SCO100 Johnson & Wales University Socialization Question

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Question Description

1)What are 5 primary agents of socialization, and explain why they are a powerful social force.

2)If you were to study resocialization, what about this topic would you study, and why?

3)What is internalization and how can it create a self-fulfillling prophesy?

4)What is social learning theory, and how is useful to understanding socialization and behavioral change?

5)Why is role-taking considered such an important developmental achievement in socialization?

6)Describe anticipatory socialization and its importance as a milestone in socialization?

7)What do sociologists call the sense of one's social identity?

8)What are reference groups, and how do they impact socialization and behavior?

Attached is the textbook and it's in chapter 4 socialization. You will need this to answer the questions. MUST NOT copy word for word Benokraitis's writing - they must RESTATE in their own words the answers to each question.

Students may NOT use outside internet sources. Copying and pasting from the Internet answers to the quiz questions will receive a ZERO. This is considered plagiarism and will be treated as such.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying this chapter, you will be able to… 4-1 Define and illustrate socialization and explain its importance. 4-2 Describe the nature versus nurture debate. 4-3 Compare social learning and symbolic interaction theories of socialization. 4-4 Describe and illustrate five socialization agents. 4-5 Explain how socialization changes throughout life. After finishing this chapter go to PAGE 81 for STUDY TOOLS 4-6 Explain when and how resocialization occurs. 60 SOC Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203 © Photo Credit Here Socialization Comstock Images/Getty Images 4 16 and Pregnant, a popular reality show that aired between 2009 and 2014, spawned three equally popular Teen Mom series. The producers say that the goal of the programs is to decrease teen pregnancy by showing the harmful effects of not using protection or birth control, and the resulting struggles in raising a baby. Critics argue that the shows glamorize teen pregnancy, make the teen moms instant celebrities, and ignore the long-term negative impact on the mothers’ and children’s healthy social development (Thompson, 2010). Both sides are talking about socialization, the lifelong process through which people learn culture and become functioning members of society. W H AT D O YOU T H I N K ? I’m always the same person, no matter where I am or who’s around. 1 2 strongly agree 4-1 3 4 5 6 7 strongly disagree SOCIALIZATION: ITS PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE Socialization is critical in all societies. To understand why, let’s begin by looking at the purpose of socialization. 4-1a What Is the Purpose of Socialization? Socialization—from childhood to old age—can be relatively smooth or bumpy, depending on factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, and social class. Generally, however, socialization has four key functions that range from providing us with a social identity to transmitting culture to the next generation. SOCIALIZATION ESTABLISHES OUR SOCIAL IDENTITY Have you ever thought about how you became the person you are today? Sociology professors sometimes ask their students to give 20 answers to the question “Who am I?” (Kuhn and McPartland, 1954). How would you respond? You would probably include a variety of descriptions like college student, single or married, female or male, and son or daughter. Your answers would show a sense of your self (a concept we’ll examine shortly). You are who you are largely because of socialization. SOCIALIZATION TEACHES US ROLE TAKING Why do you act differently in class than with your friends? Because we play different roles in different settings. A role is the behavior expected of a person in a particular social position (see Chapter 5). The way we interact with a parent is typically very different from the way we talk to an employer, a child, or a professor. We all learn appropriate roles through socialization. SOCIALIZATION CONTROLS OUR BEHAVIOR In learning appropriate roles, we absorb values and a variety of rules about how we should (and shouldn’t) interact in everyday situations. If we follow the rules, we’re usually rewarded. If we break the rules, we may be punished. Socialization maintains social order and controls our behavior by teaching us to conform to social expectations. We conform because we’ve internalized societal norms and values. Internalization is the process of learning cultural behaviors and expectations so deeply that we accept them without question. Obeying laws, paying bills on time, and respecting teachers are examples of internalized behaviors. SOCIALIZATION TRANSMITS CULTURE TO THE NEXT GENERATION Each generation passes its culture on to the next generation. The culture that is transmitted, as you saw in Chapter 3, includes language, beliefs, values, norms, and symbols. socialization the lifelong process through which people learn culture and become functioning members of society. internalization the process of learning cultural behaviors and expectations so deeply that we accept them without question. CHAPTER 4: Socialization Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203 61 In the early 1960s, psychologists Margaret and Harry Harlow (1962) conducted several studies on infant monkeys. In one group, a “mother” made of terry cloth provided no food, while a “mother” made of wire did so through an attached baby bottle containing milk. In another group, the cloth mother provided food but the wire mother didn’t. Regardless of which mother provided milk, when both groups of monkeys were frightened, they clung to the cloth mother. The Harlows concluded that physical contact and comfort were more important to the infant monkeys than nourishment. Since then, some sociologists have cited the Harlow studies to argue that emotional attachment may be even more critical than food for human infants. Do you see any problems with sociologists’ generalizing the results of animal studies to humans? 