Assignment 2: Scoring a Structured Interview

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Please watch the video entitled, Structured Interviews found in module two. Here, you will see examples of three structured interviews. Use the scoring key on this document to score how well the Amy and Sarah (the final two interviewees) perform. Post your scores on the discussion board on Canvas (feel free to discuss your scores or rationale, but thisis not a part of your grade.

In 1-2 pages, compare your scores with those of your classmates. How consistent were you? How could this interview be improved? Upload this document and your summary to Canvas. Question

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Assignment 2: Scoring a Structured Interview Please watch the video entitled, Structured Interviews found in module two. Here, you will see examples of three structured interviews. Use the scoring key on this document to score how well the Amy and Sarah (the final two interviewees) perform. Post your scores on the discussion board on Canvas (feel free to discuss your scores or rationale, but thisis not a part of your grade. In 1-2 pages, compare your scores with those of your classmates. How consistent were you? How could this interview be improved? Upload this document and your summary to Canvas. Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Points Amy Dobkins Sarah King Amy Dobkins Chapter 4 © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Get the attention of the public unqualified applicants  Motivate qualified people to apply  Be cost effective  Be timely  Screen  Know how to recruit applicants why the traditional, unstructured interview doesn’t work  Learn how to construct a valid, structured interview  Know how to perform well when being interviewed  Learn how to write a resume and a cover letter  Understand © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Formal         or Direct Media advertisements Point of purchase Direct mail Employment agencies College recruiters Computer databases Special events Employee referral programs © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  The retired mentally or physically challenged  Ex-cons  Current convicts  People on public assistance  Other organizations’ employees  People in foreign countries  Temps  Build © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  The  Informal or Indirect    Situation-wanted ads Direct applications Employee referrals long-term relationships with minority organizations  Learn how to effectively interview diverse groups  Advertise in minority-read publications  Recruit at historically black/female colleges  Provide minority role-models   at work in recruiting materials  Newspaper  Television  Radio  Web sites  Billboards © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. AVAILABLE: Good tasting soda. Consumers must want 20 ounces of fluid, regular level of caffeine, and competitive price. If interested, purchase Coca-Cola from your neighborhood store. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. C. Rinker Paving Needs some good men: asphalt foreman and full and part-time workers  Creative Must be able to tell time Must have hair short enough to see and hear  Attractive Must know address or make and model of car you are living in  Contain Must have shoes and trousers information about the job All nose and ear rings should be light enough not to interfere with your work Must be able to go eight hours without drugs or alcohol Must know left from right, right from wrong, and be able to use a phone Must be able to check the gas and oil in a vehicle Must be able to gulp down a sandwich in 30 minutes, and be able to work at least 30 minutes without going to the restroom or drinking something If you need employment and can qualify, please call 368-9551 between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Apply © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. in person  Call  Send resume  Blink box  Employment agency © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Dress as if it were an interview  Be prepared to interview on the spot  Bring copies of your resume  Bring a black pen  Be nice to the receptionist © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. CUSTOMER SERVICE—Local home health company has an immediate, full time position available. Direct personal contact and requires a caring individual. Some typing and billing helpful. Competitive salary and benefits. Apply in person, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., MonFri., 2501 Williamson Road Often used to quickly screen applicants  Practice your first few sentences  Be prepared for a short phone interview  Have your resume ready to answer questions  Have paper and pencil close by  Sales Experienced sales people preferred. Neat and dependable. Flexible hours & good pay. Call 366-6071, 12 – 8:00 p.m., Tues-Fri; Sat. 10 a.m.-5 p.m.  Employer expects a large response  Type envelope if possible  Include cover letter  Do not use your employer’s stationary  Send   © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Immediately? Wait a few days? © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Types  Used    when employer doesn’t want incumbent to know doesn’t want name in the public Is afraid people won’t apply if they knew the name of the employer  Send resume immediately Carpet Cleaning Looking for clean cut, reliable, self-motivated person to clean carpet for growing business. Room for advancement. Must be at least 21 years old and have a valid drivers license. Send resume to Box P-271, c/o Roanoke Times & World News, P.O. Box 491, Roanoke, VA 24010 © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. RECEPTIONIST Local construction company has immediate opening for person with excellent telephone skills and professional manner to operate the switchboard and greet the public. Typing skills required. Send resume to: Personnel, Acme Co., Box 20069, Roanoke, VA 24018   Public Private Employment Agency     Programmer/Analyst $30 to $40’s + Fee Paid Degree required. ASCS-BSCS. 12 years experience. 