A Homework on how one should live

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This homework has three pretty simple parts. I will provide you with the text for part 3.

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Phil 110 Page 1 Chapter 2 Homework (This is chapter 2 in both the 6 th and 7th edition.) Name Instructions There are three parts to this assignment. Each part requires you to type in information. 1. Definitions 2. Explain what each philosopher thinks is the good life. 3. Précis Part One / Definitions In your own words define/explain the following Concepts: Descriptive Ethics - Normative Ethics - The Buddha Buddha - Dukkha - Phil 110 Nirvana - Samsara - Reincarnation - The Four Noble Truths - Eightfold path - Confucius Ren (jen) - Li - Xiao (shee-ow) - Yi - Chun Tzu - Five relationships - Man's Place - Page 2 Phil 110 Women's Place - Socrates Skepticism - Apology - Socratic Method - Know thyself (and be true to yourself) - Aristotle Genus - Species - Ends - Means - Teleology - Page 3 Phil 110 State of Character - Virtue - Golden Mean - The different virtues - Ayn Rand Ethical Egoism - Psychological Egoism - Altruism - Sacrifice - Love - Altruistic Metaphysics - Egoist Metaphysics - Page 4 Phil 110 Page 5 Part Two / What is the Good Life? Do the following: 1. Answer each of the four questions for each philosopher. a. The philosophers are Buddha, Confucius, Socrates, Aristotle and Rand. 2. I have done the first one for you. Here are the questions. Question 1) What is the goal of human life (i.e what is the good life?)? Question 2) How is the good life attained? (What does the author recommend?) Question 3) Why is the recommended good life an actual good life? Question 4) Do you think this is a good life? Is this the best life/way to live? Here is my example. Notice that you may write out your example using different words or emphasis. But the point is to explain the philosophic concepts learned in each section. For Buddhism that would be the concept of suffering and how to avoid suffering. One way to say this would be to look at how each philosopher divides the world into what is the good life and what is the bad life. Buddhism Q1) The good life is the life of moderation. Instead of suffering from too much pleasure or a lack of items and things, it is better to live the middle life. The goal, therefore, is to get rid of the suffering. Q2) The good life is attained by following the four noble truths and the eightfold path. That would be realizing that there is suffering, and using the habits / virtues to live a life without suffering. The eight fold path is right understanding, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. Q3) The recommend good life is a good life because if we look around ourselves we can see that by being too concerned with the material things we want and things we have no control over, we suffer. If we can control our attitude then we will not suffer, or at least not as much. Q4) This way of life has its good points. If one were to follow this life one could have a good life, but one of the questions to ask is if it is necessary to believe in reincarnation or another life? If so, then this seems metaphysical to violate Ockham’s razor. Phil 110 Page 6 Part 3 / Precise The topic for this précis is one of the three readings for the ‘Chapter 2.’ The options are the complete readings for Buddhism, Confucianism, Socrates, Aristotle, and Rand. Instructions 1. Read one of the readings from the book. 2. Fill out the précis form below or write it out in a paragraph Sentence 1 (Who/What?) __________________in the ______________, _______________________________ (Author’s Full Name) (A-noun) (Title of text) _________________, _______________, that ___________________________ (B-verb) (Point of Article/Book etc…) _________________________________________________________________ Sentence 2 (How?) _______________ supports his/her ____________ by ______________________ (Author’s Last Name) (B-noun) (C–verb / used as gerund) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Sentence 3 (Why?) The author’s purpose is to _____________________________________________ (D-verb / used as infinitive) __________________________ in order to/so that ________________________ Phil 110 _________________________________________________________________ Sentence 4 (To Whom?) The author writes in a _____________ style for___________________________ (E–adjective) _________________________________________________________________ (his/her audience, the readers of) and others interested in the topic of ___________________________________ . (The point of the essay etc…) Word Bank These are merely suggestions. Feel free to use other words. Section A (news/magazine/ journal) article book review, editorial, first-hand report, personal or biographical essay, biography, research report Section B analyzes/analysis argues/argument, asserts/assertion, discusses/discussion, focuses on/focus explains/explanation Section C comparing / contrasting retelling, explaining, illustrating, defending, demonstrating, defining, describing, listing, arguing, showing, Page 7 Phil 110 justifying, relating, reporting, noting, emphasizing, pointing out, highlighting the fact Section D argue, call attention to, deny, show, point out, prove suggest, inform, persuade, disclose, report, convince Section E (register/language) formal, impersonal casual, informal (tone) humorous, emotional, friendly, reasoned, logical, exaggerated, Page 8
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Explanation & Answer


Phil 110

Page 1

Chapter 2
(This is chapter 2 in both the 6 th and 7th edition.)


