Evaluation of Asphalt Cold Mixes Used for Pothole Repair Paper

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Question Description

carefully read through the instructions before you bid

I would like you to write for me a literature for my thesis final project

Project name: evaluation of asphalt cold mixes used for pothole repair

I am attaching my objectives and scope for your information

font size 10 single space don't exceed 20 pages

I will attach group of references to depend on

Main points to be covered

distresses of flexible pavement

pothole formation

pothole definition

Pothole repair

patching seasons

patching materials

patching techniques

causes of patch failure

symptoms and problems of patch failures

Desirable performance

you can add some points if you find a valid one

at the end previous studies

I have a summary of the previous studies I will attach

Note dont mention the mix design

see attachments. i will send more attachments

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SHRP-H-348 Manuals of Practice Materials and Procedures for Sealing and Filling Cracks in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements Kelly L. Smith, A. Russell Romine Materials and Procedures for the Repair of Potholes in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements Thomas P. Wilson, A. Russell Romine ERES Consultants, Inc., Savoy, Illinois Strategic Highway Research Program National Research Council SHRP-H-348 ISBN 0-309-05607-1 Contract H-106 Product Code 3003 Program Manager: Don M. Harriott Project Manager: Shashikant C. Shah Program Area Secretary: Francine A. Burgess Production Editor: Katharyn L. Bine August 1993 Reprinted February 1994 key words: asphalt concrete cold mix crack filling crack sealing patching potholes pavement maintenance spray injection Strategic Highway Research Program 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334-3774 The publication of this report does not necessarily indicate approval or endorsement by the National Academy of Sciences, the United States Government, or the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials or its member states of the findings, opinions, conclusions, or recommendations either inferred or specifically expressed herein. ©1993 National Academy of Sciences .7M/NAP/294 Preface This book contains two pavement maintenance manuals intended for use by highway maintenance agencies and contracted maintenance firms in the field and in the office. Each is a compendium of good practices for asphalt concrete (AC) crack sealing and filling and pothole repair, respectively, stemming from two Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) studies. In project H-105, Innovative Materials and Equipment for Pavement Surface Repair, the researchers conducted a massive literature review and a nationwide survey of highway agencies to identify potentially cost-effective repair and treatment options. The information and findings from this study were then used in the subsequent field experiments conducted under project H-106, Innovative Materials Development and Testing. In the H-106 project, the installation and evaluation of many different test sections were conducted to determine the costeffectiveness of maintenance materials and procedures. Test sections were installed at 22 sites throughout the United States and Canada between March 1991 and February 1992, under the supervision of SHRP representatives. The researchers collected installation and productivity information at each site and periodically evaluated the experimental repairs and treatments for 18 months following installation. Long-term performance and cost-effectiveness information for the various repair and treatment materials and procedures was not available at the time these manuals were prepared. However, subsequent performance evaluations may lead to future editions of these manuals to address performance and cost-effectiveness more thoroughly. iii For the reader's convenience, potentially unfamiliar terms are italicized at their first occurrence in the manuals and are defined in glossaries. Readers who want more information on topics included in the manuals should refer the reference lists for each manual. The final report for the H-106 project may be of particular interest to many readers. 2 It details the installation procedures, laboratory testing of the materials, and field performance of each of the repair and treatment types. iv Acknowledgments The research described herein was supported by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). SHRP is a unit of the National Research Council that was authorized by Section 128 of the Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act of 1987. Special thanks are due the project management team at SHRP, and to the following highway agencies. Manual for sealing and filling cracks: Texas Department of Transportation Kansas Department of Transportation Washington State Department of Transportation Iowa Department of Transportation Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. Manual for pothole repair: Illinois Department of Transportation Vermont Agency of Transportation Ontario Ministry of Transportation City of Draper, Utah California Department of Transportation Oregon Department of Transportation Texas Department of Transportation New Mexico Highway and Transportation Department The contributions of the following individuals are also acknowledged. Manual for sealing and filling cracks: Michael Darter, Samuel Carpenter, David Peshkin, Mike Belangie, Henry Bankie, and Jim Chehovits. Manual for pothole repair: Michael Darter, Samuel Carpenter, and David Peshkin. vi Materials and Procedures for Sealing and Filling Cracks in Asphalt-Surfaced Pavements Manual of Practice Strategic Highway Research Program National Research Council Contents Preface .................................... Acknowledgments ............................ iii v 1.0 Introduction .............................. 1.1 Scope of Manual ....................... 1 2 2.0 Need for Crack Treatment .................... 2.1 Pavement/Crack Evaluation ................ 2.2 Determining the Type of Maintenance ......... 2.2.1 Other Considerations ................. 4 4 6 9 2.3 Objectives of Sealing and Filling ............ 2.4 Determining Whether to Seal or Fill ......... 2.4.1 When to Seal and When to Fill ........ 9 10 11 3.0 Planning and Design ....................... 14 3.1 Primary Considerations .................. 14 3.2 Selecting a Sealant or Filler Material ........ 15 3.2.1 Laboratory Testing ................. 20 3.3 Selecting a Placement Configuration ......... 21 3.4 Selecting Procedures and Equipment ......... 27 3.4.1 Crack Cutting .................... 29 3.4.2 Crack Cleaning and Drying ........... 34 Airblasting ....................... 34 Hot Airblasting ................... 35 Sandblasting ..................... 37 Wirebrushing ..................... 38 3.4.3 Material Preparation and Application .... 38 Bond-Breaker Installation ............ 38 Cold-Applied Thermoplastic Materials ... 39 Hot-Applied Thermoplastic Materials .... 40 Cold-Applied Thermosetting Materials . o. 42 3.4.4 Material Finishing/Shaping ........... 42 3.4.5 Material Blotting .................. 43 vii 3.5 Estimating Material Requirements ........... 3.6 Cost-Effectiveness Analysis ............... 44 44 4.0 Construction ............................ 4.1 Traffic Control ........................ 4.2 Safety .............................. 4.3 Crack Cutting ......................... 4.4 Crack Cleaning and Drying ............... 4.4.1 High-Pressure Airblasting ............ 4.4.2 Hot Airblasting ................... 4.4.3 Sandblasting ..................... 4.4.4 Wirebrushing ..................... 4.5 Material Preparation and Application ........ 4.5.1 Installing Backer Rod ............... 4.5.2 Material Preparation ................ 4.5.3 Material Application ................ 4.5.4 Asphalt Kettle Cleanout ............. 4.6 Material Finishing/Shaping ............... 4.7 Material Blotting ...................... 47 47 48 48 49 51 51 53 53 54 55 56 58 60 61 62 5.0 Evaluating Treatment Performance 63 ............. Appendix A Material Testing Specifications Appendix B Determining Material Quantity Requirements ..................... Appendix C Sample Cost-Effectiveness Calculations ...................... Appendix D Inspection Checklists for Construction ..................... Appendix E Material and Equipment Safety Precautions ...................... Appendix F Partial List of Material and Equipment Sources ................. Glossary .................................. References ................................ viii ........ 65 69 71 75 81 83 87 91 List of Figures Figure 1. Pavement/crack survey form ........... 5 Figure 2. Pavement candidate for surface treatment: high-density cracking ........ 7 Figure 3. Pavement candidate for crack repair ...... 7 Figure 4. Pavement candidate for transverse crack sealing ...................... 8 Pavement candidate for longitudinal crack filling ....................... 8 Figure 5. Figure 6. Material placement configurations Figure 7. Rotary-impact router ................ 33 Figure 8. Diamond-blade crack saw ............ 33 Figure 9. High-pressure airblasting using compressed air .................... 36 Hot airblasting using HCA (heat) lance ...................... 36 Figure 11. Sandblasting operation 37 Figure 12. Backer rod installation tool ........... 39 Figure 13. Asphalt kettle with pressure applicator ....................... 40 Industrial squeegee molded into a "U" shape ....................... 43 Figure 10. Figure 14. .............. ...... 22 ix Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure B-1. Figure C-1. Worksheet for determining material quantity requirements ............... 45 Cost-effectiveness computation worksheet ....................... 46 Crack segment missed by cutting equipment ....................... 49 Primary crack accompanied by secondary crack ................... 50 Sandblasting wand with wooden guide attached .................... 54 Example graph of treatment effectiveness versus time ...................... 64 Solution to material requirements problem ......................... 70 Example of cost-effectiveness analysis ... 73 List of Tables Table 1. Steps in a crack treatment program ....... 3 Table 2. Guidelines for determining the type of maintenance to conduct ............... 