989-2831 Carol Day & Associates Employer pays fee Applicant pays fee Executive search firms Temporary employment agencies © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Machine Operator • ½ Fee Paid • Will train on production equipment. Experience with fabric helpful. $13-$15 per hour. 981-0799 AAA Employment Agency  Signs  Table  Cash  Sides register receipts  On-hold phone recording (Papa Johns)  Restaurant placemats  Pizza boxes tents of trucks  Brochures  Milk cartons  Book markers © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Recruiters    Employment Agencies     Private Campus recruiters Outside recruiters   and Search Firms Private employment agencies Executive search firms Public employment commissions  Job  Public  Sector (SHRM, 2005) 50% have formal programs 66% use in some way Sector 1% have formal programs (Trice, 1997) Fairs © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Incentive  Realistic     Type   of Incentive 77% provide financial incentive 23% give cars, gift certificates, trips, and other gifts  Amount   Given 88% if referral results in hire 2% if referral results in interview 4% for making a referral job preview and friends are similar  Employees   Personality Ability  Employee hired of Incentive Median is less than $1,000 12% have incentives over $2,000 © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. can help socialize friend when  Types     Postal     e-mail fax Postal  Basic Facts Response rate should be 1-2% Make mailing creative and eye catching Hand addressed mail gets opened most frequently, then typed names, followed by mailing labels  INTEGRIS  Mailed out 30,000 letters  Received 350 responses  Hired 5 nurses Union Special  Illinois manufacturer of sewing machines  Had 10 openings for engineers  Sent 3,300 cards to Chicago area engineers ($5,000)  Received 100 responses  Interviewed 30 applicants Allstate  Local unemployment was 2.9%  Previous help-wanted ads yielded 2 responses  14 data processing openings  Direct mail to local Allstate customers  Received 500 responses and hired 20 employees © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  In  Bonus 2010, 90% of employers planned to invest significantly in Internet recruiting  Three common Internet methods  Employer-based websites      Normal website Company blogs YouTube Job boards Social media    FaceBook, MySpace, & LinkedIn Blogs Podcasts © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Time to fill  Retention rates  Cost per hire  Number of applicants  Job performance of new hires  EEO/diversity impact © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.    signing tenure year-end  401k match  Relocation  Vacations  Flexible schedules assistance  Casual dress  Educational © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. HR Departments Job Seekers Newspaper ads 96 95 Networking 95 95 Employee referrals 91 92 Internet 88 96 Employment agency 76 81 Walk-ins 76 62 Temp-to-hire 75 65 Head hunters 74 89 Job fairs 70 76 Ads in trade journals 67 78 Community organizations 55 63 Minority job fairs 51 42 Website job applications 49 90 © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. HR Departments Job Seekers Networking 61 78 Internet job postings 58 48 Employee referrals 55 65 Head hunters 54 45 Newspaper ads 47 30 Website job applications 40 36 Ads in trade journals 37 37 Temp-to-hire 36 43 Employment agency 35 31 Job fairs 23 23 Job hotlines 22 19 Radio/TV advertising 21 15 Open houses 18 12 © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Informal sources provide realistic job previews  Different sources reach different types of people  Similarity of employee and person referred © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  What are the most effective recruitment methods you have seen? © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Name Greg Bulmash Preferred hours 1:30-3:30 p.m., Monday, Tuesday, & Thursday Sex Not yet. Still waiting for the right person Do you have any special skills? Yes, but they are better suited to a more intimate environment Desired position Company president. But seriously, whatever is available. If I was in a position to be picky, I wouldn’t be applying here. May we contact your current employer? If I had one, would I be here? Desired salary $185,000 a year plus stock options and a Michael Ovitz style severance package. If that’s not possible, make an offer and we can haggle. Do you have a car? I think the more appropriate question here would be, “Do you have a car that runs?” Education Yes Last position Target for middle management hostility Salary Less than I’m worth Most notable achievement My incredible collection of stolen pens and post-it notes Reason for leaving It sucked Hour available to work Any Have you received any I may already be a winner of the Publisher’s Clearing special awards? House Sweepstakes Do you smoke? In the job no, on my breaks yes. What would you like to be doing in 5 years? Living in the Bahamas with a fabulously wealthy dumb sexy blond super model who thinks I’m the greatest thing since sliced bread. Actually, I’d like to be doing that now. Sign here Aries © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Structure   Unstructured Structured  Style      © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Are Valid  Based on a job analysis (content validity)  Predict work-related behavior (criterion validity) Face valid Don’t invade privacy  Don’t intentionally discriminate  Minimize adverse impact   Face-to-face Telephone Videoconference Written They are: Unreliable Not valid  Legally problematic   Because they: Are not job related Rely on intuition, “amateur psychology,” and talk show methods  Suffer from common rating problems     Reduce the Chance of a Legal Challenge   © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.   