that, as part of a fair and compassionate government, they also share the interests of communities and must respond aggressively to hate crimes and discrimination against any ethnic populations. Methods of Investigating Terrorism As with many types of investigations, there are two primary methods of investigating acts of terrorism: proactive and reactive. In addition, there is the federal–local Joint Terrorism Task Forces concept. These three methods together can help prevent and detect acts of terrorism before they occur or, when that is not possible, investigate their occurrences, determine who was involved in their commission, and bring the offenders to justice.67 Proactive Methods Much of this chapter discusses proactive techniques that are constantly in use to prevent acts of terrorism before they occur. These methods include ongoing and coordinated planning, intelligence gathering, and investigating activity by various agencies. Despite all of the proactive efforts, however, terrorist events do occur; thus, reactive techniques must be employed as well. Reactive Methods Numerous reactive methods can be used to investigate acts of terrorism after they occur, including response to the incident, crime scene processing and analysis, following up on leads and tips, use of informants, surveillance, and other normal investigative activities. RESPONSE TO THE INCIDENT The local law enforcement agency is usually the first responder to scenes of terrorist crimes—just as it is on any crime scene. These officers must follow the 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 538 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING normal first-responder duties of rendering aid to the injured, arresting suspects, questioning witnesses, and other immediate response and investigatory issues. It is essential that they safeguard the scene and preserve the evidence for processing by laboratory personnel and arson and terrorist specialists. As with the crime of arson, much of the evidence is present in the debris that follows a terrorist explosion. CRIME SCENE PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS Crime scene specialists and trained personnel from the various federal, state, and local investigating units use their special skills to seek the means used to commit the crime and any evidence that might connect the crime to the persons responsible for it. AsM an example of the importance of crime scene processing and analysis, two small pieces of evidence were Ithe keys to determining the cause of the Pan Am exploL sion over Lockerbie, Scotland. Investigators had E painstakingly searched a crime scene of more than 845 square miles of debris to find this evidence. S How extensive are terrorist crime scenes? , Consider the 2001 World Trade Center attack. When the jumbo jets crashed into the buildings, S H YOU ARE THERE A A Domestic Terrorist: The Unabomber N Thomas J. Mosser, an executive with the Young and Rubicam advertising firm in Manhattan, was killedNby a mail bomb on December 10, 1994. The parcel had O been mailed to his home. The explosion and Mosser’s N murder were attributed to the work of a serial bomber known as the Unabomber, who was believed to be responsible for 14 other bombings or attempted 1 bombings beginning in 1978. The FBI reports that 2 people died and 23 others were injured in these 9 explosions, which occurred over some 16 years, as this man terrorized his fellow American citizens. 0 T h e s e q u e n ce of e v e nt s re la te d to t9h e Unabomber is: T • A bomb exploded at Northwestern University in Illinois, May 25, 1978; a security guard wasS injured. • A second person at Northwestern was injured on May 9, 1979, when a bomb exploded in the technical building. several things occurred. First, the explosive force of the planes entering the buildings destroyed much of the immediate internal structure and the victims within. The planes, just refueled for their flights, contained thousands of pounds of fuel. The ensuing fireball, reaching incredibly high temperatures, incinerated all in its path. The fuel then worked its way down to lower floors, continuing its destruction. Shortly after the initial explosions, the weakened buildings, with some of their steel infrastructure actually melting in the intense heat, collapsed under the weight of the crumbling upper floors. The result: millions of pounds of crime scene material and evidence. The crime scene investigation was extensive. The first concern of this investigation was to account for and identify as many victims as possible. But before any identifications could be made, the remains had to be recovered. This required the detailed sifting of all the debris and material collected from the crime scene. Sifting was also conducted during the examination of the Oklahoma City bombing incident. After suspected human remains were recovered from the debris, determinations needed to be made • On American Airlines Flight 444 (Chicago to Boston), 12 persons suffered smoke inhalation injuries on November 15, 1979, when a bomb placed in a mailbag in the cargo bay failed to detonate. • The president of United Airlines, Percy Wood, was injured by a bomb on June 10, 1980. The bomb was in a package mailed to his home. • A bomb in a business classroom at the University of Utah exploded on October 8, 1981. • At Vanderbilt University in Nashville, a secretary was