A Homework on Epistemology

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Phil 110 Page 1 Epistemology Chapter 6/7 Homework (This is chapter 6 in the 6 th edition, or chapter 7 in the 7 th edition.) Instructions There are four parts to this assignment. Each part requires you to type in information. 1. Definitions 2. How each philosopher thinks you acquire knolwedge 3. Compare each philosopher 4. Précis Part One / Definitions In your own words define/explain the following Concepts: Rationalism - Empiricism - Mysticism – Phil 110 Pragmatism- Methodical Skepticism - Common Sense Skepticism - Absolute Skepticism - Innate Ideas- Aprioi- Tabula Rasa- A Posteriori- Cartesian Foundationalism- Page 2 Phil 110 Evendentialism- Correspondence theory of Truth- Coherence theory of truth- Page 3 Phil 110 Page 4 Part Two / What each philosopher thinks is really real Do the following: 1. Fill in the blanks for each philosopher. 2. Make sure explain what each philosopher believes is the basis for knowledge and why. Al-Ghazali What does Al-Ghazali think is the basis for knowledge? _________________________ Al-Ghazali is a (absolute skeptic, common sense skeptic, or a methodical skeptic) ___________________ regarding knowledge because _________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Al-Ghazaliis a (mystic, rationalist, empiricist, or a pragmatist) ____________________ regarding knowledge because______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Phil 110 Page 5 ______________________________________________________________________ Do any additional terms apply to Al-Ghazali, such as (a priori, innate ideas, aposteriori or tabula rasa)? ____________________________________________________________ Explain why ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Descartes What does Descartes think is the basis for knowledge? _________________________ Descartes is a (absolute skeptic, common sense skeptic, or a methodical skeptic) ___________________ regarding knowledge because _________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Phil 110 Page 6 Descartes is a (mystic, rationalist, empiricist, or a pragmatist) ____________________ regarding knowledge because______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Do any additional terms apply to Descartes, such as (a priori, innate ideas, a posteriori or tabula rasa)? ____________________________________________________________ Explain why ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Hume What does Hume think is the basis for knowledge? _____________________________ Phil 110 Page 7 Hume is a (absolute skeptic, common sense skeptic, or a methodical skeptic) ___________________ regarding knowledge because _________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Hume is a (mystic, rationalist, empiricist, or a pragmatist) _______________________ regarding knowledge because______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Do any additional terms apply to Hume, such as (a priori, innate ideas, aposteriori or tabula rasa)? ____________________________________________________________ Explain why ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Phil 110 Page 8 Willaim James William K. Clifford is probable besti identified as a evendentialist which is a form of absolute skeptic. How did this influence William James? _________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ What does James think is the basis for knowledge? _____________________________ James is a (absolute skeptic, common sense skeptic, or a methodical skeptic) ___________________ regarding knowledge because __________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Phil 110 Page 9 James is a (mystic, rationalist, empiricist, or a pragmatist) ________________________ regarding knowledge because_______________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Do any additional terms apply to James, such as (a priori, innate ideas, aposteriori or tabula rasa)? ____________________________________________________________ Explain why ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Phil 110 Page 10 Part Three / Compare and Contrast Do the following… 1. Below is a list of each philosopher paired with every other philosopher. 2. Write what each believes is the basis for knowledge, along with a list of the appropriate concepts. 3. Then use the concepts to compare what each philosopher believes in a paragraph. I have done an example for you below. List of Philosophers 1. Al-Ghazali and Descartes 2. Al-Ghazali and Hume 3. Al-Ghazali and James 4. Descartes and Hume 5. Descartes and James 6. Hume and James Phil 110 Page 11 Example Al-Ghazali and Descartes Mysticism Rationalism Mystic Rationalist Methodical Skeptic Methodical Skeptic No additional terms A priori and Innate Ideas As you may have noticed this compare and contrast is much simpler than the ‘what is really real?’ compare and contrast. Phil 110 Page 12 Part 4 / Precise The topic for this précis is one of the readings for the ‘Epistemology.’ The options are: Al-Ghazali, Descartes, Hume or James. You may not read William Clifford’s reading for the précis, but you should still read it as it is assigned. Instructions 1. Read one of the readings from the book. 2. Fill out the précis form below or write it out in a paragraph Sentence 1 (Who/What?) __________________in the ______________, _______________________________ (Author’s Full Name) (A-noun) (Title of text) _________________, _______________, that ___________________________ (B-verb) (Point of Article/Book etc…) _________________________________________________________________ Sentence 2 (How?) _______________ supports his/her ____________ by ______________________ (Author’s Last Name) (B-noun) (C–verb / used as gerund) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Sentence 3 (Why?) The author’s purpose is to _____________________________________________ (D-verb / used as infinitive) Phil 110 Page 13 __________________________ in order to/so that ________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Sentence 4 (To Whom?) The author writes in a _____________ style for___________________________ (E–adjective) _________________________________________________________________ (his/her audience, the readers of) and others interested in the topic of ___________________________________ . (The point of the essay etc…) Word Bank These are merely suggestions. Feel free to use other words. Section A (news/magazine/ journal) article book review, editorial, first-hand report, personal or biographical essay, biography, research report Section B analyzes/analysis argues/argument, asserts/assertion, discusses/discussion, focuses on/focus explains/explanation Section C comparing / contrasting retelling, explaining, Phil 110 illustrating, defending, demonstrating, defining, describing, listing, arguing, showing, justifying, relating, reporting, noting, emphasizing, pointing out, highlighting the fact Section D argue, call attention to, deny, show, point out, prove suggest, inform, persuade, disclose, report, convince Section E (register/language) formal, impersonal casual, informal (tone) humorous, emotional, friendly, reasoned, logical, exaggerated, Page 14 Phil 110 X Page 15
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Phil 110

Page 1

Epistemology
Chapter 6/7 Homework
(This is chapter 6 in the 6 th edition, or chapter 7 in the 7 th
edition.)
Instructions
There are four parts to this assignment. Each part requires you to type in information.
1. Definitions
2. How each philosopher thinks you acquire knowledge
3. Compare each philosopher
4. Précis

Part One / Definitions
In your own words, define/explain the following Concepts:

Rationalism The ability to make decisions based on reason or logic.

Empiricism This is a theory that asserts that all knowledge comes solely from the experiences gotten
from the senses.

Mysticism –
This is a belief that it is possible to achieve communication with God or the forces that
control the universe through soul searching and prayer.

Phil 110

Page 2

PragmatismPragmatism refers to the evaluation of theories and beliefs based on their practical
success as opposed to just following fixed theories.

Methodical Skepticism The process of having doubts with regards to someone’s beliefs until certainty can be
reached at.

Common Sense Skepticism This Refers to the beliefs or propositions that would be found to be of sound judgment by
many people.

Absolute Skepticism This is an argument that a person knows absolutely nothing to be either true or false.

Innate IdeasThese are ideas independent of the experience gotten from the senses.

A prioriThis Refers to knowledge, which is as a result of theoretical deduction and not from
observation or experience.

Tabula RasaThe human mind, as it is viewed at birth, lacks ideas, goals, and is a clean slate.

Phil 110

Page 3

A PosterioriThis refers to Reason or knowledge gotten from observations and experience leading to
the deduction of probable cases.

Cartesian FoundationalismPhilosophical theories of knowledge based on justified belief or a clear foundation of
certainty like concluding based on the judgments or common sense of people.

EvidentialismThis is a theory that states that the justification of an argument depends entirely on the
evidence for it.

The correspondence theory of TruthThe assumption that states that whether a statement is true or false is determined
entirely by its relation to the world and if it correctly describes the...


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