One-on-one Serial Return Panel Group  Medium   Are Cost Effective  Cost to purchase/create  Cost to administer  Cost to score     Primacy Contrast Similarity Range restriction (e.g., leniency, strictness, central tendency) © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Where do you see yourself five years from now?  What are your greatest strengths?  What are your greatest weaknesses?  What subject did you most enjoy in college?  Why should I hire you?  Why are you interested in this job?  A manager at Wells Fargo won’t hire MBA’s who take more than 60 seconds to scan the menu at lunch  A CEO wouldn’t hire applicants who salted their food before tasting it  Holiday Inn doesn’t hire applicants who smile less than four times during the interview  An HR professional wouldn’t hire applicants who didn’t have the back of their shoes properly shined  An auto insurance executive takes off points for education: “I don’t want the valedictorian, I want the kid who sold cigarettes in the bathroom.” © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  An HR manager asked applicants about their favorite book  A town manager likes to leave the room, not come back, and then wait to see how long an applicant will wait  An HR recruiter asks applicants, “If you could be any animal, what would you be?”  A local school superintendent won’t hire men with hair in their ears  Any interviewer who does not use structured interviews!  What © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  They      Reliable Valid Not as prone to legal challenge they: Are based on a job analysis Ask the same questions of each applicant Have a standardized scoring procedure © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  r = 0.57 r = 0.20 Huffcutt & Arthur (1994) Gender Differences d = 0.00 d = 0.23 Huffcutt, et al (2001) d = 0.13 d = 0.51 Huffcutt, et al (2001) © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Determine Predict Job Performance Ask questions focused on past behavior Ask questions focused on knowledge and skills  Ask questions focused on future behavior Predict Organizational Fit   a thorough job analysis best way to measure each KSAO  Construct Questions  Determine rating anchors for each question  Choose two or more members for the interview panel Use several interviewers Combine interview impression with test scores Sell the Organization to the Applicant   Provide information about the position/organization Answer the applicant’s questions © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Study Racial Differences  Conduct   Validity Clarify and confirm resume information  Obtain new information   Low Structure Understand the Applicant   High Structure are:  Because  interview horror stories have you heard about? © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Tasks  Interview  Conditions performed under which they are performed  KSAOs needed to perform the tasks  When KSAOs are needed  Psychological   Before hire After hire questions tests  Simulations or job samples  Reference or background checks  Training and experience ratings  Critical incidents of poor and excellent performance © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Clarifiers   Clarify resume information Seek missing information  Disqualifiers  Past focus (behavioral description) or knowledge focus  Future focus (situational)  Organizational fit focus  Skill © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. I © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. noticed that you do not have an education section on your resume, could you tell me about your educational background?  I noticed a three-year gap between two of your jobs, could you tell me a little about that?  You were a bench hand at AT&T. What is that?  Why did you leave your job at McDonalds?  Can you work at least one weekend a month? you work overtime without notice?  Do you have any felony convictions?  Would you be willing to treat a patient with AIDS?  Do you have a valid driver’s license? © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Can When dealing with customers, it is inevitable that you are going to get someone angry. Tell us about a time when a customer was angry at you. What did you do to fix the situation?  The job of network engineer requires a good deal of customer service. Tell us about your previous customer service.  This job involves persuading employees to follow our safety rules. Tell us about a time in the past when you had to persuade an employee to do something. A customer brings you his checkbook and says that he cannot get it to balance. What is he probably doing wrong? How would you explain the error to him?  A client calls and tells you that she has 10 computers in a 30’ by 100’ room and that she wants to network the computers. What questions would you ask her? What parts would you need to compile to complete the task?  Several months after installing the above network, the client calls and says that nothing will print on the printer. What could be going on?   © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Suppose that you were scheduled to work on Saturday. A friend calls on Thursday and says that you get to use a condo at the beach for free—but it has to be this weekend. What would you do?  Imagine that you told a client that you would be there at 10:00 a.m. It is now 10:30 and there is no way you will be finished with your current job until 11:30. You are scheduled to meet another client for lunch at 12:00 and then be at another job at 1:15. How would you handle the situation?  Under © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. what type of supervisor do you work best? Is there a type of supervisor for which you have trouble working?  What type of work pace is best for you?  Describe your sense of humor?  Describe your experience working with a culturally diverse group of people.  