6 Recommended criteria for determining whether to seal or fill ............... 12 Summary of AC crack treatment materials ........................ 18 Properties associated with various material types .................... 19 Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Placement configuration considerations Table 7. Crack treatment equipment characteristics and recommendations ............... 30 Typical manpower requirements and production rates for crack treatment operations ................ 32 Table A-1. Asphalt rubber specifications 66 Table A-2. Self-leveling silicone specifications ...... 66 Table A-3. Rubberized asphalt specifications 67 Table 8. .......... ....... . . . 28 xi 1.0 Introduction Cracking in asphalt concrete (AC)-surfaced pavements is a phenomenon that pavement design and maintenance engineers have had to contend with for years. It is one of two principal considerations (fatigue cracking and rutting) in the pavement design process, and it is the primary mode of deterioration in AC pavements. Cracks are inevitable, and neglect leads to accelerated cracking and/or potholing, further reducing pavement serviceability.* The problem of cracks is handled in many ways, ranging from pavement maintenance activities, such as surface treatments and crack filling, to full-scale pavement rehabilitation projects, like resurfacingo Maintenance departments bear most of the burden of dealing with cracks. Departments with sufficient funding are often responsible for adding a few more years of serviceable life to deteriorated pavements, through preventive or routine maintenance, or both. Two of the more common options exercised by maintenance departments are crack sealing and crack filling. These operations have been conducted for many years, generally on a routine basis. However, only in the last two decades has their potential benefits as preventive maintenance tools been realized. With proper and timely application, crack sealing and filling can extend pavement life past the point where the cost-benefit of added pavement life exceeds the cost of conducting the operation. Italicizedwordsare definedin the glossary. 1.1 Scope of Manual This manual has been prepared to guide pavement maintenance personnel (i.e., engineers, supervisors, and crewpersons) in the selection, installation, and evaluation of materials and procedures used to treat (seal or fill) cracks in AC-surfaced pavements. The information contained herein is based on the most recent research, obtained through literature reviews and current practices, and on the results of an ongoing field study, l'z This manual provides both general and specific information for carrying out each of four primary phases associated with a crack treatment program. These phases are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Determining the need for crack treatment Planning and designing the crack treatment project Construction Evaluating and assessing the performance of the crack treatment Crack treatment is far from being the long, involved process typical of a pavement construction or rehabilitation project. However, like these projects, it must be carefully planned and conducted to be successful. Table 1 illustrates the steps involved in the crack treatment process, as well as the factors that must be considered. Chapters 2 through 5 provide indepth guidance for successfully completing each of the four phases listed above. 2 Table 1o Steps in a crack Step I 1 treatment program Description Obtain and review construction and maintenance records. - Pavement age, design, repairs, etc. 2 Perform pavement/crack survey. - Record distress types, amounts, and severities. 3 Determine appropriate type of maintenance for cracked pavement based on density and condition of cracks. - High density of cracks with moderate to no edge deterioration _ pavement surface treatment. - Moderate density of cracks with moderate to no edge deterioration _ crack treatment. - Moderate density of cracks with high level of edge deterioration _ crack repair. 4 For crack treaUnent, determine whether cracks should be sealed or f'tlled. - Cracks typically show significant annual horizontal movement _ crack sealingoa - Cracks typically show very little annual horizontal movement _ crack filling, a 5 Select materials and procedures for crack Ireatment operation based on the following considerations: - Climate (dry-freeze, dry-nonfreeze, wet-freeze, wet-nonfreeze). - Traffic (high, medium, low). - Crack characteristics (width, deterioration). - Available equipment. - Available manpower. - Cost-effectiveness (anticipated treatment cost and performance). 6 Acquire materials and equipment. 7 Conduct and inspect crack Ireatment operation. 8 Periodically ev,'duate treatment performance. a See sections 2.3 and 2.4° 2.0 Need for Crack Treatment If a particular cracked pavement appears to be in need of some sort of maintenance, a relatively quick assessment can be made to ascertain the need and, more important, to help in determining the appropriate action. Such an assessment requires an evaluation of existing pavement conditions and a knowledge of future rehabilitation plans. 