4-1b Why Is Socialization Important? Social isolation can be devastating. An example of its negative effects is Genie. When Genie was 20 months old, her father decided she was “retarded,” put her in a wire mesh cage, and locked her away in a back room with the curtains drawn and the door shut. Genie’s father frequently beat her with a wooden stick and no one in the house was allowed to speak to her. When she was discovered in 1970 at age 13, a psychiatrist described Genie as “unsocialized, primitive, and hardly human.” Except for high-pitched whimpers, she never spoke. Genie had little bowel control, experienced rages, and tried to hurt herself. After living in a rehabilitation ward and a foster home, she learned to eat normally, was toilet-trained, and gradually developed a vocabulary, but her language use never progressed beyond that of a 3- or 4-year-old (Curtiss, 1977). The research on children who are isolated (Genie) or institutionalized (orphans) demonstrates that socialization is critical to our development. Behaviors such as talking, eating with utensils, and controlling our bowel movements don’t come naturally. Instead, we learn to do all of these things beginning in infancy. When children are deprived of social interaction, they don’t develop the characteristics that most of us see as normal and human. 62 EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT 4-2 Nina Leen/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images The Harlow Studies and Emotional Attachment NATURE AND NURTURE Biologists focus on the role of heredity (or genetics) in human development. In contrast, most social scientists, including sociologists, underscore the importance of learning, socialization, and culture. This difference of opinion is often called the nature–nurture debate (Table 4.1). 4-2a How Important Is Nature? Those who argue that nature (biology) shapes behavior point to two kinds of evidence—developmental and health differences between males and females, and unsuccessful sex reassignment cases. DEVELOPMENTAL AND HEALTH DIFFERENCES Boys mature more slowly than girls, get sick more often, and are less likely to have mastered the self-control and fine-motor skills necessary for a successful start in school. Boys are also at greater risk than girls for most of the major learning and developmental disorders—as much as four times more likely to suffer from autism, attention deficit disorder, and dyslexia. Girls, however, are at least twice as likely as boys to suffer from depression, anxiety, and eating disorders (Eliot, 2012). SOC Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203 Nature Nurture Human development is . . . Human development is . . . Innate Learned Biological, physiological Psychological, social, cultural Due largely to heredity Due largely to environment Fairly fixed Fairly changeable Among adults, the senses of smell and taste are more acute in women than in men, and hearing is better and lasts longer in women than in men. Women, however, have a higher risk of developing diabetes. Some conditions (migraine headaches and breast cancer) are more common in women, whereas others (hemophilia and skin cancer) are more common in men (McDonald, 1999; Kreeger, 2002). UNSUCCESSFUL SEX REASSIGNMENT Scientists who believe that nature (not nurture) molds behavior also point to unsuccessful sex reassignment attempts. In the 1960s, John Money, a highly respected psychologist, published numerous articles and books in which he maintained that gender identity is determined as much by culture and nurture as by hormones (see, for example, Money and Ehrhardt, 1972). His views were based on the case of David Reimer, a child who underwent sex reassignment after his penis was mutilated in a botched circumcision. His parents, upon Money’s recommendation, raised David as a girl (Brenda). Money maintained that Brenda was happy and healthy. A biologist and a psychiatrist who followed up on David/ Brenda’s case in the 1990s, however, concluded that the sex reassignment had failed (Diamond and Sigmundson, 1997). 