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First of all the definition of crime analysis as described by is that crime analysis refers to the set of systematic , analytical process that provide timely, pertinent information about crime patterns and crime trend correlations. It is a primarily a tactical tool to assist the operational and administrative personnel in planning the deployment of resources for the prevention and suppression of criminal activities, aiding the investigative process, and increasing apprehensions and the clearance of cases (Stenton, 2006).
The crime analysis process has several different steps which include; data collection, data collation, data analysis, data dissemination, feedback, and evaluations. First, data collection begins with collecting all data that pertains to the crime to be able to determine what criminal activity is happening. A couple of important documents that a crime analyst will collect are; the offense crime report which consists of time factors, victim descriptors, specific (MO) and preliminary investigation information. Then the suspect arrest report which consist of suspect descriptors, suspect vehicle descriptors and geographic factors. The field interview report contains all of the above including, names associated with the subject and reasons for the interview. Criminal analysts use these reports along with many more reports to help establish patterns and to help establish a criminals Modus operandi and so forth. Gottlied & Arenberg state, “Collection and analysis of data enable the crime analyst to determine what criminal activity is occurring, when, where and how it is being committed, and who the perpetrators might be” (Gottlied & Arenberg, 2005).
The Second step in the crime analysis process is the data collation process, which is a process known as collating the data. This part of the process the analyst will sort, index and store the all the raw data he/she has collected. Gottlied & Arenberg state that considerable planning is necessary to ensure that the data collation process does not become an end in itself (Gottlied & Arenberg, 2005). What is meant by this is that most are spending way too much time entering data in the system that they have no time to analyze the crime itself.
The third step in the crime analysis process is the crime analysis part of the process. In the step the analyst will exam and process all information received. With this process the analysts should be able to recognize patterns of the criminal’s activities. The analyst will analyze many different areas from; target profile, crime patterns, MO, statistical analysis and much more. From this data analysis the analyst will start to recognize information that will be useful to the case.
The fourth step in the crime analysis process is data dissemination and what is meant by this is defined by Gottlied & Arenberg the distribution of crime analysis information which is used to develop directed patrol and tactical action plans, assist continuing investigations and crime prevention efforts (Gottlied & Arenberg, 2005). The goal for data dissemination is to provide information that can be used by others and to enhance communication between people.
The fifth step in the crime analysis process is feedback and evaluations. Feedback helps the unit members accomplish the task in the establishment and maintenance of the program. Basically helps with planning and improvement within the department. As any feedback form does for any type of business. The evaluation asses the unit’s performance. Gottlied states that the most meaningful evaluation of crime analysis operations is one based upon the ability of the unit to produce worthy and timely product (Gottlied & Arenberg, 2005).
Broken windows can benefit from community policing’s focus on hiring different kinds of officers (who pay attention to disorder and have skills in community capacity building), building stronger analytical functions to support proper analysis, and making specific efforts to engage communities and increase trust to facilitate order-maintenance interventions. Appreciating the true scope of broken windows policing concepts within the context of community policing will enable these innovations to flourish and be most effective (Scheider, 2009).
Primary data for a crime analyst is collected by ways of surveys, interviews, field research and by field observations and secondary data is data that is already located in an electronic database. Secondary data is collected by reports such as; accident reports, crime reports and arrest reports in a records management system (Santos, 2012).
Arenberg, Shel, Gottlieb, Steven (2005) Crime Analysis: FromConcept to Reality. Office of Criminal Justice Planning Edition. https://www.ncjrs.gov
Santos, B., 2012. Crime Analysis with Crime Mapping (3rd ad.). Theoretical Foundations of Crime Analysis.
Senton, Anna E. "Crime Analysis: An Examination of Crime Prevention and Reduction Strategies." N.p., 2006. Web. <summit.sfu.ca/system/files/iritems1/9550/ETD4529.pdf>.
Scheider, Matthew. "Broken Windows and Community Policing." The Cops Office 2.1 (2009): n. pag. Community Policing Dispatch. 2009. Web. 09 Dec. 2013. <http://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/January_2009/nugget.htm>.
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