The Evolution of Life on Earth Video Discussion

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Exercise 1: Geologic Time and Scientific ReasoningObjectives:After completing this exercise you should be able to:•Recognize the immensity of time that has transpired so far in the history of the Earth•Organize a series of key Earth history events along a geologic timeline in the correct relative order•Use scientific principles to construct hypotheses about the world around you•Explain the difference between an hypothesis and a scientific theoryGeneral Instructions:This exercise consists of threeproblems. Each problem includes background information and reading/video interactions followed by specific instructionsand questions to complete. Use the material provided in the Lectures1 and 2, the textbook, or online resourcesto complete this exercise. Type your answers into the “Answer Sheet” Word document for Problems 1 and 3. Photograph or scan your answers for Problem 2. Upload the (1) completed answer sheet and (2)image and/or scan for Problem 2 to Blackboard. Your answers to this exercise must be uploaded to Blackboard by the due date listed on the syllabus. Credit will not be given for late work.Problem 1: A first look at Geologic TimeThe Earth has existed for 4.6 BILLION YEARS. That is an incredibly long time. The human brain has substantial difficulty actually comprehending numbers on this scale. Therefore, geologists often use analogy to try and explain the enormity of geologic time. Two typical analogies that we use are distance and time. For example, here is a clock-like metaphor which illustrates major intervals in Earth history over the span of a single 360° rotation.One thing to notice from this first look, is that MANY of the Earth history events on this diagram occur between 10:00 and 12:00 in clock time. A key thing to understand about the history of our planet is that major events are not evenly spaced out. There is even one interval we’ll learn about later called the “Boring Billion” because so few “exciting” things happened during that time.Another important point to make at this juncture is that many Earth history events are contingent on earlier events. That is the later event could not have happened if the first one did not happen first. For example, before the evolution of photosynthetic organisms, there was almost no oxygen in the atmosphere. The oxygen we (and all other animals) enjoy breathing today accumulated slowly from hundreds of millions of years of photosynthesis [*as a reminder, photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and sunlight to make food and gives off oxygen as a waste product]. So the evolution of photosynthesis had to occur beforethe evolution of animals.For this problem, you will watch three short (less than 2 minute) videos about geologic time1.“Our Story in 1 minute” This video places a series of key Earth history events in the correct relative order are three impressions you have from this video? (no wrong answer here, just write the three things that stick out in your mind from the video)__________________________________________________________________________________________2.“The Evolution of Life on Earth”This video introduces key Earth history events at the correct time in Earth’s history is your impression of Earth’s history from this video? How does that compare with your impression from the first video?__________________________________________________________________________________________3.“The Evolution of Life on Earth” what time in the 24 hour day did the first life begin? ____________________________________________b.When did animals first appear? ________________________________________________________________c.When do reptiles dominate the land? ___________________________________________________________d.When do humans appear? ____________________________________________________________________e.What is your impression of Earth’s history from this video? _____________________________________________________________________________Problem 2: Geological Time Scale ChallengeAs you learned in Problem 1, major events in Earth history are not evenly spaced throughout geologic time and many key events require specific conditions to be in place before they could have occurred. We will learn a great deal about lots of exciting Earth history events this semester. However, before we do, it’s important that you gain a general familiarity with the timing of certain key events. To complete this activity, print out the 12 geologic events cards and cut them apart. Then measure out 4.6meters of string/yarn or draw a 4.6m line on the floor using chalk/pencil. Mark one end of the line at 0—this end represents today. Mark the other end 4.6 billion years ago—this end represents the formation of the Earth. Place the cards in the correct position along your line relative to when they occurred in Earth history. You may use any resources you like to identify the timing of these events including your textbook or some of the websites listed below. Once you have identified the timing of events on your timeline, transfer your answers to the diagram on the next sheet.Helpful websites about Earth history:University California Museum of Paleontology: Geologic Time Scale with links for each time intervalhttp://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/help/timeform.phpThe Paleontology Portal:Exploring Time and Spacehttp://www.paleoportal.org/index.php?globalnav=time_spacePaleoMap Project: Images of plate reconstructions and climate history for all intervals in Earth historywww.scotese.comSan Diego Natural History Museum: condensed page of key geologic eventshttp://www.sdnhm.org/archive/exhibits/mystery/fg_timeline.htmlThe Ohio Historical Society’s Ohio History Central website: Ohio’s Geologic Periodshttp://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Ohio%27s_Geologic_PeriodsProblem 2: Geological Time Scale ChallengePrint this page and markwhere each of these events occurred