California University of Pennsylvania Charismatic Leaders Paper

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Compare and Contrast 1 -- Two Leaders in ART 1. Select any two leaders who fall under the ART category. You may choose one woman and one man, or two women, or two men. 2. Do some research on the web. You may start with Wikipedia, but go on to read other websites, too. Take some notes or make a little chart on each leader, in terms of their demonstrated character traits, behaviors, or strategies. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/cutting-edge-leadership/201210/what-is-charismaand-charismatic-leadership Use these categories if they help you, which are based on the website above. If you find another good website with charismatic leadership traits, use it, and be sure to include the link pasted into your submission. Idealized Influence Ability to be a positive (and moral) role model for followers, "walks the talk," and is on the "front line" working with followers (think MLK, Jr.), or leaders who sacrifice along with their followers. In business, the charismatic/transformational leader sometimes serves as the "face" of the company or the movement (think Steve Jobs). Inspirational Motivation Ability to inspire and motivate followers to perform at high levels, and to be committed to the organization or the cause. Inclined toward personal risk taking. Intellectual Stimulation – challenging followers to be creative and think outside of the box. Adept at using unconventional behavior. Articulate and visionary. Individualized Consideration – being responsive to the feelings and developmental needs of followers. Sensitivity to their environment and the needs of their employees or followers. Assignment 1. First, assemble your findings and write the body of an essay in 3-4 paragraphs of 5 complete sentences each in which you compare and contrast your two selected ART leaders. Compare means to determine how two things are alike, and Contrast means to identify how they are different, as per the graphic below. 2. After you have written the body paragraphs for your essay (see step 1 above), read it over and create an introduction paragraph at the beginning that looks something like this: In this essay, I compare and contrast Jennifer Lopez and Mary Cassatt as charismatic leaders in art, according to the characteristics of Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, and Individualized Consideration. 3. After you have written the introduction paragraph, read it and your whole essay over once more, and then create a conclusion paragraph at the end. In this paragraph, you do more than restate what the introductions says. You take the whole experience of comparing and contrasting these two and come up with your own conclusion. It can be a speculation on your part. It might look something like this: Jennifer Lopez and Mary Cassatt, as charismatic leaders in Art, were most similar in terms of _______ and __________ and differed greatly in their demonstrated behaviors in terms of __________ and __________. I think these similarities were due to factors like…. Their differences were likely due to differences in…. In the end, I think Lopez (or Cassatt) best fits the model I chose for characteristics of a charismatic leader. Charismatic Leaders may be found in areas like: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Politics Military Religion Intellectual/Scientific Inventors/Entrepreneurs Diplomacy Art http://fortune.com/2014/03/20/worlds-50-greatest-leaders/ https://www.legacee.com/transformational-leadership/list-of-leaders/ Women • Politics o LaDonna Harris, a Comanche Native American social activist and politician from Oklahoma. Founder and President of Americans for Indian Opportunity (1931-) o Eva Peron, First Lady of Argentina (1946-1952) o Ella Baker, civil rights and human rights activist o Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State, NY senator, First Lady, Democratic Nominee for President in 2016 o Queen Rania Al Abdullah – Queen Consort of Jordan o Angela Merkel – Chancellor of Germany o Yingluck Shinawatra – Businesswoman & Former Prime Minister, Thailand o Cristina Fernandez De Kirchner – President of Argentina o Yulia Tymoshenko - Ukrainian politician and former prime minister o Dilma Rousseff – President of Brazil o Mary Robinson, first female president of Ireland o Malala Yousafzai --- Pakistani advocate for human, women’s, children’s, and education rights o Tetiana Chornovol, Ukrainian journal and civic activist o Juliana Rotich, co-founder of Ushahidi -- Ushahidi, which translates to “testimony” in Swahili, was developed to map reports of violence in Kenya after the post-election violence in 2008 o Bernadette Devlin, Irish republican socialist political activist and former politician o Queen Elizabeth I, England, 1558-1603 o Queen Elizabeth II, England, 1951-present o Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 1979-1990 o Johanna Sigurdardottir, Prime Minister of Iceland o Sheik Hasina Wajed, Prime Minister of Bangladesh o Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, President of Liberia 1 o o o o o o Julia Gillard, Prime Minister of Australia Sonia Gandhi, President of the Indian National Congress Sahar Gul, Director of Pakistan Diana, Princess of Wales 1981-1996 Cleopatra, the last active ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt, briefly survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. After her reign, Egypt became a province of the recently established Roman Empire. LaDonna Harris is a Comanche Native American social activist and politician from Oklahoma. She is the founder and president of Americans for Indian Opportunity. • Military o Boadicea, queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61 o Fuo Hao, one of the many wives of King Wu Ding of the Shang dynasty and, unusually for that time, also served as a military general and high priestess. o Trung Track and Trung Nhi - Vietnamese military leaders who ruled for three years after rebelling in AD 40 against the first Chinese domination of Vietnam. They are regarded as