injured on May 5, 1982, when a bomb mailed to the head of the computer science department exploded. • Two people were injured, one seriously, at the University of California, Berkeley, as a result of bombings: an electrical engineering 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 about their origin and identity. Efforts to identify recovered remains included such forensic disciplines as pathology, odontology, biology, and anthropology. For the most part, DNA was used to establish the identities of the deceased. Personal items found at the crime scene—such as jewelry and clothing— were also used for identification, but were considered presumptive in nature, because many of these items are not unique. Still, personal items provided investigators with some information on the identities of the missing. FOLLOWING UP ON LEADS AND TIPS There must be canvasses and recanvasses, and interviews and reinterviews. Anyone with any information at all must be interviewed immediately. All leads M must be followed through to their logical conclusions. Tip I be follines must be established and all tips must lowed up. L E be very USE OF INFORMANTS Informants can important in the investigation of terroristS incidents. A good example of the value of an informant’s information was the February 1995 arrest, of Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, ranked at the time as number one • S H A professor on July 2, 1982, and a student on N May 15, 1985. N in Alert employees of the Boeing Company Washington State had a bomb safely O dismantled on May 18, 1985, when they realized a mailed N package contained an explosive device. • On November 15, 1985, the research assistant to a psychology professor at the University 1 of Michigan at Ann Arbor was injured when 9 a bomb received at the professor’s home exploded. 0 • On December 11, 1985, Hugh Campbell, 9 the owner of a computer rental store in Sacramento, California, was killed by T a bomb left at his store. S • In Salt Lake City, another employee in the computer industry was maimed by a bomb placed in a bag in the company parking lot on February 20, 1987. HOMELAND SECURITY 539 on the FBI’s Most Wanted List and believed to be the main plotter behind the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Yousef was the target of an international manhunt spanning several countries and thousands of miles. He was located and arrested based on information provided by an unexpected informer who simply walked into the American Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan. Authorities believed the informer was seeking to collect the $2 million reward that the U.S. State Department was offering for information resulting in Yousef’s arrest. After receiving the informant’s information, a team of Pakistani police and U.S. law enforcement officials was assembled and sent to the hotel room where Yousef was believed to be; the team broke down the door and rushed into the room and found Yousef lying on his bed, a suitcase of explosives nearby.68 SURVEILLANCE Surveillance is used in terrorist investigations to follow suspects identified as involved in the crime. Other methods of surveillance or information-gathering techniques also can be used for intelligence purposes. Flight recorders in aircraft cockpits provide investigators with • A geneticist at the University of California at San Francisco sustained injuries when he opened a package received in the mail at his home on June 22, 1993. • A computer scientist at Yale University opened a package mailed to his office and was injured by a bomb on June 24, 1993. The FBI was cer tain that these bombings were related and attributable to one suspect, the Unabomber. The bombs were all built from similar materials and had a comparable, sophisticated design. In 1996, based on a tip provided by his brother, Theodore Kaczynski was arrested and charged with all the Unabomber attacks. At trial, he was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment. Source: John S. Dempsey, An Introduction to Public and Private Investigations (Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1996), pp. 16–17. 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 540 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING a multitude of details about a hijacking. Security cameras in public locations provide details on a terrorist’s actions. Timothy McVeigh’s truck was recorded on a security camera, and terrorists involved in the September 11 attack were recorded on airport security systems. These types of surveillance systems are invaluable for the investigation of terrorist activities. In 2011, New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg sa id the New York Cit y Police Department’s surveillance had not unfairly targeted any group in an effort to root out possible terror connections. Bloomberg said, “I believe we should do what we have to do to keep us safe. And we have to be consistent with the Constitution and with people’s rights.”69 M I Post-9/11 Response to L E Terrorism and Homeland S Defense , In the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, strict security procedures were instituted S at airports, government buildings, cultural centers, H and many other facilities. The FBI advised state and local law enforcement agencies to move to their A highest level of alert and be prepared to respond N to any further acts of terrorism. Armed National Guard troops supplemented airport security offiN cers and local and state police in many jurisdictions. Military aircraft flew protective patrol over U.S. O cities, and the Coast Guard patrolled coastlines and N ports. Some other immediate responses included expanding the intelligence community’s ability to intercept and translate messages in Arabic, Farsi, 1 and other languages; fortification of cockpits to pre9 vent access by hijackers; placing federal air marshals on commercial flights; and more intensive screening 0 of luggage. 