2.1 Pavement/Crack Evaluation While maintenance engineers or supervisors are normally quite familiar with the roads they maintain, a quick review of construction, maintenance, and other records will provide important general information regarding the following: • • • • • Pavement age Pavement and geometric design Pavement section boundaries Traffic Climate • • Type and extent of previous maintenance treatments Condition rating After these records are reviewed, a shoulder survey should then be performed on a small representative sample of the pavement section, about 500 ft (153 m), to determine the amount, type, and condition or severity of cracks, as well as the condition or effectiveness of any previously applied crack treatments (see chapter 5). A sample survey form for recording pavement and crack information is provided in figure 1. 4 Pavement/Crack Location and Geometrics Survey Form Highway/road: Number of lanes: Lane widths: Milepost/station of section: Length of section: Shoulder type and width: Design_ Construction_ and Rehabilitation Year of original construction: _Type and year of most recent rehabilitation: Future rehabilitation planned: Climat% Traffi% and Highway Classification Average annual precipitation (in): Pavement No. days below 32°F (0°C): Material= NO. days above 100°F (38°C): Material = Functional classification: Material = Most recent 2-way ADT: Material= Pavement Condition Cracking Distress Primary crack type/orientation: Density (lin ft/500-ft section): Edge deterioration (%): Cupping? Lipping? Faulting? Previous treatment? Y N Material type? Effectiveness (%): Other crack type/orientation: Density (lin ft/500-ft section): Edge deterioration (%): Cupping? Lipping? Faulting? Previous treatment? Y N Cross-Section Thickness= Thickness = Thickness = Thickness = Average width (in): Average depth/height (in): Average width (in): Average depth/height (in): Material type? Effectiveness (%): Other Significant Distresses Type: Type: Type: Figure 1. Pavement/crack Density: Density: Density: survey form 5 Table 2. Guidelines for determining of maintenance to conduct Crack Density the type Average Level of Edge Deterioration (percent of crack length) Low (0 to 25) Moderate (26 to 50) High (51 to 100) Low Nothing Crack treatment?? Crack repair Moderate Crack treatment Crack treatment Crack repair High Surface treatment Surface treatment Rehabilitation 2.2 Determining the Type of Maintenance The appropriate type of maintenance for cracked pavements often depends on the density and general condition of the cracks. If cracks are abundant (i.e., high in density) and do not exhibit a high degree of edge deterioration, they may best be treated through chip seals, slurry seals, or the like. If cracks are low to moderate in density and have typically progressed to a point of high edge deterioration, then crack repair strategies, such as partial-depth patching or spot patching, may be warranted. Finally, if cracks are moderate in density and show moderate to no deterioration at the edges, they may be treated effectively through sealing or filling operations. Table 2 summarizes these guidelines. As table 2 indicates, crack density levels are described in general terms. This is because experienced personnel can usually make reasonable assessments of density. Figures 2 through 5 illustrate typical crack situations and potential remedies. Figure 2. Pavement candidate for surface treatment: high-density cracking Figure 3. Pavement candidate for crack repair 7 Figure 4. Pavement candidate for transverse crack sealing Figure 5. Pavement candidate for longitudinal crack filling 8 In general, a large number of cracks or severely deteriorated cracks indicate a pavement in an advanced state of decay. Crack sealing or filling in these circumstances is both uneconomical and technically unsound, as it does little to delay the need for more extensive corrective actions. Most highway agencies have established policies that specify the type of maintenance to perform on cracked pavements and when to perform it. The policies are often based on an assessment of the overall pavement condition (extent of cracking) or specific crack characteristics (type and/or width). 2.2.1 Other Considerations On occasion, cracks may be found to have other types of deficiencies. In particular, crack edges may exhibit vertical distresses, such as cupping, lipping, or faulting, and/or may undergo significant vertical deflections or movements under traffic loading. Such deficiencies can add significantly to overall pavement roughness and often worsen rapidly with time. Normally, repair alternatives, such as patching and/or milling, are appropriate for correcting these deficiencies. However, if the amount of vertical deflection and the severity of the distress (cupping especially) are not too high, a temporary fix with crack treatment may be adequate. 2.3 Objectives of Sealing and Filling Although little distinction has been made in the past between crack sealing and crack filling, the purposes and functions of each must be clearly understood so that the most costeffective and long-lasting treatment is applied. 9 Crack ...
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Running head: Evaluation of asphalt cold mixes used for pothole repair