Correct/Incorrect Approach  Typical  Key © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Answer Approach Issues Approach © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  You are working as a teller and have a long line of waiting customers. A customer runs to the front of the line and yells that he bounced a check and was charged $20, which caused other checks to bounce. He then swears at you and tells you that he will not leave until the problem is solved. You are unable to check on his account because the computer is down. What would you do? © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Because I do not have the information and the line is long, I would call my supervisor and have her talk to the customer in her office away from everyone else  While trying to calm him down, I would call my supervisor  I would try to calm him down and explain to him that the computer is down  I would explain that I cannot help him because the computer is down, and ask him to come back later  I would tell him to get to the end of the line and wait his turn  I would ignore him until he went away © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. ___ Acknowledged the long line and concern for other customers ___ Recognized the need to calm the customer ___ Recognized the need to get the customer away from the other customers ___ Recognized that help could not be immediately given because the computer was down ___ Was not confrontational with the customer © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. at least 2 interviewers gender and race representation  Consider best format © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Use  Build  Consider  Explain   Panel interview Multiple interviews © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. rapport the process and the agenda  Ask the questions  Score the answer and take notes after each question  Provide information about the job and the organization (e.g., salary, benefits, climate)  Answer interviewee’s questions  End the interview on a pleasant note © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Keep all interviewees informed of your progress  Tactfully reject the applicants who are not hired  Document, document, document © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. A  Attractive history of your life   An advertisement of your skills  and easy to read white space font  Does not contain typing, spelling, or factual mistakes  Makes the applicant look as good as possible © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Length  Limit color and type  How it will be sent job opportunities  Paper    mailed faxed scanned  Job  Take-up  Are valuable space and reading time difficult to write objectives © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Chronological  Primacy  Priming  Functional  Short-term memory  Relevancy  Psychological  Negative information bias  Unusualness  Anderson’s © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Ted    © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Gacy Smart Fun Motivated  John +3 +3 +3       Sum Average 9.0 3.0   Bundy  Highest Smart Fun Motivated Well-dressed +3 +3 +3 +2 Sum Average 11.0 2.75 degree experience  Computer skills  Other skills  Languages spoken  Leadership experience  International travel  Personal traits  Work © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Minor  Include  GPA  Can or concentration (overall, major)  Clubs  Leadership positions  Community service  Worked to finance education  Internships      all relevant jobs include internships volunteer work  For  © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. adding versus averaging principle each job, include dates duties level of performance reason for leaving © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.   Here is my resume  This is the job I am applying for  This is how I know about the job Enclosed find a copy of my resume. Please consider me for the sale associate position that was advertised recently in the Charleston Gazette.    Second Paragraph Enclosed find a copy of my resume. Please consider me for any sales-related positions that are either now available in your organization or may soon become available Optional Paragraph    Blind Application I am qualified  Here is why   Advertisement in Newspaper Opening Paragraph Why your organization? Last Paragraph   Looking forward to hearing from you Here is how to reach me © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Referral from a Friend Enclosed find a copy of my resume. Please consider me for the sales associate position that John Anderson—a friend and AT&T employee—told me was now available © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. April 18, 2015 Keep to one page Don’t beg  Avoid sounding desperate  Avoid grammar and spelling errors  No officious words or phrases  No personal circumstances   Avoid curse words and insults  Don’t rehash your resume  Don’t bad mouth your former employer  Tailor your letter to each company  Direct to a particular person  Mr. John Smith Alco, Inc. 217 West Street Johnson, VA 24132 Dear Mr. Smith: Enclosed find a copy of my resume. Please consider me for the position of welder that was advertised in the Roanoke Times and World News. I believe I am qualified for your position. I have six years of welding experience in an industrial setting. Furthermore, I am a very dependable worker as shown by the fact that I have only missed two days of work in the last five years. Finally, I am available to work any shift at any of your three plants. I look forward to hearing from you. I can best be reached after 3:00 p.m. on weekdays and anytime on weekends. Sincerely, Andrew S. Jones © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. I call you that because I feel I’ve known you for years.  As Rod McKuen said so beautifully….  I would like to aply for the position of editoral asistent  I have always dreamed of being a writer.  