4-2b How Important Is Nurture? Nature or Most sociologists maintain that nurture is more significant than nature because socialization and culture shape human behavior. They point to successful sex reassignment cases (see Vitello, 2006) and two types of data to support their argument: cross-cultural variations in male violence, and the environment’s effect on biology. CROSS-CULTURAL VARIATIONS IN MALE VIOLENCE We often hear that males are “naturally” more aggressive than females because their glands produce more testosterone, the dominant male hormone. If men were innately aggressive due to biology, they would be equally violent across all societies. This isn’t the case. The proportion of women who have ever suffered physical violence by a male partner varies considerably: 16 percent in East Asia, 21 percent in North America, 41 percent in western Latin America, and 66 percent in central sub-Saharan Africa (World Health Organization, 2013). All mass murderers (those who have killed a large number of people during one incident) have been men, but most such murders have occurred in the United States (Christakis, 2012; Kluger, 2014). Such variations reflect cultural laws and practices and other environmental factors (nurture) rather than biology or genetics (nature) (Chesney-Lind and Pasko, 2004). HOW ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS BIOLOGY Much research shows that environment (nurture) influences children’s genetic makeup (nature). For example, birth defects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure can occur in the first 3 to 8 weeks of pregnancy, before a woman even knows she’s pregnant. A woman’s single drinking “binge”—lasting four hours or more—can permanently damage an unborn child’s brain. A man who drinks heavily may have genetically damaged sperm that also leads to birth defects. Thus, alcohol abuse (an environmental factor) by either a woman or a man can have a devastating, irreversible, and lifelong negative biological impact on a child (Denny et al., 2009; Warren, 2012). In a growing field known as “fetal origins,” scientists are finding that the nine months of pregnancy constitute the most consequential period of our lives, permanently influencing the wiring of the brain, the functioning of organs like the heart and liver, and behavior. That is, the kind and quantity of nutrition you received in the womb; the pollutants, drugs, and infections you nurture? were exposed to during gestation; your parents’ health and eating habits; and your mother’s stress level during pregnancy—all these factors have lasting effects in infancy, childhood, and adulthood (Begley, 2010; Paul, 2010). Adult behavior can influence a child’s biological makeup in other ways. Physical, psychological, or sexual abuse can blunt a child’s biological development and lead to behavioral and emotional problems throughout life (see Chapter 12). Siblings share much genetic makeup, but the quality of the schools they attend and the teachers they have affect their interests, social skills, academic outcomes, and earnings in adulthood (Whitehurst, 2016). Lichtmeister/Shutterstock.com graphixmania/Shutterstock.com Denys Kurbatov/Shutterstock.com Table 4.1 The Nature–Nurture Debate CHAPTER 4: Socialization Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203 63 Fotoluminate/Shutterstock.com 4-2c Is children’s obesity due to nature, nurture, or both? What Can We Conclude About the Nature–Nurture Debate? Humans have hundreds of traits—like height, metabolism, aggression, leadership traits, and cognitive ability— that are partly inherited (Freese, 2008). A team of researchers analyzed 50 years of twin studies and more than 300 characteristics. They found that, on average, 49 percent of the individual differences were genetic and 51 percent were environmental, but some traits (e.g., a cleft lip) were more likely to be inherited than others (e.g., antisocial behavior) (Polderman et al., 2015). Our social environment can enhance or dampen biological characteristics. Children who are genetically predisposed to obesity don’t always become overweight if parents discourage overeating and encourage physical recreational activities (Martin, 2008). The Case of Brenda/David 64 David had a mastectomy (breast removal surgery) at age 14 and underwent several operations to reconstruct a penis. At age 25, he married an older woman and adopted her three children. At age 38, he committed suicide. Most suicides have multiple reasons, but some speculated that David committed suicide because of the “physical and mental torments he suffered in childhood that haunted him the rest of his life” (Colapinto, 2004: 96). David’s experience suggests to some scientists that nature outweighs nurture in shaping a person’s gender identity. Str Old/REUTERS In 1963, twin boys were being circumcised when the penis of one of the infants, David Reimer, was accidentally burned off. Encouraged by John Money, a highly respected psychologist, the parents agreed to raise David as “Brenda.” The child’s testicles were removed, and surgery to construct a vagina was planned. Money reported that the twins were growing into happy, well-adjusted children, setting a precedent for sex reassignment as the standard treatment for 15,000 newborns with similarly injured genitals (Colapinto, 1997, 2001). In the mid-1990s, a biologist and a psychiatrist followed up on Brenda’s progress and concluded that the sex reassignment had failed. Almost from the beginning, Brenda refused to be treated like a girl. When her mother dressed her in frilly clothes as a toddler, Brenda tried to rip them off. She preferred to play with boys and stereotypical boys’ toys such as machine guns (Diamond and Sigmundson, 1997). At age 14, Brenda rebelled and stopped living as a girl: She refused to wear dresses, urinated standing up, refused vaginal surgery, and decided she would either commit suicide or live as a male. When his father finally told David the true story of his birth