in time on the Geologic time scale. Then scan or photograph your answer and upload it with your assignment.For 3 bonus points, upload a photo of your measured timeline with the cards in place as well.A. Evolution ofmammalsB. Plants move on to landC. First evidence of lifeD. Cambrian radiation of animalsE. Rise of the Himalayan MountainsF. Oceans and continents start to formG. Evolution of our species, Homo sapiensH. Initial atmospheric oxygenI. Permo-Triassic mass extinctionJ. Extinction of the dinosaursK. Opening of the Atlantic OceanL. Extinction of the Wooly MammothM. Animals move on to land N. Evolution of eurkaryotic (non-bacterial) lifeToday4.6 billion years ago4.0 billion years ago3.0 billion years ago2.0 billion years ago1.0 billion years agoProblem 3: Theory vs. HypothesisFor this problem, read the article “What is Science” and answer the following questions1.What are attributes of an hypothesis?____________________________________________________________________________________2.Generate 2hypotheses you could test about your life or the world around you:Example: I will score an A on Module quiz 1 if I complete all the exercises, listen to all the podcasts, and take detailed notes on the lecture material.a.__________________________________________________________________________________________b.__________________________________________________________________________________________3.Generate 1 hypothesis scientists could test about Earth history: _________________________________________________________________________________________________4.What are attributes of a scientific theory?_________________________________________________________________________________________________5.List three scientific theories and describe what each explains: a._____________________________________________________________________________________________b._____________________________________________________________________________________________c._____________________________________________________________________________________________6.How are scientific theories different from hypotheses?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 1: Geologic Time and Scientific Reasoning Objectives: After completing this exercise you should be able to: • • • • Recognize the immensity of time that has transpired so far in the history of the Earth Organize a series of key Earth history events along a geologic timeline in the correct relative order Use scientific principles to construct hypotheses about the world around you Explain the difference between an hypothesis and a scientific theory General Instructions: This exercise consists of three problems. Each problem includes background information and reading/video interactions followed by specific instructions and questions to complete. Use the material provided in the Lectures 1 and 2, the textbook, or online resources to complete this exercise. Type your answers into the “Answer Sheet” Word document for Problems 1 and 3. Photograph or scan your answers for Problem 2. Upload the (1) completed answer sheet and (2) image and/or scan for Problem 2 to Blackboard. Your answers to this exercise must be uploaded to Blackboard by the due date listed on the syllabus. Credit will not be given for late work. Problem 1: A first look at Geologic Time The Earth has existed for 4.6 BILLION YEARS. That is an incredibly long time. The human brain has substantial difficulty actually comprehending numbers on this scale. Therefore, geologists often use analogy to try and explain the enormity of geologic time. Two typical analogies that we use are distance and time. For example, here is a clock-like metaphor which illustrates major intervals in Earth history over the span of a single 360° rotation. One thing to notice from this first look, is that MANY of the Earth history events on this diagram occur between 10:00 and 12:00 in clock time. A key thing to understand about the history of our planet is that major events are not evenly spaced out. There is even one interval we’ll learn about later called the “Boring Billion” because so few “exciting” things happened during that time. Another important point to make at this juncture is that many Earth history events are contingent on earlier events. That is the later event could not have happened if the first one did not happen first. For example, before the evolution of photosynthetic organisms, there was almost no oxygen in the atmosphere. The oxygen we (and all other animals) enjoy breathing today accumulated slowly from hundreds of millions of years of photosynthesis [*as a reminder, photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and sunlight to make food and gives off oxygen as a waste product]. So the evolution of photosynthesis had to occur before the evolution of animals. For this problem, you will watch three short (less than 2 minute) videos about geologic time 1. “Our Story in 1 minute” This video places a series of key Earth history events in the correct relative order https://youtu.be/ZSt9tm3RoUU?list=LLQDEsIg6yyQl0GvXYFalGLA What are three impressions you have from this video? (no wrong answer here, just write the three things that stick out in your mind from the video) __________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. “The Evolution of Life on Earth” This video introduces key Earth history events at the correct time in Earth’s history https://youtu.be/YXSEyttblMI?list=LLQDEsIg6yyQl0GvXYFalGLA What is your impression of Earth’s history from this video? How does that compare with your impression from the first video? __________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. “The Evolution of Life on Earth” https://youtu.be/H2_6cqa2cP4?list=LLQDEsIg6yyQl0GvXYFalGLA a. At what time in the 24 hour day did the first life begin? ____________________________________________ b. When did animals first appear? ________________________________________________________________ c. When do reptiles dominate the