My mother told me I should …  FLASH! Judy Carson is coming to Nashville and …  The Bible tells us “See and ye shall find.” So I am seeking ….  © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Recruitment at the Borgata Hotel Casino and  Physical Appearance Spa © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Understand why references typically don’t predict performance  Learn how to use the trait approach to score letters of recommendation  Understand how to choose the right type of employment test for a particular situation  Be able to describe the different types of tests used to select employees  Be able to create and score a biodata instrument  Know how to write a well-designed rejection letter  Chapter 5 © 2017 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  Check Workbook Exercise 5.6  Why Check?  1/3 resumes contain inaccurate info  over 500,000 people have bonus degrees   Verifying Information truth  error  embellishment  fabrication  Obtaining Missing information unintentional omission  strategic omission  deceptive omission   Alternative methods bogus application items  social security reports  hire professional reference checkers  for resume fraud new information about the applicant  Check for potential discipline problems  Predict future performance  Find Type of Information % Asking % Releasing Employment dates 97 98 Eligible for re-hire 64 42 Salary history 66 41 Reason for leaving 94 19 Performance 86 18 Employability 16 Work habits 13 People skills 11  Types of Information     personality interpersonal style background work habits  Problems   references seldom agree people act in different ways in different situations  Alternative  Criminal Measures  Previous      psychological tests letters of recommendation biodata resumes interviews  Obtained from local and state agencies with each jurisdiction  Only convictions can be used (EEOC Decision No. 72-1460) Records employers  Motor vehicle records  Military records  Credit reports  Colleges and universities  Neighbors and friends    “Reasonable amount of time” between release and decision to hire In using convictions, employer must consider     References are not good predictors of performance   Nature and gravity of offense Amount of time that has passed since the conviction and/or completion of the sentence The nature of the job held or being sought Uncorrected validity is 0.18 References are not reliable (r = 0.22) High correlation between two letters written by the same person for two people than between letters written by two people for the same person  They say more about the person writing the letter than the person being written about   References are lenient  Fewer than 1% of applicants are rated below average! Purpose   Check   Predict motivation to steal Determine character of applicant Fair Credit Reporting Act Order through a Consumer Reporting Agency (CRA) Provide written notice to applicant to you will be checking credit  Get applicant’s written authorization to check credit  If adverse action is to be taken     Provide applicant with “Pre-adverse Action Disclosure” which includes copy of credit report Inform applicant that they will not be hired due to credit check and provide name of CRA and notice of applicant rights to appeal within 60 days  Applicants  Applicants often choose their own references often have the right to see their files  Former employers fear legal ramifications  Negligent hiring Recalled  Invasion Remembered % Processed of privacy  Negligent reference Observed  Defamation Behavior 0  Three    20 40 60 80 100 120 types  statements were true  not true, but reasonable person would have believed them to be true  opinions are protected unless reference infers opinion is based on facts that don’t exist  Employers have a conditional privilege that limits their liability  Reference giver’s ability to articulate  The extent to which the referee remembers the applicant  Truthful   The words used by the reference giver cuter than a baby’s butt  she has no sexual oddities that I am aware of  I have an intimate and caring relationship with the applicant  Jill is a bud that has already begun to bloom  Made for a legitimate purpose Made in good faith don’t offer unsolicited information  statements cannot be made for revenge  avoid personal comments  libel (written) slander (oral) self-publication   Made with the permission of the applicant   use waivers let the former employee know if the reference will not be positive Recommendation Actual Meaning He is a man of great vision He hallucinates He is definitely a man to watch I don’t trust him She merits a close look Don’t let her out of your sight He’s the kind of employee you can swear by He likes dirty jokes She doesn’t mind being disturbed She spent 10 years in a mental hospital When he worked for us, he was given many citations He was arrested several times She gives every appearance of being a loyal, dedicated employee But, appearances are deceiving Recommendation Actual Meaning If I were you I would give him sweeping responsibilities He can handle a broom She commands the respect of everyone with whom she works But she rarely gets it I am sure that whatever task he He will foul up any project undertakes, no matter how small, he will be fired with enthusiasm   You would be very lucky to get this person to work for you She is lazy You will never catch him asleep on the job He is too crafty to get caught Training & Education Experience  Applications/Resumes Biodata  Interviews Work Samples  Assessment Centers  References     Knowledge  Ability  Cognitive  Physical Perceptual    What types of employment tests have you taken? Personality & Character    Skills Personality Tests Integrity Tests Medical Medical Exams Psychological Exams  Drug Testing    Education  Work-Related  Military Training Meta-analysis Aamodt (2002) Vineberg & Joyner (1982) Ng & Feldman (2009)  Schmidt   & Hunter (1998) say no Occupation K N ρ 9,007 0.34 Police 38 Military 35 0.25 Many 85 47,125 0.09 Hunter (1980) Hunter & Hunter (1984) Schmidt & Hunter (1998) USES data base 425 32,124 0.10 Dunnette (1972) Entry level petroleum 15 0.00  GPA is a valid predictor of performance on the job, training performance, starting salary, promotions, and grad school performance  GPA is most predictive in the first few years after graduation (Roth et al., 1996)  GPA will result in high levels (d = 0.78) of adverse impact (Roth & Bobko, 2000)  People with high GPAs Cognitive ability (r = 0.51) Cognitive ability and education (r = 0.52)   r ρ Work-Related Criteria Job performance (Roth et al., 1996) 0.16 Training performance (Dye & Reck, 1989) 0.29 Promotions (Cohen, 1984) 0.16 0.36  Is the validity of education job specific? is the actual incremental validity of education over cognitive ability?  Why would education predict performance?  What  Salary (Roth & Clarke, 1996) Starting salary 0.13 0.20  Current salary 0.18 0.28  Grades 0.28 0.30 Faculty ratings 0.25 0.35 Graduate School Performance (Kuncel et al., 2001) Are intelligent (r = 0.50; Jensen, 1980) Are conscientious (r = 0.34; Bevier et al., 1998)  Knowledge Liberal arts skills Mental ability Motivation  Taps job-related knowledge validity  Good    Dye et al. (1993) r = 0.22 ρ = 0.45  Face  Can valid have adverse impact  High    validity Schmidt & Hunter (1998) r = 0.39 ρ = 0.51  Predicts training and job performance for all jobs (Hunter, 1986)  The more complex the job, the better cognitive ability tests predict performance  Strengths     Highest validity of all selection measures (ρ = 0.51) Easy to administer Relatively inexpensive Most are not time consuming  Weaknesses    Likely to cause adverse impact Low face validity Not well liked by applicants Workbook Exercise 5.1  Perceptual Ability     (Fleishman & Reilly,1992)  Psychomotor          Used for jobs with high physical demands Issues       Job relatedness Passing scores When the ability must be present  Two Dexterity (finger, manual) Control precision Multilimb coordination Response control Reaction time Arm-hand steadiness Wrist-finger speed Speed-of-limb movement  Physical  Three  Ability (Fleishman & Reilly, 1992) Vision (near, far, night, peripheral) Depth perception Glare sensitivity Hearing (sensitivity, auditory attention, sound localization)    common ways to measure Simulations Physical agility tests     Abilities (Fleishman & Reilly, 1992) Dynamic strength (strength requiring repetitions) Trunk strength (stooping or bending over) Explosive strength (jumping or throwing) Static strength Dynamic flexibility (speed of bending or stretching) Extent flexibility (degree of bending or stretching) Gross body equilibrium (balance) Gross body coordination (coordination) Stamina Applicants perform tasks that replicate actual job tasks  Advantages    Directly related to the job Good criterion validity   Verbal work samples (r = 0.34; ρ = 0.48) Motor work samples (r = 0.31; ρ = 0.43) Good face validity Less adverse impact than cognitive ability  Provide realistic job previews    Disadvantages  Can be expensive to develop and maintain A  Based  Leaderless  Reliability selection technique that uses multiple jobrelated assessment exercises and multiple assessors to observe and record behaviors of candidates performing job-related tasks group discussions technique  Simulations  In-basket   Situational exercises Work samples  Role  Case plays analyses and business games  Weaknesses      Very expensive Time consuming Can have low inter-rater agreement Behaviors can overlap into several dimensions Safety of candidates for some work samples on job analysis  Behavioral classification  Assessment techniques  Use multiple assessment exercises  Simulations     multiple assessors  Assessor training  Recording behavior  Reports  Overall judgment based on integration of information Can have low inter-rater agreement among raters Test/retest reliability pretty high (0.70)  Validity   Use (Arthur et al., 2003) Uncorrected 0.28 Corrected 0.38 Good face validity  Most useful for promotion rather than selection  When candidates have some knowledge of the job  When you have the money to develop and maintain assessment centers  When you have the time and trainers Workbook Exercise 5.2  Past  behavior predicts future behavior  Evaluated Experience is a valid predictor of future performance (r = 0.22; ρ = 0.27; Quinones et al., 1995)      Types   of Experience Work Life  Considerations     through: Application blanks Resumes Interviews Reference checks Biodata instruments  Credit prior work experience only: In the same occupational area as that in which performance is to be predicted  In the performance of tasks or functions that have direct application on the job  How much experience? How well did the person perform? How related is it to the current job? Recency of experience should be used as a decision rule for awarding credit only when justified on a case-by-case basis  Credit for duration of work experience should be limited to a few years.  High prediction up to about 3 years of experience, declining to low prediction for more than 12 years of experience.   Sullivan (2000) claims that “experience in solving ‘past problems’ is rapidly losing its applicability to current and future problems.”  Organizations will increase their applicant pool if they delete the “ancient history” requirements (i.e. “Ten years experience required”).  