9 Approximately 4,000 FBI special agents were assigned to the 9/11 attacks case nationwide, and T by early October, the FBI was handling more S than a quarter million potential leads and tips. The FBI sent all law enforcement agencies a list of more than 190 witnesses, suspects, and others the agency wanted to interview, and in the two months following the attacks, the Justice Department arrested more than 1,000 people suspected of having links to terrorist groups.70 The 9/11 terrorist acts were attributed to the multinational terrorist group al-Qaeda (Arabic for “the base”) operated by Osama bin Laden, a known terrorist residing in Afghanistan, sheltered by the ruling Taliban government. On October 7, 2001, the United States launched a full-scale military assault—a war—against Afghanistan, the Taliban and its allies, al-Qaeda, and Osama bin Laden. As a result of this military action, the Taliban government was replaced in Afghanistan, and many members of al-Qaeda were killed or arrested. Osama bin Laden remained at large for 10 more years until May 2011 when he was tracked down in Pakistan and killed by U.S. forces. Much has been written about the failure of U.S. law enforcement, particularly federal law enforcement, to deal with terrorism. Some have reported that the failure to follow up leads and analyze information has made the efforts of terrorists to commit terrorist attacks against the United States easier. Others have reported that a major flaw of counterterrorism measures has been a lack of interagency cooperation and data sharing.71 To address these concerns, on October 8, 2001, President Bush signed Executive Order 13228, which established the Office of Homeland Security.72 The office’s mission was to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from threats and attacks. The office coordinated the executive branch’s efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, and respond to terrorist attacks within this country. The president also established a Homeland Security Council that was responsible for advising and assisting him with all aspects of security. The council consists of the president and vice president, the secretary of the treasury, the secretary of defense, the attorney general, the secretary of health and human services, the secretary of transportation, the director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the director of the FBI, the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the assistant to the president for homeland security.73 In 2009, President Obama merged the Homeland Security Council with the National Security Council creating the National Security Staff,74 and by Executive Order issued on February 10, 2014, the name of the National 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 Security Staff was changed to the National Security Council staff.75 On October 26, 2001, President Bush signed into law the USA Pat riot Ac t (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Requi red to Intercept a nd Obst r uct Terrorism), which gave law enforcement personnel new abilities to search, seize, detain, or eavesdrop in their pursuit of possible terrorists.76 The law expanded the FBI’s wiretapping and electronic surveillance authority and allowed nationwide jurisdiction for search warrants and electronic surveillance devices, including legal expansion of those devices to e-mail and the Internet. The Patriot Act also included money-laundering provisions and set strong penalties for anyone harboring orM financing terrorists. It established new punishments for possession of biological weapons and made itI a federal crime to commit an act of terrorism against L a mass transit system. The bill allowed law enforcement Eto seven agents to detain terrorism suspects for up days without filing charges against them. S 77 The Patriot Act is covered more thoroughly later in this , chapter. In November 2001, the president signed into law the Aviation and Transportation Security S Act, which among other-things established the H (TSA) Transportation Security Administration within the Department of Transportation to proA tect the nation’s transportation systems and ensure N freedom of movement for people and commerce. This new agency assumed the dutiesN formerly provided by the Federal Aviation Administration Osecurity (FAA). The TSA recruited thousands of personnel to perform screening duties atN commercial airports and significantly expanded the federal air marshals program. It also created the positions of federal security directors to be directly 1 responsible for security at airports, developed new pas9 and senger boarding procedures, trained pilots flight crews in hijacking scenarios, and required all 0 airport personnel to undergo background checks.78 Polls conducted immediately following9the 9/11 attacks revealed that an