criminal justice

Anonymous

Question Description

In this unit, we looked at the biological theories of crime. For this scholarly activity, you will explain four theories of crime from Chapters 3 and 4. Some of the biological theories focus on internal factors, such as low blood sugar, hormonal differences, and atavistic features.

In your explanation of each theory, include responses to the following items:

  • Explain the basic concepts of the theory.
  • How is the theory related to crime?
  • Do you personally feel that the theory is acceptable as a potential reason for crime? Explain your answer.
  • Is there research to substantiate this theory?

In accordance with APA style, format your scholarly activity with level one headings for each theory, and then answer the questions pertaining to that theory.

Your scholarly activity (a combination of all four theories) must be two pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. You are required to use at least one outside source; however, you may need to use more in order to successfully complete this assignment. All sources used, including the textbook, must be cited and referenced.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Criminology THIRD EDITION CHAPTER 3 Early Biological Perspectives on Criminal Behavior—It’s What We Are Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Objectives • Describe the differences between historical biological and contemporary biosocial theories of crime. • Outline the basic principles of biological theories of crime. • Describe early biological explanations of criminality. continued on next slide Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Objectives • Explain how sociobiology views crime, and demonstrate the importance of altruism, territoriality, and tribalism from that perspective. • Identify some criticisms of early biological theories of criminal behavior. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objective 3.1 Describe the differences between historical biological and contemporary biosocial theories of crime. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Historical and Contemporary Biosocial Theories • Historical Biosocial Theories  Relatively simplistic in approach to explaining human behavior and crime. • Contemporary Biosocial Theories  Hold that genes and related biological features are more likely to be facilitators rather than determinants of behavior. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objective 3.2 Outline the basic principles of biological theories of crime. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Basic Principles of Biological Theories • Biological theories focus on the brain as the center of the personality and the major determinant in controlling human behavior. • Unlike classical and neoclassical traditions, which consider free will and external forces as the cause of behavior, biological theories look to internal sources. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Basic Principles of Biological Theories • Early biological theorists focused primarily on physical features and heredity as the source of criminal behavior. • Contemporary biological theorists have taken a more in-depth look at human biology. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objective 3.3 Describe early biological explanations of criminality. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Positivism  A scientific approach to the study of crime and its causation. continued on next slide Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Positivism is built on two principles:  The acceptance of social determinism, or the belief that human behavior is determined not by the exercise of free choice but by causative factors beyond the control of the individual.  The application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminology. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Auguste Comte (1798 – 1857)  A System of Positive Polity (1851) • Proposed the use of the scientific method in the study of society  Believed social phenomena could be observed, explained, and measured in objective and qualitative terms Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828)  Phrenology • The study of the shape of the head to determine anatomical correlates of human behavior • Also called craniology Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Four Themes of Phrenology  The brain is the organ of the mind.  Particular aspects of personality are associated with specific locations in the brain.  Portions of the brain that are well developed cause personality characteristics associated with them to be more prominent. continued on next slide Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Four Themes of Phrenology  The shape of a person’s skull corresponds to the shape of the underlying brain, and is therefore indicative of the personality. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Johann Gaspar Spurzheim (1776–1853)  Brought phrenology to the United States  Phrenology gained prestige in the United States and was used to classify and evaluate newly admitted prisoners. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Caesare Lombroso (1836-1909)  Coined the term atavism: • Suggest criminality was the result of primitive urges that survived the evolutionary process.  Lombroso has been called the “father of modern criminology”. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Criminal anthropology  The scientific study of the relationships between human physical characteristics and criminality Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Lombroso’s term, atavism, implies criminals are born that way. • Criminaloids  A term used to describe occasional criminals who were pulled into criminality by environmental influences Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Charles Buckman Goring (1870-1919)  Conducted a well-controlled statistical study of Lombroso’s thesis of atavism  The whole fabric of Lombrosian doctrine is fundamentally unsound.  The English Convict: A Statistical Study (1913) Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Constitutional Theories  Explain criminality by reference to offenders’ body types, genetics, or external observable physical characteristics. • Ernst Kretschmer proposed a relationship between body build and personality type. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • William Sheldon utilized measurement techniques to connect body types to personality. • Sheldon concluded there are four basic body types associated with different personalities.  Mesomorphs were the most likely to be criminal. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved FIGURE 3-3 Sheldon’s Body Types. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Biological Explanations • Genetics and Crime  Argument that the criminal nature tends to be inherited • The Juke Family • The Kallikak Family  The eugenics movement led to development of Eugenic Criminology. • Buck v. Bell (1927) Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Modern Biological Explanations • The first well-known study of the modern era to focus on genetic difference was by Patricia A. Jacobs in 1965 with Scottish prisoners. • Findings of unusual chromosones Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Modern Biological Explanations • XXY Supermale  Klinefelter’s syndrome • Have male genitalia, but are frequently sterile and have evidence of breast enlargement • Identified as potentially violent Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Modern Biological Explanations Dizygotic Twins vs. Monozygotic Twins Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Modern Biological Explanations • Studies of twins have demonstrated the role of heredity in determining behavior. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objective 3.4 Explain how sociobiology views crime, and demonstrate the importance of altruism, territoriality, and tribalism from that perspective. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Sociobiology • Konrad Lorenz  Published On Aggression (1966)  Much human conduct is fundamentally rooted in instinctive behavioral responses characteristic of biological organisms everywhere. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Sociobiology • Sociobiology  Term coined by Edward O. Wilson in book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis  Systematic study of the biological basis of all social behavior Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Sociobiology • Altruism  Selfless, helping behavior  The primary determinant of behavior, including human behavior according to Wilson, was the need to ensure the survival and continuity of genetic material from one generation to the next. • Altruism played a role in survival. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Sociobiology • Territoriality  Wilson’s explanation for many of the conflicts between and among species, especially human beings. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Sociobiology • Tribalism  The attitudes and behavior that result from strong feelings of identification with one’s own social group. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objective 3.5 Identify some criticisms of early biological theories of criminal behavior. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criticisms of Early Biological Theories • Central concern with all early biological theories of criminal behavior is the fact they seemed to regulate the role of free will in human behavior to a kind of philosophical dustbin. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criticisms of Early Biological Theories • Concern from aligning the concept of crime with biological variables because crime itself is a social construction with varying meaning from place to place. • Seems unlikely any biological feature, or combination thereof, could explain the wide variety of criminal offending. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criticisms of Early Biological Theories • More sensible approach might be to work to identify biological influences on characteristics most criminals share.  Separation with similar characteristics from law violators and law enforcers may be nature of social environment exposed to when growing up.  May be impossible to identify any features shared solely by criminals. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary • Early proponents of biological theories argued that at least some human behavior is the result of biological propensities inherited from more primitive developmental stages in the evolutionary process. continued on next slide Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary • Contemporary biosocial theories suggest human behavior is the result of complex interactions between biology and features of the physical and social environments. continued on next slide Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary • Biological theories advance the principle that the basic determinants of human behavior are constitutionally or physiologically based and largely inherited. • Early biological explanations of criminality built upon positivism. continued on next slide Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary • Sociobiology is a theoretical perspective that applies evolutionary theory to social behavior, and most social behaviors are shaped by natural selection. continued on next slide Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Summary • Some criminologists fear acceptance of biological theories of crime causation might spark another eugenics movement where people are judged more on biology than behavior. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Criminology THIRD EDITION CHAPTER 4 Biosocial and Other Contemporary Perspectives— Interaction is Key Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Objectives • Describe the purpose of the Human Genome Project (HGP), and explain its significance for modern biological theories of crime. • Identify the role of genetics and heritability in contemporary explanations for crime. • Show how brain dysfunction relates to criminality. continued on next slide Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Objectives • Describe how body chemistry theories – including those involving diet, blood sugar levels, environmental contaminates, and hormones – explain crime. • Discuss biosocial theories and the role of the gender ratio problem in contemporary criminology. continued on next slide Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Objectives • Describe the policy implications of modern biological theories of crime. • Identify critiques of biological and biosocial approaches to explaining crime. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objective 4.1 Describe the purpose of the Human Genome Project (HGP), and explain its significance for modern biological theories of crime. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Human Genome Project • The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international research program designed to construct detailed maps of the human genome. • The knowledge developed by the HGP is likely to have momentous implications for both individuals and society. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Human Genome Project • In the area of crime-control policy, HGPrelated information is expected to support the development of public policy options related to crime prevention and treatment of offenders. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objective 4.2 Identify the role of genetics and heritability in contemporary explanations for crime. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetics and Heritability • Ropers and Brunner  Because men have only one X chromosome, they are especially vulnerable to any defective gene.  Women (with two X chromosomes) have a backup gene where one defective gene may be compensated for by a correctly functioning one in the second X chromosome. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetics and Heritability • Neurophysiology  Research that examines the relationship between neurotransmitters and behavior. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetics and Heritability • In some cases, genetic predispositions plus interaction with the surrounding social and physical environments combine to produce delinquency. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetics and Heritability • Heritability  The proportion of variation in a trait within a group of people that can be attributed to variations in their genes rather than to their environment • Genes may simply influence the way in which people respond to their surroundings. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetics and Heritability • Epigenetics  The study of the chemical reactions that occur within a genome, and that switch parts of the genome on or off at strategic times and locations. • Stress, diet, behavior, toxins, and other factors activate chemical switches that regulate gene expression. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetics and Heritability • The explanatory power of heritability appears to be limited by the fact that it may apply only to specific environments that existed at the time of a given study. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetics and Heritability • Genes are both the cause and consequence of our actions, and they do not so much determine human action as enable it. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objective 4.3 Show how brain dysfunction relates to criminality. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Brain Dysfunction • Prefrontal cortex dysfunction must be evaluated in terms of how individuals who exhibit the condition interact with features of the environment, including social and psychological influences. Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Brain Dysfunction • Neurocriminology  A perspective that examines the neurological links between the organism, social factors, and criminal behavior Criminology, 3e Frank Schmalleger Copyright © 2016, 2014, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Brain Dysfunction • Frontal Brain Hypothesis  A perspective that references physical changes in certain parts of the brain to explain criminality • Neuroplasticity  The ability of the brain to alter its structure and function in respo ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment

Tutor Answer

Chancellor_Ivy
School: UCLA

Complete.

Running Head: BIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME

Biological Theories of Crime
Institutional Affiliation
Date

1

BIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME

2

The number of biological theories of crime which will be used to determine the reason
as to why a person will commit a crime or the reason why crime exist in society will not be
quite high. Some of the theories which have been established can be regarded as traditional,
whereas some will be considered as modern or contemporary biological theories of crime.
Phrenology will be viewed as one of the early theories and will focus on the shape of one's
head, which will be used to determine one's human behaviour. The theory, which was first
established by Franz Joseph Gall, will also be referred to as craniology. Phrenology is a
Greek word which means mind. The central concept set in the theory will focus on the belief
which focuses on human behaviour, which will originate from a person's mind. Gall provided
a map of the skull, which showed the areas which contributed to criminal behaviour. A
research was carried out using twenty-seven brain organs, which showed that people who had
bumps on their skulls or depression were likely to commit crimes. This theory is not
acceptable since the ideas which revolved around this particular theory...

flag Report DMCA
Review

Anonymous
Thank you! Reasonably priced given the quality not just of the tutors but the moderators too. They were helpful and accommodating given my needs.

Brown University





1271 Tutors

California Institute of Technology




2131 Tutors

Carnegie Mellon University




982 Tutors

Columbia University





1256 Tutors

Dartmouth University





2113 Tutors

Emory University





2279 Tutors

Harvard University





599 Tutors

Massachusetts Institute of Technology



2319 Tutors

New York University





1645 Tutors

Notre Dam University





1911 Tutors

Oklahoma University





2122 Tutors

Pennsylvania State University





932 Tutors

Princeton University





1211 Tutors

Stanford University





983 Tutors

University of California





1282 Tutors

Oxford University





123 Tutors

Yale University





2325 Tutors