and sex change, David recalls that “all of a sudden everything clicked. For the first time things made sense and I understood who and what I was” (Diamond and Sigmundson, 1997: 300). David Reimer was raised as a girl, Brenda, until he was 14. SOC Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203 4-3 SOCIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF SOCIALIZATION Functionalism provides a foundation for understanding the purposes of socialization described at the beginning of this chapter, but doesn’t tell us how socialization works. There are well-known psychological and psychosocial theories of human development (e.g., Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget, and Lawrence Kohlberg). In sociology, two influential micro approaches that explain socialization are social learning theories and symbolic interaction theories (Table 4.2 summarizes these perspectives). 4-3a SelectStock/Vetta/Getty Images Genetic intelligence thrives in an enriching environment but is stifled in poor and disadvantaged conditions. Children of average intelligence who are adopted by rich parents tend to grow up to be rich adults; genetically talented children raised by biological parents who are poor are much less likely to enjoy economic success as adults (Bryant, 2014; Black et al., 2015; Tucker-Drob and Bates, 2016; see also Chapters 8 and 13). Biological factors play an important role in human behavior, but sociology’s larger concern is how socialization affects people’s development, even overriding some genetic predispositions and influences. Social Learning Theories The central notion of social learning theories is that people learn new attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through social interaction, especially during childhood. The learning is direct and indirect, and a result of observation, reinforcement, and imitation (Bandura and Walters, 1963; Mischel, 1966; Lynn, 1969). DIRECT AND INDIRECT LEARNING Reinforcement refers to direct or indirect rewards or punishments for particular behaviors. Consider gender roles. A little girl who puts on her mother’s makeup may be told that she’s cute, but her brother will be scolded (“boys don’t wear makeup”). Children also learn through indirect reinforcement. If a little boy’s male friends are punished for crying, he’ll learn that “boys don’t cry.” Children also learn through observation and imitation. Even when children aren’t directly rewarded or punished for “behaving like a boy” or “behaving like a girl,” they learn about gender by watching who does what in their families. A father who is rarely at home because he’s always working sends the message that men are supposed to earn money. A mother who always complains about being overweight or old sends the message that women are supposed to be thin and young. Because parents are emotionally important to their children, they’re typically a child’s most powerful role models, people we admire and whose behavior we imitate. Other role models, as you’ll see shortly, include siblings, grandparents, teachers, friends, and even celebrities. Parents and other role models reinforce particular behaviors, but much of our learning is informal and occurs in a variety of social contexts. A recent study analyzed nearly 6,000 children’s picture books published from 1900 to 2000. Females were central characters in no more than 33 percent of the books published in any given year (McCabe et al., 2011). Such underrepresentation teaches children, though informally, that males occupy more important roles in society than do women. LEARNING AND PERFORMING Social learning theorists also distinguish between learning and performing behavior. Children and adults learn norms and roles through observation, but they don’t always imitate the behavior. For example, children may see their friends cheat in school but don’t do so themselves. Adults, similarly, may see their coworkers steal office supplies but buy their own. We behave as we do, then, because our society teaches us what’s appropriate and inappropriate. CRITICAL EVALUATION Social learning theories help us understand why we behave as we do, but much of the emphasis is on early socialization rather than what occurs throughout life. Social learning theories social learning theories don’t explain why reinpeople learn new attitudes, beliefs, forcement and modeling and behaviors through social affect some children more interaction. than oth ...
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Running Head: SOCIALIZATION

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Socialization
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SOCIALIZATION

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The socialization of a human being is composed of five significant agents that revolve around the
environment since childhood to adulthood. The first aspect is family as it sets the fundamental
values and assists in the development of self-interest. Secondly, peers introduce competition,
conflict resolutions, and empathy while school teaches individual cooperation, order, and
discipline. Mass media is the fourth agent which displays the concepts that children and adults
imitate, and finally, work builds on responsibility and organizational relations. These agents are
influential in the social development of an individual and determine the character t...

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