overwhelming majority of T Americans—approximately 75 percent—thought it S necessary to give up some personal freedoms for the sake of security.79 Later, in June 2002, the president proposed creating a new cabinet-level agency, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), to HOMELAND SECURITY 541 replace the Office of Homeland Security. With the new cabinet agency, duties formerly belonging to other government agencies were merged, including border and transportation security; emergency preparedness and response; chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear countermeasures; and information analysis and infrastructure protection.80 The new DHS went into effect in 2003. In the six months following September 11, 2001, $10.6 billion was spent on creating new mechanisms for homeland security, responding to and investigating terrorist threats, and providing security for likely terrorist targets.81 In 2002, in response to public demand, the president and Congress appointed a blue ribbon national commission to investigate the attacks. It was called the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, popularly known as the 9/11 Commission. Its charge was to investigate how the nation was unprepared for these terrorist attacks, how they happened, and how the nation could avoid a repeat tragedy. Its report, the 9/11 Commission Report: The Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, was released in 2004. 9/11 Commission’s Review of Efforts for Homeland Security In 2004, the 9/11 Commission Report: The Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States was released by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks.82 The members of the commission met for two years, reviewed more than 2.5 million pages of documents, and interviewed more than 1,200 individuals in 10 countries. It held 19 days of hearings and took public testimony from 160 witnesses. It made 41 main proposals to improve homeland security and prevent future acts of terrorism against USA Patriot Act Public Law No. 107-56, passed in 2001, giving law enforcement new ability to search, seize, detain, or eavesdrop in their pursuit of possible terrorists; full title of the law is USA Patriot Act—Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism. 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 542 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING YOU ARE THERE Career Opportunity Areas with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) The DHS reports the following career opportunity areas, among others: • U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). Employees are responsible for adjudicating and processing the host of applications and forms necessary to ensure the immigration of people and their families to the United States, from initial stages through their transition to permanent residence, and finally to citizenship. • U.S. Coast Guard. Civilian employees work together with military personnel to save lives, M enforce the law, operate ports and waterways, and protect the environment. I • U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). L Employees prevent terrorists and terrorist E weapons from entering the United States while facilitating the flow of legitimate trade and S travel. • Federal Emergency Management Agency , (FEMA). Employees prevent losses from disasters wherever possible, and assist whenS they do happen. [This is] an intensely focused H team dedicated to helping our country prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from A disasters. N N O our nation. Some of the commission’s recommenN dations were accepted and implemented by the government. In December 2005, the former commission, 1 which re-created itself as a private nonprofit orga9 nization to pressure Congress and the White House to act on its recommendations, issued 0a report card as its last official act, giving the federal 9 government largely failing and mediocre marks as well as “incompletes” in its implementation T of the panel’s 41 main proposals. It gave its highS est mark, an A2, for the government’s vigorous efforts against terrorist financing, and Bs and Cs for other efforts, such as the creation of a director of national intelligence and the ongoing presence in Afghanistan. However, the commission heavily criticized the government for numerous failures • U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Employees enforce immigration and customs laws, safeguard U.S. commercial aviation, and protect federal facilities. • U.S. Secret Service. Employees have the dual missions of protecting our nation’s leaders, and criminal investigation involving law enforcement, security, information technology, communications, administration, intelligence, forensics, and other specialized fields. • U.S. Transportation Security Administration (TSA). Employees help secure our transportation infrastructure from future terrorist acts in intelligence, regulation enforcement, and inspection positions. • Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC). Employees develop the skills, knowledge, and professionalism of law enforcers from 801 federal agencies in this unique interagency training organization. Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, retrieved May 14, 2014, from that the commission claimed were largely caused by political wrangling and bureaucracy. It particularly mentioned the failure of Congress to focus homeland security funding on risk assessments and gave the FBI a C because it was restructuring itself too slowly.83 The panel chairperson wrote, “We believe that the terrorists will strike again. If they do, and these reforms that might have prevented such an attack have not been implemented, what will our excuses be?”84 The chairperson also stated before the release of the report, “It’s not a priority for the government right now. More than four years after 9/11 . . . people are not paying attention. God help us if we have another attack.” Another former commission member said the country was “less safe than we were 18 months ago.”85 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 Federal Law Enforcement Efforts for Homeland Security HOMELAND SECURITY 543 TABLE 15.1 U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Components and Agencies Directorate for National Protection and Programs The major federal law enforcement efforts for homeland security involve the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), and some other federal agencies. Directorate for Science and Technology Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Intelligence and Analysis After much debate, study, and planning inM the aftermath of 9/11, the cabinet-level U.S. Department I in of Homeland Security (DHS) was established March 2003.86 L The creation of DHS was the most signifiE since cant transformation of the U.S. government 1947 when President Harry S. Truman S merged the various branches of the U.S. Armed Forces , coordiinto the Department of Defense to better nate the nation’s defense against military threats. DHS represents a similar consolidation, both in S former style and substance. The DHS includes duties of 22 domestic agencies, includingH the Coast Guard, U.S. Customs Service, the Secret Service, A the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and N along the Transportation Security Administration, with numerous other federal communications, N science, and technology agencies. (See Table 15.1.) The DHS does not include the FBI, CIA, orONational Security Agency, but these agencies are required to N share their data with the department’s intelligence center. In 2014, the DHS reported it had 240,000 employees.87 1 The department’s first priority is to protect the 9 departnation against further terrorist attacks. The ment’s agencies analyze threats and intelligence, 0 guard our borders and airports, protect our critical infrastructure, and coordinate the 9 responses of our nation for future emergencies. InT2004, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) S was created as a result of Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5 (HSPD-5) to provide a consistent nationwide approach for federal, state, tribal, and local governments to work together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Directorate for Management Office of Policy Office of Health Affairs Office of Operations Coordination Domestic Nuclear Detection Office Transportation Security Administration (TSA) U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) U.S. Coast Guard Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) U.S. Secret Service Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, retrieved April 20, 2010, from complexity.88 To understand the importance of the DHS to our homeland security, consider that 730 million people travel on commercial aircraft each year; more than 700 million pieces of baggage are screened for explosives; 11.2 million trucks and 2.2 million rail cars cross into the United States; and 7,500 foreign flagships make 51,000 calls in U.S. ports annually.89 One of the DHS’s priorities is combating terrorism overseas. A Government Accounting Office (GAO) Report to Congressional Requesters in September 2013 said that DHS has not established the mechanisms necessary to ensure that decisions Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Federal cabinet department established in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 544 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING to deploy resources abroad, made at the individual unit level, are in keeping with the strategic priorities of DHS.90 The DHS also faces challenges of coordinating domestic DHS management with their partners abroad and the U.S. missions in foreign countries having an understanding the role of DHS.91 This lack of coordination and complete understanding of the mission can lead to serious consequences in the battle against terrorism. The DHS controls immigration into the United States through its US-VISIT (United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology) program. US-VISIT is part of a continuum of security measures that begins outside U.S. borders and continues through a visitor’s arrival in and departure from the United States. The program applies toM all visitors entering the United States and is a top priority for DHS because it enhances security for Iour citizens and visitors while facilitating legitimate L travel and trade across our borders. The program E helps secure the borders, facilitate the entry and exit process, and ensure the integrity of our immiS gration system while respecting the privacy of our , visitors.92 The TSA is on the front lines of the nation’s efforts to secure air transportation from terrorism. S Since 2002, federal rules