PSY 331 FP wk3 wk5

Aug 1st, 2013
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This assignment has to done using what was written in wk3 so I have included it in the post my work and the remarks for the teacher the directions for the final paper is at the bottom need it by Friday

Running head: CONDITIONING 
[AMW1]


Classical
Conditioning



Lashanda
Gilyard



Andrea
Wilson



PSY 331



July 19,
2013


Conditioning  2



Classical conditioning is the
associative learning process by which a neutral stimulus becomes conditioned,
producing a conditioned response which is similar with the unconditioned [AMW2].



A. Basic assumption



Conditioning occurs if a contingent
relationship exists between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned [AMW3].

B. Authors



Pavlov was the first to develop the
theory of classical conditioning when he discovered that the dogs he used for
his experiments responded to the sound of a ring bell in a similar way they
were responding to food presentation-that is- by salivating.

C. [AMW4].



Contingency is probably the most
important principle, as the conditioning only occurs if there is enough spatial
and temporal closeness between the unconditioned stimulus and the neutral
stimulus. On the other hand, frequency and intensity are variables that explain
why some associative learning’s are stronger than others; if the neutral and
the unconditioned stimuli are presented close in space and time more often, the
conditioned response should be stronger; if the unconditioned stimulus produce
a stronger unconditioned response, the conditioned response should also be [AMW5].

D. Conditions



Classical conditioning cannot occur without a
sufficient previous experience with the unconditioned and neutral stimuli;
however the experience does not need to be [AMW6].


E.  Maintenance



Conditioning 
3



In some cases [AMW7]
does not occur because the conditioned stimulus needs to be presented without
the unconditioned stimulus, and the intensity and frequency of the
exposure–necessary for the extinction vary depending on several aspects.

F.  Application



Classical conditioning can be used
in a variety of settings. It is especially relevant for Clinical Psychology,
and it is use for treating some types of anxiety disorders-especially phobias.



OPERANT CONDITIONING



This type of learning occurs through
rewards
and punishments
[AMW8].



[AMW9].



  Operant conditioning
occurs when a behavior is associated with a given consequence.



B. 
Authors



B.F. Skinner was the first to
explain operant conditioning, using his theory for explaining a variety of
behaviors.



C.  [AMW10]



Discrimination explains why
individuals exhibit some learned behaviors in some contexts and moments; some
stimuli predict the possibility of receiving reinforcement, or a punishment.



Therefore; differentiating among
contexts helps individuals know when or when not to exhibit a certain type of behavior.


D. Previous experience


Conditioning 
4 Learning by operant conditioning occurs only after a given behavior
was reward or punished on one or more occasion; the previous experience has to
be conscious to a certain degree.



E. Maintenance.



 An operant response is likely
to extinguish when that given behavior is no longer followed by specific
consequences, such as reward or punishment; on the other hand some behaviors do
not extinguish, if the rewarding process was combined with some specific
strategies that encourage maintenance.

F.  Applications.



Operant conditioning is very often
used in Educational System. For example, it is common to apply negative
punishment on children who disrupt the class, by making them lose their recess
rights.



[AMW11]



Encompasses
a variety of frameworks- such as operant conditioning and vicarious learning-
in which some mediating variables are introduced into the stimulus-response
model, such as cognitions and biological [AMW12].

A. Basic
description
[AMW13].



The theory
basic assumption is that conditioning learning is not merely an association
between stimuli and responses, but that abstract entities such as memory and
cognition are involved during the process of learning.


Conditioning  5



B.
Authors.



E.C.
Tolman challenged classical behaviorism when he introduce the concept of
‘’purpose behavior’’, that is a behavior directed toward a goal. C.L. Hull and
Skinner also contributed greatly to the new behavioral paradigm,



C.
Application



Neobehaviorist principles are applied in a
variety of settings, especially clinical psychology, education and economy.


Conditioning  6



[AMW14]



Hughes,
Claire (2011). Hughes, Claire. (2011) Social Understanding and Social Lives.
New



  York, Ny: Psychology Press.



This
particular book belongs to the field of Developmental Psychology, it is also
useful for a better understanding of the vicarious/observational learning, as
it seems that this type of learning play a significant role in the ontogeny.



Miltenberger,
R. G. “Behavioral Modification: Principles and Procedures”.



  Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008.



All theories and frameworks within the field of
Behavioral Science are covered in this [AMW15]
.
It is a useful source for a global understanding of classical conditioning,
operant conditioning, vicarious learning and Applied Behaviorism.



William
H. Sandholm (2008). "Learning and evolution in games: an overview," The
New



Palgrave
Dictio^ * Faruk Gul (2008). "behavioral economics and game theory,"
The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition.