national heroines of Vietnam. o Laskarine Bouboulina, a Greek naval commander, heroine of the Greek War of Independence in 1821, and an Admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy. o Juana Azurduy, a Bolivian guerrilla military leader. o Lakshmibai, Queen of the Indian state of Jhansi, of the ancient Maratha Empire (16741818), in north-central India. Lakshmibai Rani was one of the most prominent figures of the 1857 Indian Rebellion and resistance to the British Raj. o Yaa Asantewaa, queen mother of Ejisu in the Ashanti Empire – now part of modern-day Ghana, appointed by her brother Nana Akwasi Afrane Opese, the Edwesuhene, or ruler, of Edwesu. In 1900, she led the Ashanti war known as the War of the Golden Stool, also known as the Yaa Asantewaa war, against British colonialism. o Marina Raskova, a famous Soviet navigator. She later became one of over 800,000 women in the military service, founding three female air regiments which would eventually fly over 30,000 sorties in World War II. o Michelle Howard, a United States Navy admiral who currently serves as the commander of U.S. Naval Forces Europe while she concurrently serves as the commander of U.S. Naval Forces Africa and commander of Allied Joint Force Command Naples. She previously served as the 38th Vice Chief of Naval Operations. o Janet Wolfenbarger, a retired United States Air Force four-star general who served as the eighth commander of Air Force Materiel Command from June 5, 2012, to June 8, 2015. She was the first woman to achieve the rank of four-star general in the Air Force. o Ann Dunwoody, a retired general of the United States Army. She was the first woman in U.S. military and uniformed service history to achieve a four-star officer rank, receiving her fourth star on November 14, 2008. o Lori Robinson, a United States Air Force general who currently serves as commander of the U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) and commander of the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). 2 • Religion o Joan of Arc, Martyr, saint and military leader o Mother Theresa of Calcutta, Albanian-Indian Roman Catholic nun, saint, and missionary. o Ingrid Mattson, a Muslim religious leader, a professor of Islamic Studies and an interfaith activist. o Katharine Jefferts Schori, the former Presiding Bishop and Primate of the Episcopal Church of the United States. o Sharon E. Watkins, a Christian minister and, since 2005, had been the general minister and president of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). o Sharon Salzberg, a New York Times Best-selling author and teacher of Buddhist meditation practices in the West. In 1974, she co-founded the Insight Meditation Society at Barre, Massachusetts with Jack Kornfield and Joseph Goldstein. o Ruth Messinger, a former political leader in New York City and a member of the Democratic Party as well as the Democratic Socialists of America. She is formerly the President and CEO of American Jewish World Service, an international development agency. o Joyce Meyer, a Charismatic Christian author and speaker and president of Joyce Meyer Ministries. o Suzan Cook, a presidential advisor, pastor, theologian, author, activist, and academic who served as the United States Ambassador-at-Large for International Religious Freedom from April 2011 to October 2013. o Carol Keehan, a member of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul and the CEO of the Catholic Health Association of the United States (CHA) o Sharon Kleinbaum, spiritual leader of New York City’s Congregation Beit Simchat Torah. She was installed as CBST's first rabbi in 1992, arriving at the height of the AIDS crisis when the synagogue was in desperate need of pastoral care and spiritual leadership. o Anju Bhargava, shortly after her appointment to the President's Inaugural Advisory Council in April 2009, Bhargava founded Hindu American Seva Charities a progressive American organization advancing seva (community service), interfaith collaboration, pluralism, social justice and sustainable civic engagement to ignite grassroots social change and build healthy communities. o Mary - a 1st-century Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. • Intellectual or Scientific o Arti Prabhakar , American engineer and the former head of DARPA, the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency o Gloria Steinem, writer, lecturer, political activist, and feminist organizer o Marie Curie, Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity o Jane Goodall, a British primatologist, ethologist, anthropologist, and UN Messenger of Peace. Considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees, Goodall is best 3 o o o o o o • known for her over 55-year study of social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees since she first went to Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania in 1960. Maria Mayer, a German-born American theoretical physicist, and Nobel laureate in Physics for proposing the nuclear shell model of the atomic nucleus. She was the second woman to win a Nobel prize in physics, after Marie Curie. Rachel Carson, an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement. Rosalind Franklin, an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite. Barbara McClintock, an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. McClintock received her PhD in botany from Cornell University in 1927. There she started her career as the leader in the development of maize cytogenetics, the focus of her research for the rest of her life. Rita Levi-Montalcini, an Italian Nobel laureate, honored for her work in neurobiology. She was awarded the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with colleague Stanley Cohen for the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF). Gertrude Elion. an American biochemist and pharmacologist, who shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with George H. Hitchings and Sir James Black. Working alone as well as with Hitchings and Black, Elion developed a multitude of new drugs, using innovative research methods that would later lead