have required that the TSA H conduct security inspections of all air passengers and air travel. By 2014, TSA had about 50,000 transportaA tion security officers (TSOs). TSA’s air marshals are N deployed on flights around the world. The number of marshals is classified. They blend in with passenN gers and rely on their training, including investigative O techniques, criminal terrorist behavior recognition, firearms proficiency, aircraft-specific tactics, and N close-quarters self-defense measures to protect the flying public. Air marshals work in plainclothes, in teams of two or sometimes more. They board air1 planes before passengers, survey the cabin, and watch 9 passengers as they walk toward their seats.93 TSA federal air marshals used fatal force 0 for the first time in December 2005 at the Miami International Airport when they shot and killed9an airline passenger who claimed to have a bomb and T was running out of a plane onto a jetway. The man’s S wife, who was traveling with him, claimed he was mentally ill.94 terrorist watchlist A list maintained by the federal government of individuals who are not allowed to fly on airlines. The terrorist watchlist is a list maintained by the federal government of individuals who are not allowed to fly on airlines. They are placed on this list due to suspected terrorism ties or tendencies. On December 25, 2005, Northwest Flight 253 was subject to a terrorist-bombing attempt by extremist Umar Farouk Abdulmtallaba. This attempted bombing exposed weaknesses in how the federal government nominated individuals to be on the watchlist and how agencies used the watchlist to screen individuals to determine if they posed s security threat. As a result of a classified study conducted by the GAO in 2010, the federal government changed procedures, which led to more individuals being added to the terrorist watchlist.95 U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is responsible for securing our borders while facilitating the flow of legitimate trade and travel. It protects 5,000 miles of border with Canada, 1,900 miles of border with Mexico, and 95,000 miles of shoreline. It employs about 61,000 employees, including the following enforcement personnel: 12,058 officers, more than 20,000 border patrol agents, over 2,200 agriculture specialists, and nearly 1,000 air and marine officers and pilots.96 In 2014, the DHS reported that in 2013 at 329 U.S. ports of entry, CBP officers inspected 351 million pedestrians and passengers, including over 107 million conveyances; processed over 98 million aircraft passengers; seized 206, 246 pounds of cocaine and 3,895,381 pounds of marijuana; and intercepted more than 170,967 agricultural items and pests.97 U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is responsible for the enforcement of federal immigration laws, customs laws, and air security laws. It targets illegal immigrants; the people, money, and materials that support terrorism; and other criminal activities. As of 2014, ICE had about 20,000 employees in 50 states and 47 foreign countries.98 On the front lines of our efforts in maritime security is the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). The Coast Guard is a military branch of the U.S. armed forces involved in maritime law, mariner assistance, and search and rescue. The USCG patrols in any maritime region in which U.S. interests may be at risk, including international waters and America’s coasts, ports, and inland waterways. It became part of the DHS in 2003.99 The biggest challenge for law enforcement agencies is the small group or “lone wolf” operators who do not usually have formal contacts or connections 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 with al-Qaeda or other large terrorist organizations. Michael Chertoff, former head of the Department of Homeland Security and founder of the security firm Chertoff Group, said, “The more people are out there trying, the greater the chances one of them will get through.”100 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has traditionally been the lead federal agency in the response to and investigation of terrorism. In May 2002, in the wake of massive criticism that the FBI had failed to properly handle information that could Mhave led to the prevention of the September 11 attacks, FBI I Director Robert S. Mueller completely reorganized the Bureau and created a new strategic focus L for the agency. The FBI’s new focus placed the following as E States its three priorities: (1) protecting the United from terrorist attack, (2) protecting the United S States against foreign intelligence operations and espio, against nage, and (3) protecting the United States cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes. The reorganization Mueller implemented S involved a complete restructuring of the countershift from terrorism activities of the Bureau and a H a reactive to a proactive orientation. The main orgaA nizational improvements were the development of N interspecial squads to coordinate national and national investigations; a reemphasis onN the Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTF) concept; enhanced Otechnoanalytical capabilities with personnel and logical improvements; a permanent shift Nof additional resources to counterterrorism; the creation of a more mobile, agile, and flexible national terrorism response; and targeted recruitment 1 