There are three parts to this assignment. Each part requires you to type in information.
1. Definitions
2. Explain what each philosopher thinks is the good life.
3. Précis

Part One / Definitions
In your own words define/explain the following Concepts:

Descriptive Ethics – This refers to the study of the people’s beliefs about morality. The morality
concept relies on effective approaches which are identified and described by various individuals.

Normative Ethics This refers to the study of ethical action. Based on the actions which are
considered as appropriate for ethical considerations.

The Buddha

Buddha – This refers to a philosopher and a religious teacher whose teachings Buddhism was
founded. Based on the concepts which Buddha teaches, the Buddhism religion was founded.

Phil 110

Page 2

Dukkha – This refers to the nature of satisfactoriness of the worldly (Mundane) life. It also means the
pain which people undergo in the bid to satisfy the human nature as per the needs of the society and
the people who live in it.

Nirvana – This is a concept in Hinduism which means a state of ultimate salvation/soteriological
release. Usually, nirvana means that there is an ultimate release from the rebirths which an individual

Samsara – This is a state of the world which means in a continuous circuit and wonder. Everything
which goes around comes around just as the nature of the world.

Reincarnation – This is a belief in life after death such that the non-physical being of the body starts
life after death in another world.

The Four Noble Truths – There are four major noble truths which cannot be disputed and they include
the following: dukkha which means that there is pain in the incapability of full satisfaction and there is
a laways a rebirth. The second noble truth is samudaya which means that there is an origin and a
craving desire or an attachment which is necessary, thirdly nirodha which means cessation or ending
and it can be achieved when all things are eliminated. Finally, there is his marga which is the path and
ultimate end of dukkha.

Eightfold path – This is a path which is a mere summary of the path of Buddhist which practices which
are required for liberation from samsara, of which is considered as a painful rebirth which is a nonending cycle.


Ren (jen) – This is a feminine name which is given to Renee’

Li – This is an acronym for political liberation for political parties across various nations.

Phil 110

Page 3

Xiao (shee-ow) – This refers a situation of being good to parents.

Yi – This refers to the ability to see everything.

Chun Tzu – This means the principle of superior and ideal man. Usually, it refers to a gentleman in the
society with the nature which is considered as ideal and recommended.

Five relationships – Five relationships are those which are considered ideal. The major relationships
include of ruler to subject, father to son, husband to wife, elder to younger and friend to friend. The five
relationships are maintained when the concept of Li is effectively followed as recommended.
Man's Place – A man’s place refers to the responsibilities which a man is given to care and head the
family and a home.

Women's Place – A woman’s place refers to the responsibilities which women are entrusted to do
such as effective compliance with the rules and regulations of better living.


Skepticism – This means that the act of questioning is rooted on good life. people normally question
what they believe are rooted on good life in the general life.

Apology – Refers to the act of recognizing the gods after a mischief or misconduct hence the need to
change for better.

Socratic Method – Socratic Method refers to the process of dialogue between individuals which is
based on questions aimed at critical thinking and finding ideal answers to the questions which is

Phil 110

Page 4

Know thyself (and be true to yourself) – Socrates meant that being intelligent is the ideal knowing of
self. Being intelligent means knowing thyself more and practicing what is considered as ideal and


Genus – Genus means that there are different things which are exhibited in a kind and it is predicated
in what a thing is.

Species – Species refers to a group of organisms which can mate and produce a viable offspring.

Ends – This refers to a rational conclusion or arrival at what is considered the true end of an era as
per the needs of the society.

Means – This has been defined as all excellence which makes what is good. The leading path to
production of what is recommended in the society.

Teleology – This refers to a reason as a function for its end, purpose and goal. It integrates all the
goals and ensures that all the characters and things associated with itself are good enough.

State of Character – State of character is determined by an individual’s choice and it all depends on
the quality required for a successful achievement and approach of the issues identified.

Virtue – This refers to a deposition and decision to behave in the right manner so that there is a
distinction between the means and the extremes.

Golden Mean – This refers to the desirable middle between two extremes. The middle position might
be challenging and identification of right approach is considered effective and qualitative.

Phil 110

Page 5

The different virtues – The different virtues refer to ...

I was struggling with this subject, and this helped me a ton!


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