land? ___________________________________________________________ d. When do humans appear? ____________________________________________________________________ e. What is your impression of Earth’s history from this video? _____________________________________________________________________________ Problem 2: Geological Time Scale Challenge As you learned in Problem 1, major events in Earth history are not evenly spaced throughout geologic time and many key events require specific conditions to be in place before they could have occurred. We will learn a great deal about lots of exciting Earth history events this semester. However, before we do, it’s important that you gain a general familiarity with the timing of certain key events. To complete this activity, print out the 12 geologic events cards and cut them apart. Then measure out 4.6 meters of string/yarn or draw a 4.6m line on the floor using chalk/pencil. Mark one end of the line at 0—this end represents today. Mark the other end 4.6 billion years ago—this end represents the formation of the Earth. Place the cards in the correct position along your line relative to when they occurred in Earth history. You may use any resources you like to identify the timing of these events including your textbook or some of the websites listed below. Once you have identified the timing of events on your timeline, transfer your answers to the diagram on the next sheet. Helpful websites about Earth history: University California Museum of Paleontology: Geologic Time Scale with links for each time interval http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/help/timeform.php The Paleontology Portal: Exploring Time and Space http://www.paleoportal.org/index.php?globalnav=time_space PaleoMap Project: Images of plate reconstructions and climate history for all intervals in Earth history www.scotese.com San Diego Natural History Museum: condensed page of key geologic events http://www.sdnhm.org/archive/exhibits/mystery/fg_timeline.html The Ohio Historical Society’s Ohio History Central website: Ohio’s Geologic Periods http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/w/Ohio%27s_Geologic_Periods Problem 2: Geological Time Scale Challenge Print this page and mark where each of these events occurred in time on the Geologic time scale. Then scan or photograph your answer and upload it with your assignment. For 3 bonus points, upload a photo of your measured timeline with the cards in place as well. A. Evolution of mammals F. Oceans and continents start to form B. Plants move on to land G. Evolution of our species, Homo sapiens C. First evidence of life H. Initial atmospheric oxygen D. Cambrian radiation of animals I. Permo-Triassic mass extinction E. Rise of the Himalayan Mountains J. Extinction of the dinosaurs K. Opening of the Atlantic Ocean L. Extinction of the Wooly Mammoth M. Animals move on to land N. Evolution of eurkaryotic (non-bacterial) life Today 1.0 billion years ago 2.0 billion years ago 3.0 billion years ago 4.0 billion years ago 4.6 billion years ago Problem 3: Theory vs. Hypothesis For this problem, read the article “What is Science” and answer the following questions 1. What are attributes of an hypothesis? ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Generate 2 hypotheses you could test about your life or the world around you: Example: I will score an A on Module quiz 1 if I complete all the exercises, listen to all the podcasts, and take detailed notes on the lecture material. a.__________________________________________________________________________________________ b.__________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Generate 1 hypothesis scientists could test about Earth history: _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are attributes of a scientific theory? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. List three scientific theories and describe what each explains: a._____________________________________________________________________________________________ b._____________________________________________________________________________________________ c._____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. How are scientific theories different from hypotheses? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ...
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TeacherTruewood
School: University of Virginia

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Running Head: GEOLOGIC TIME AND SCIENTIFIC REOSONING

Geologic Time and Scientific Reasoning
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Date

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GEOLOGIC TIME AND SCIENTIFIC REOSONING

2

Exercise 1:
Problem 1: A first look at Geologic Time
1. “Our Story in 1 minute”
What are three impressions you have from this video? (no wrong answer here, just write the three things that
stick out in your mind from the video)
The first forms of life on earth comprised of plant life. It was quite impressive to realize from the one
minute video that the human beings were among the last forms of life to appear on earth and that Dinosaurs and
the formation of mountains appeared before the Homo sapiens (modern man).
2. “The Evolution of Life on Earth in 60 seconds”
What is your impression of Earth’s history from this video? How does that compare with your impression from
the first video?
This video summarizes the evolution of life on earth in a record sixty seconds. It starts from around 4.6
billion years ago when the earth was formed to the formation of the molecules and the first cell organisms here
on earth, to the formation of the first pant life due to the availability of oxygen. It gives a more detailed and
elaborates analysis of life on earth. The main difference between the second video and the first one is that there
is very little activity between 4.6 billion years to around 500 million years. After 500 million years it is when
the Cambrian explosion happened and m...

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