to acquire agents, analysts, translators, and others with spe9 the FBI cialized skills and backgrounds.101 In 2005, created its National Security Branch (NSB), 0 which combines the missions, capabilities, and resources of the counterterrorism, counterintelligence,9and intelligence elements of the FBI.102 T Possibly the most important unit in investigatS ing terrorism in the United States is the FBI–local Joint Terrorist Task Forces (JTTF). Before the establishment of these task forces, ad hoc task forces of local and federal authorities would be established to investigate each new terrorist case as it occurred and then disbanded after the investigation. The HOMELAND SECURITY 545 new concept ensures that the unit remains in place, becoming a close-knit, cohesive group capable of addressing the complex problems inherent in terrorism investigations. Because federal, state, and local law enforcement resources have been combined in these task forces, there is effective maximization of resources, provision of sophisticated investigative and technological resources, and linkage to all federal government resources in the United States and worldwide.103 The objectives of the JTTF are twofold: to respond to and investigate terrorist incidents or terrorist-related criminal activity (reactive measures), and to investigate domestic and foreign terrorist groups and individuals targeting or operating in the area for the purpose of detecting, preventing, and prosecuting their criminal activity (proactive measures). The key to the success of these task forces is the melding of personnel and talent from various law enforcement agencies in a single, focused unit. The local police members bring the insights that come from years of living and working with the people in their area. They have usually advanced through their careers from uniformed precinct patrol to various detective duties before being assigned to the task force. Each of the participating agencies similarly contributes its own resources and areas of expertise to the team. The integration of the many agencies, each bringing its own unique skills and investigative specialties to the task force, makes these units formidable in combating terrorism. In an article in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Robert A. Martin, former deputy inspector for the New York City Police Department (NYPD) and former member of the FBI–NYPD JTTF, describes the operation of the task force: The FBI special agents bring vast investigative experience from assignments all over the world. The FBI legal attachés, assigned to U.S. embassies throughout the world, provide initial law enforcement information on international terrorism cases. Since many terrorist events are committed by suspects from other countries, counterterrorism Enforcement efforts made against terrorist organizations. Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTF) concept Use of singlefocused investigative units that meld personnel and talent from various law enforcement agencies. 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. 546 PART 4 CRITICAL ISSUES IN POLICING YOU ARE THERE Seeking a Job with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Those interested in applying for Department of Homeland Security positions should visit the USA Jobs electronic portal to government-wide opportunities. From that site, they can search for current DHS employment opportunities by job category, location, salary, and more. DHS job announcements provide important information about job qualifications, duties, salary, duty location, benefits, and security requirements. Potential applicants can view these announcements to determine if their interests, education, M and professional background will make them good candidates for the job. I All DHS jobs require U.S. citizenship, and most L require successful completion of a full background investigation. Applicants may also be required toE submit to drug tests. S Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, “Get a, Homeland Security Job,” retrieved May 6, 2014, from S H A it is necessary to gain the cooperation of law N enforcement agencies from the countries of origin. Interagency cooperation is essential when N investigating crimes committed internationally. O The FBI will work in tandem with other agencies to develop investigative leads.104 N Before September 11, 2001, the United States had 35 formal JTTFs. After the attacks, JTTFs were added to each of the FBI’s 56 field offices, as well1as 10 stand-alone formalized JTTFs in the FBI’s largest 9 resident agencies (resident agencies are maintained in 0 smaller cities and towns across the county).105 Secure Communities: DHS and FBI 9 T S Secure Communities is a deportation program that uses an already existing federal information-sharing partnership between ICE (the immigration enforcement component of the DHS) and the FBI. This partnership helps to identify criminal immigrants without imposing new burdens on law enforcement.106 Secure Communities was started in 2008 in 14 jurisdictions and is now in more than 1,700. As of January 22, 2013, the Secure Communities strategy has been implemented by ICE in all 3,181 jurisdictions in the United States, U.S. territories, and Washington, D.C.107 The process of identifying an individual from the arrest to removal begins at the local level. When a local or state law enforcement