Evaluation of asphalt cold mixes used for pothole repair
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Evaluation of asphalt cold mixes used for pothole repair

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LITERATURE REVIEW
INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, an extensive literature survey on the various research studies on cold
Mix asphalt is discussed. The parts discussed in this literature review includes distresses of flexible pavement,
pothole definition, pothole repair, pothole formation, patching seasons, causes of patch failures, symptoms and
problems of patch failures, patching materials, patching techniques, and desirable performance.
DISTRESS OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
Distress of flexible pavement according to previous studies includes dishing, bleeding, edge disintegration, missing
patches, pushing, raveling and alligator cracking (Thompson, 1993). The explanation and the causes of these
distresses are discussed as follows.
Bleeding is the flushing of asphalt to the pavement surface. This is often caused by insufficient voids or excess
binder in the mix.

Figure1: bleeding (Thompson, 1993).
Dishing is the bowl-shaped deformation of the repaired patch. It is usually caused by instability of mixture and
insufficient compaction during construction.
Pushing is a vertical or horizontal movement in the patch. It is caused by low adhesiveness and instability of
mixture.

Evaluation of asphalt cold mixes used for pothole repair

3

Figure 2: Pushing (Thompson, 1993).
Edge disintegration is the loss of patching materials from the patch side. It usually takes place when the patch
material loses its adhesion to the pothole sides.

Figure 3: Edge disintegration (Thompson, 1993).
The missing patch is the loss of patching materials. It is caused by inadequate compaction, alligator cracking, poor
adhesiveness, and cohesion.
Raveling is the loss of aggregate from the patch surface. It is caused by excessive fine aggregates, stripping, poor
cohesion and poor aggregate interlock of the patch material.

Figure 4: Raveling (Thompson, 1993).
Alligator cracking is the distress of the flexible pavement during winter. It is normally caused by the freeze-thaw
cycles.

Evaluation of asphalt cold mixes used for pothole repair

4

Figure 5: Alligator cracking (Thompson, 1993).
The pothole patches are normally rated in terms of distress in the flexible pavement which is then followed by the
procedure by Virginia Dot recommendation (Thompson, 1993). The ratings ranged from 1 to 4, with 1 indicating the
poorest distress condition of the pavement and 4 indicating the best condition. The weighting factors are determined
based on the rating of the distresses. The weighting factors of edge disintegration and missing patch are the main
distresses for ‘throw-and-roll' patches in the winter season. The equation below shows a performance rating based
on distresses.
Performance rating= 0.05*bleeding+0.075 *dishing+0.0625*pushing +0.175*edge disintegration +0.3375*missing
patch +0.125*raveling+0.175 -alligator cracking
The distress in the flexible pavement is increased by severe weather which indicates more freeze times. Vehicle
speed and traffic level also increase the deterioration of patches due to accelerated abrasion, pushing and pulling
effect of traveling wheels. Potholes with higher length, higher width, and lower depth deteriorated faster.
POTHOLE FORMATION
Understanding how pothole forms have several significances, for example, it helps in making it easier to identify
potholes before they formed fully based on the surrounding conditions. It also helps in identifying the extent of the
pothole, gives a better understanding of selection materials used for pothole repair and helps in promoting a general
understanding of designing a good road that is less susceptible to potholes (Wilson, 1993).
Pothole formation is flexible pavements starts to form in a weakened area below the pavement surface. Excessive
flexing of the road surface due to heavy traffic loading can lead to cracking. Water action mostly causes weakening
of the road surface. Pothole often formed during freeze-thaw cycles in other areas. Below are the situations where
pothole forms due to water.
The first stage of the formation of pothole due to water is water seeping under the road surface. This seeping of
water occurs where a road surface is cracked and damaged. Road surface with a good condition, water can still seep
at an angle for the road embankment which is not high enough above surrounding ground or where the water table is
high. The water seeping into the road surface will flow above th...

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