Performance        Reduce or eliminate the number of years required in your ads and replace them with “the demonstrated ability to solve problems with our required level of difficulty. Use simulations and actual problems to assess applicants. Develop “future-oriented” questions for applicants. Train evaluators and compensation professionals to put less weight on experience of candidates. Revise job descriptions to include level of difficulty. Identify the amount and type of experience and competencies that would predict job performance. Check to see if there is a correlation between the number of years of experience an employee has and their success in your firm. matters done” doesn’t mean “can’t do”  Experience has a shelf life  Listing something on a resume is not experience  Where you get your experience matters  Experience does not guarantee success  Experience is expensive  More experience might be bad (old ways and ideas) A  Member  Choose  “Haven’t  Number 1 of high school student government? Yes No of jobs in past 5 years? 2 3-5 More than 5  Transportation Walk Bus to work: Bike Own Car Other selection method that considers an applicant’s life, school, military, community, and work experience a job pool of potential biodata items  Choose a criterion to measure behavior  Prescreen items and test on employees  Retest items on second sample of employees  Create Good Biodata Items Good Biodata Items Bad Biodata Items Historical How old were you when you got your first paying job? Future or Hypothetical What position do you think you will be holding in 10 years? External Did you ever get fired from a job? Internal What is your attitude toward friends who smoke marijuana? Objective How many hours did you study for your bar exam? Subjective Would you describe yourself as shy? First-hand How punctual are you about coming to work? Second-hand How would your teachers describe your punctuality? Variable Long Tenure (%) Short Tenure (%) Differences in % Unit Weight Summative How many hours do you study during an average week? Verifiable What was your grade point average in college? Non-verifiable How may servings of fresh vegetables do you eat everyday? Controllable How many tries did it take you to pass the CPA exam? Non-controllable How many brothers and sisters do you have? Equal Access Were you ever class president? Non-equal Access Were you ever captain of the football team? Job Relevant How many units of cereal did you sell during the last calendar year? Not job relevant Are you proficient at crossword puzzles? Noninvasive Were you on the tennis team in college? Invasive How many young children do you have at home?   Education   High School 40 80 -40 -1 Bachelor’s 59 15 +44 +1 Masters 1 5 -4 0 Bad Biodata Items Discrete At what age did you get your driver’s license?   Good validity (r = 0.36, ρ= 0.51) Can predict for variety of criterion measures Easy to administer Relatively inexpensive Fairly valid Can have good face validity  Shrinkage?      Low face validity Can invade privacy Items can be offensive Expensive to develop Not always practical to develop  Good validity but not sure why seems to drop when items based rationally (job analysis) rather than empirically  Validity  Personality is a collection of traits that persist across time and situations and differentiate one person from another  Types    Basis    of Personality Inventories  Openness Measures of normal personality Measures of psychopathology   Conscientiousness for Personality Dimensions  Theory based Statistically based Empirically based   outgoing, gregarious, fun-loving  Agreeableness  Objective Projective trusting, cooperative, flexible  Neuroticism  Meta-Analysis Judge et al. (2013) Hurtz & Donovan (2003) (emotional stability) anxious, insecure, vulnerable to stress  Strengths Barrick & Mount (1991)   Dimension Observed True Observed True Observe d True Openness 0.08 0.08 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.04 Conscientiousness 0.21 0.26 0.15 0.24 0.13 0.22 Extroversion 0.16 0.20 0.06 0.09 0.08 0.13  Agreeableness 0.13 0.17 0.07 0.12 0.04 0.07  - 0.08 - 0.10 - 0.09 - 0.15 - 0.05 - 0.08  Neuroticism organized, disciplined, careful  Extraversion  Scoring  to Experience imaginative, curious, cultured   Relatively cheap Easy to administer Little adverse impact Predicts best when based on a job analysis  Weaknesses Scale development Validity Faking  Tap Workbook Exercise 5.3 an applicant’s interest in particular types of work or careers  Poor predictors of job performance    Hunter & Hunter (1984) r = 0.10 ρ = 0.13  Better predictors of job satisfaction  Estimate Workbook Exercise 5.4  Electronic   Paper   Testing Polygraph testing and Pencil Testing Overt Personality based the probability that applicants will steal money or merchandise  Used mostly in retail, but gaining acceptance for other occupations  Polygraph (lie detector) is a machine that measures the physiological responses that accompany the verbal responses an individual makes to a direct questions asked by polygraph operator.  Emotions other than guilt can trigger responses  Countermeasures used to avoid detection  Frequency of false positives  Frequency of false negatives  Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 makes it illegal to:     The following are exempt from these prohibitions  Private employers providing security services  Overt  Employers who manufacture, distribute, or dispense controlled substances  Federal, state, and local government employees.  Rationale is to measure job applicants’ attitudes and cognitions toward theft that might predispose them to steal at work, especially when both the need and opportunity to steal are present.  