officer makes an arrest, the fingerprints of that individual are submitted electronically to the FBI. The FBI checks its database, and if the individual is identified as an illegal immigrant who has previously made contact with ICE, the FBI coordinates with ICE to hold the individual on an ICE detainer or immigration hold. The ICE hold will allow the person to be held in custody for an additional 48 hours to allow ICE time to conduct an interview and determine if the individual should be held for deportation proceedings.108 Meanwhile, the FBI has further extended its identification capabilities through a project called Next Generation Identification (NGI) that matches not only fingerprints but also iris scans and facial recognition technology. The project integrates all three methods of identification in an effort to speed identification of wanted individuals. This is another step toward biometric identification of people.109 The Secure Communities program is not without controversy. Although it was originally intended to target “serious convicted felons,” it has caused others who are only here illegally to be deported as well.110 Several states are trying to withdraw from the program, most notably Illinois, and the California legislature is considering legislation to allow participation in the program by local law enforcement to be voluntary.111 In response to the Secure Communities program, Georgia, Alabama, and most notably Arizona (with the passage of SB 1070) have attempted to implement laws that will allow their law enforcement personnel to enforce immigration laws in their states. In Georgia, the federal courts have stayed the provisions of the laws pending further hearings.112 The U.S. Supreme Court in Arizona et al. v. United States (2012), upheld part of Arizona SB1070, which required the police to determine the immigration status of anyone arrested or detained where there is reasonable suspicion they are not in the United States legally.113 9781305724860, An Introduction to Policing, Eighth Edition, Dempsey/Forst - © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization. CHAPTER 15 In August 2011, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) notified 39 governors that the fingerprint-sharing program of Secure Communities did not need the approval of their state to operate in it and that the DHS had voided previous signed agreements authorizing their participation.114 HOMELAND SECURITY 547 YOU ARE THERE Enormous Responsibilities for U.S. Border Protection • The United States has 5,525 miles of border with Canada and 1,989 miles with Mexico. • The U.S. maritime border includes 95,000 miles Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) was created in 2005 to unite America’s national security intelligence under one umbrella. It was based on the 9/11 Commission report, which recommended the creation of a single intelligence M coordidirector for the United States. The ODNI nates information from national security and I military intelligence agencies, as well as law enforcement agenL cies. These agencies include the CIA; the National EAgency; Security Agency; the Defense Intelligence the National Geo-Space Intelligence Agency; the S National Reconnaissance Office; the FBI’s National Security Branch; the Department of ,Energy’s Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence; the Department of Homeland Security’s Office of S of the Intelligence and Analysis; the Department Treasury’s Office of Intelligence and Analysis; H and the Drug Enforcement Administration’s Office of A National Security Intelligence.115 N N Other Federal Agencies In addition to the DHS, the FBI, and the O U.S. military, several other federal agencies are involved N with crisis activities involving terrorism. One example is the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), which has special responsibilities 1 in cases of arson and explosives. 9 police In February 2008, the federal Amtrak announced that it would begin random screening of 0 passengers’ carry-on bags and that its officers would 9weapons patrol trains and platforms with automatic and bomb-sniffing dogs. Amtrak security T teams show up unannounced at stations and set up baggage S screening areas in front of boarding gates. Officers randomly pull people out of line and wipe their bags with a special swab that is then put through a machine that detects explosives. If the machine detects anything, officers open the bag for visual inspection. Anyone who is selected for screening and refuses it is of shoreline and a 3.4 million-mile exclusive economic zone with 329 official ports of entry. • Each year, more than 500 million people cross the borders into the United States, some 330 million of whom are noncitizens. • More than 730 million people travel on commercial aircraft each year, and more than 700 million pieces of baggage are screened for explosives each year. • Approximately 11.2 million trucks and 2.2 million rail cars cross into the United States each year. • 7,500 foreign flagships...
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Homeland Security Fight Against Terrorism




Terrorism posses a significant form of security threat experienced on US soils through
calamities such as, embassy bombing and Worldwide Trade Center Attacks such as the 9/11
terror. The Homeland Security task...

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