[AMW16]This is an article about behavioral
economics. An outline of behavioral research, where the links between
behavioral processes and economic results are revealed. The article overview
the literature within the field of behavioral economics, describing the
scientific finding and possible applications.



Schacter,
Daniel L (2009). PSYCHOLOGY. Catherine



Conditioning 
7



ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES



A
book of
introductory psychology
[AMW17],
which include a general overview of behaviorist concepts and a language that is
accessible for students
Shettleworth,
S. J. (2010). Cognition, Evolution and Behavior (2nd Ed), New York: Oxford.



This book integrates findings from psychology,
behavioral ecology and ethology. It helps the reader understand some basic
scientific assumptions about the interaction between



biology, cognition and the environment; many of the
processes explained throughout the book are linked with several concepts of
neobehavorism.



[AMW18]Psychology of
Learning.
San
Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.











 [AMW1]Lashanda,
you seem to be using subtopics for each learning theory that are somewhat
different from the 6 subtopics that were presented in the assignment
directions. It appears that even though your subtopics are different, you are
addressing some of the required content for each area.  As you work on your final paper, be sure that
you are fully developing the content of each subtopic to fully address the
headings that were presented in the outline directions.


You are off to an adequate start with your
outline. However, your submission is incomplete. There are 6 specific
subsections that must be included for each of the 3 learning theories. Your
outline does not cover all subsections as required. In addition, many of the
references you have included with the outline do not meet the specific
requirements listed in the assignment directions. Please refer to the comments
below for more information and guidance as you develop your final paper for
this course.


Late submission excused.










 [AMW2]What
is the source for this statement? Remember that citations are required even in
an outline.











 [AMW3]This
section will need significantly more development in the final paper.











 [AMW4]What
about concepts such as US, CS, UR/CR? These must be fully explained in order
for this section to be clear for the reader. 
Do not assume that the reader has a pre-existing understanding of the
material.











 [AMW5]Citations
for this section?











 [AMW6]This
statement is unclear.  What is your basis
for this claim? 











 [AMW7]You
have not explained what this is.











 [AMW8]Remember
to address both the positive and negative versions of each.











 [AMW9]Why
is this section needed? This does not match the structure you provided for
classical conditioning above.











 [AMW10]This
section will also need substantially more content in the final paper.  Also, be sure to connect your work to your
sources by providing citations.











 [AMW11]This
section is incomplete as all 6 required subtopics have not been addressed.











 [AMW12]Citation?











 [AMW13]Again,
you are varying the organization and content of your outline.  Every section should be consistent in this
particular outline (see the assignment directions).











 [AMW14]Check
all references for alignment with proper APA format. Most of your sources
listed here do not meet the requirements specified in the assignment directions
for this outline or for the final paper. 
Please be sure you are using a minimum of 5 sources (research articles
published within the last 5 years) from peer-reviewed, scholarly journals. You
can use additional sources that are supplemental to the mandatory 5 journal
articles.











 [AMW15]This
is not a peer-reviewed, research article from a journal which is required for
this assignment and the final paper.  You
can include this as a supplemental source; however, the 5 mandatory sources
must meet the specific requirements provided in the assignment directions.











 [AMW16]It’s
unclear if this is an appropriate source for this assignment or the final
paper.  Be sure all sources meet the
specifications in the directions.











 [AMW17]Not
appropriate for this assignment. Can be a supplemental source in the final
paper.











 [AMW18]Does
not meet the requirements of the assignment or the final paper.  It can be a supplemental source.



Final Paper

The Final Paper will explain, compare, and contrast the major principles associated with classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and neobehaviorism.  Include each element below in your explanation of each of the three theories:
  1. Describe the major principles associated with each theory.
  2. Explain the contributions of the major theorists who worked to develop each theory.
  3. Explain how each theory accounts for the mental processes associated with learning.
  4. Summarize how each theory makes use of prior experience in explaining how people learn.
  5. Describe how each theory explains how permanent change in behavior takes place.
  6. Apply each theory to a real-world learning environment (e.g., schools, treatment facilities, businesses, social activities).
Your Final Paper must be eight to ten pages in length, not including the title and references pages. Your work should demonstrate your understanding of the reading assignments, class discussions, and your own research, as well as illustrate the application of the learning theories to an educational learning environment.

You must utilize at least five scholarly, peer-reviewed sources that were published within the past five years and are formatted according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.  Visit the Ashford University Library databases to locate scholarly sources.   

You will be evaluated on the quality of your analysis of the principles of learning, your ability to analyze and incorporate scholarly sources, the quality of the peer-reviewed sources chosen, your writing skills, and the appropriate use of APA style.  

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:
1. Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford
  Writing Center.
2. Must include a title page with the following:
a. Title of paper
b. Student’s name
c. Course name and number
d. Instructor’s name
e. Date submitted







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