Research has shown that the “typical” employee-thief:        Is more tempted to steal Engages in many of the common rationalizations for theft Would punish thieves less Often thinks about theft related activities Attributes more theft to others Shows more inter-thief loyalty Is more vulnerable to peer pressure to steal than an honest employee integrity tests Directly ask for attitudes about theft and occurrences of theft behavior  Personality   Directly or indirectly require an employee to take a polygraph Use, accept, refer to, or inquire about the results of any polygraph test of any applicant or employee Discharge, discipline, discriminate against, or deny employment or promotion to (or threaten such actions) against any prospective or current employee who refuses, declines, or fails to take or submit to a polygraph based measures Measure traits linked to several theft related employee behaviors that are detrimental to the organization  Employee theft is just one element in a larger syndrome of antisocial behavior of organizational delinquency. Therefore, overt integrity tests overlook a number of other counterproductive behaviors that are costly to the organization  Drug and alcohol abuse   Vandalism  Theft  Performance   Sabotage  Assault Validity behaviors   Insubordination  Absenteeism grievances  Bogus workers compensation claims  Violence   Excessive  0.41 for predicting probability of theft by employees Van Iddekinge et al. (2012)  Observed = 0.13  True = 0.18 Ones et al. (1993)  Observed = 0.21  True = 0.34 Reliability  Reports of test-retest reliabilities between 0.90– 0.70  Advantages     Potentially good validity Inexpensive to use Easy to administer Little to no racial adverse impact Workbook Exercise 5.5  Disadvantages    Males have a higher fail rate than females Younger people have a higher fail rate than older people Failure has a negative psychological impact on applicants.  Designed to reduce faking  Applicants are given a series of statements and asked to select the reason that justifies each statement  Aggressive individuals tend to believe  most people have harmful intentions behind their behavior (hostile attribution bias)  it is important to show strength or dominance in social interactions (potency bias)  it is important to retaliate when wronged rather than try to maintain a relationship (retribution bias)  powerful people will victimize less powerful individuals (victimization bias)  evil people deserve to have bad things happen to them (derogation of target bias)  social customs restrict free will and should be ignored (social discounting bias).  Concept   A person’s handwriting is a reflection on his or her personality and character Use 6,000 U.S. organizations 75% of organizations in France  8% of organizations in the United Kingdom    Evaluation   Few studies Validity depends on the writing sample (Simner & Goffin, 2003)   Autobiographical (r = 0.16, p = 0.22) Non-autobiographical (r = 0.09, p = 0.12)  Use    In 2001, 80% of U.S. organizations tested for drugs In 2003, 4.6% of applicants tested positive for drugs In 2007, 8.2% of employees admitted to using drugs in the past month  Drug      Forms     of Testing Pre-employment testing Random selection at predetermined times Random selection at random times Testing after an accident or disciplinary action  Responses   users are more likely to Miss work Use health care benefits Be fired Have an accident  Initial screening of hair or urine test  Confirmation  Typically used only after a positive initial screening to the Presence of Drugs 98% of job offers withdrawn Current employees who test positive   25% are fired after a positive test 66% are referred to counseling and treatment  Should organizations test for drugs? Method Validity Method Validity Structured Interview 0.57 Experience 0.27 Cognitive ability 0.51 Situational judgment tests 0.26 Biodata 0.51 Conscientiousness 0.24 Job knowledge 0.45 Unstructured interviews 0.20 Work samples (verbal) 0.48 Integrity tests 0.18 Assessment centers 0.38 Interest inventories 0.10 College grades 0.32 Handwriting analysis 0.02 References 0.29 Projective personality tests 0.00 Technique WhiteBlack WhiteHispanic Cognitive ability 0.99 0.83 GPA 0.78 Work sample 0.73 Assessment centers 0.52 0.28 Dean et al. (2008) Job knowledge 0.48 0.47 Roth et al. (2003) Situational judgment 0.38 0.24 Whetzel et al. (2008) Biodata 0.33 Bobko et al. (1999) Structured interview 0.23 Huffcutt & Roth (1998) Personality 0.09 Schmitt et al. (1996) References 0.08 Integrity tests 0.07    Meta-analysis Roth et al. (2001)  Applied Case Study: New London, CT Police Department Roth & Bobko (2000) Roth et al. (2008) Aamodt & Williams (2005) –0.05 Ones & Viswesvaran (1998) In your class, your professor will probably ask you to take the Employee Personality Inventory in your workbook. After you do, consider whether or not you want your job performance to be judged based on the results of such a test. Would you say that this test would fairly predict your ability to perform in certain jobs? Does it accurately portray how you would fit into an organization’s culture or how you would get along with others? If it doesn’t accurately portray you, would you then say such a test is unethical? Should the tests be better regulated? Are companies right in using them in their selection process?  Do you see any other ethical concerns related to using personality inventories?  Is there a fairer and more ethical way for companies to determine if applicants will fit into the organizational culture and get along with others?
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Explanation & Answer

Attached.

Structured Interview
Thesis: This shows a trend of consistency with the approach of questions. On the other hand,
Sarah scored a 32 from my assessment while my classmate gave her a score of 30, which is not
very far apart.
I.
II.
III.

Scores
Comparison of Scores
Improvement of the Interview


Running head: STRUCTURED INTERVIEW

Structured Interview
Institution Affiliation
Date

1

2

STRUCTURED INTERVIEW
Scores
Question

Amy

Sarah

1

1

5

2

1

5

3

5

4

4

3

3

5

4

1

6

2

5

7

5

9

3

STRUCTURED INTERVIEW
Comparison of Scores
In ranking these two interviewees, my scores were almost entirely consistent for the two
interviewees when compared against my fellow students. The interview is highlighted to have a
conclusive outcome after the score to determine the most suitable candidate. For the overall
result for Amy, she scored a 21 according to...


Anonymous
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