to the development of the AIDS drug AZT. She developed the first immunosuppressive drug, azathioprine, used for organ transplants. Inventors and Entrepreneurs o Sheryl Sandberg - COO of Facebook o Marillyn Hewson – President and CEO of Lockheed Martin o Marissa Mayer - CEO of Yahoo! o Arianna Huffington - Editor-In-Chief of The Huffington Post o Mary T. Barra - CEO of General Motors o Susan Wojcicki - CEO of YOUTUBE o Nancy Lublin, CEO of Do Something o Gail Kelly, CEO of Westpac o Hedy Lamarr, an Austrian and American film actress and inventor. At the beginning of World War II, Lamarr and composer George Antheil developed a radio guidance system for Allied torpedoes, which used spread spectrum and frequency hopping technology to defeat the threat of jamming by the Axis powers. Although the US Navy did not adopt the technology until the 1960s, the principles of their work are now incorporated into modern Wi-Fi, CDMA, and Bluetooth technology, and this work led to their induction into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2014. o Mary Anderson, an American real estate developer, rancher, viticulturist and inventor of the windshield wiper blade. 4 o o o o o o o o o Barbara Askins, an American chemist. She is best known for her invention of a method to enhance underexposed photographic negatives. This development was used extensively by NASA and the medical industry, and it earned Askins the title of National Inventor of the Year in 1978. Patricia Billings, initially sought to create a cement additive to prevent her sculptures from shattering in the 1970s. After years of experimenting, she finally achieved her goal of making an indestructible plaster. Soon after, she discovered the material was also amazingly resistant to heat – which opened the door to a larger number of applications. Because the Geobond® invention is non-toxic as well as indestructible and fire-proof, it is the world's first workable replacement for asbestos. Marion Donovan, an American inventor and entrepreneur. She is best known for developing the first waterproof disposable diaper, a feat which earned her election to the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2015. Sally Fox, Prior to Fox's invention of Foxfibre cotton, naturally colored cotton could only be spun by hand – which was such a long and laborious process that businesses instead chose to take white cotton, bleach it, dye it and spin it on a machine. This produced the colored fabrics people wanted, but also created a lot of pollution through the bleaching and dying processes. While working as a pollinator for a cotton breeder looking to develop more pest-resistant plants, Fox began breeding brown and green cotton, picking out the best seeds that produced the longest fibers and replanting them year after year. By the early 90s, Sally Fox had a $10-million-dollar business that produced naturally colored cotton for major companies like Levi's, Espirit, Land's End and L.L. Bean. It was the best of both worlds – a more environmentally friendly product that was also turning a profit. Bette Nesmith-Graham, an American typist, commercial artist, and the inventor of Liquid Paper. Temple Grandin, an American professor of animal science at Colorado State University, consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior, and autism spokesperson. She is one of the first individuals on the autism spectrum to publicly share insights from her personal experience of autism. She invented the "hug box" device to calm those on the autism spectrum. Ruth Handler, an American businesswoman and inventor. She served as the president of the toy manufacturer Mattel Inc., and is best remembered for inventing the Barbie doll. Grace Murray, an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral. In 1944, she was one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer and invented the first compiler for a computer programming language. She popularized the idea of machine-independent programming languages, which led to the development of COBOL, one of the first high-level programming languages. Mary Phelps Jacob, a young New York socialite who became exasperated with the antiquated corsets after finding it impossible to prevent the support rods from poking out from underneath the fabric of her evening gown. Determined to create a more comfortable, less cumbersome alternative, Jacob took two silk handkerchiefs and, with help from her maid, sewed them together using some pink ribbon and cord. Jacob's design was the first brassiere to enjoy widespread use, but its popularity did not peak 5 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o until World War I, when the U.S. government requested that women stop purchasing corsets in order to conserve metal. Margaret Knight, an American inventor, notably of the flat-bottomed paper bag. She has been called "the most famous 19th-century woman inventor" Stephanie Kwolek an American chemist, whose career at the DuPont company spanned over forty years. She is best known for inventing the first of a family of synthetic fibers of exceptional strength and stiffness: poly-paraphenylene terephthalamide—better known as Kevlar. Ann Moore, an American nurse credited as the inventor of the Snugli and Weego child carriers. Moore's modifications to the infant carrier resulted in additional patents. In 1988 and 1989, she was issued patents for the Air Lift, a backpack carrier for portable oxygen dispensers. Lyda Newman, an African-American inventor and women's rights activist. A hairdresser by trade, she received a patent for an improved model of hairbrush in 1898. Her hairbrush design included several features for efficiency and hygiene. It had evenly spaced rows of bristles, with open slots to guide debris away from the hair into a recessed compartment, and a back that could be opened at the touch of a button for cleaning out the compartment. Patsy Sherman, an American chemist and co-inventor of Scotchgard, a 3M brand of products, a stain repellent and durable water repellent. Giuliana Tesoro, a prolific organic chemist with more than 125 U.S. patents. She made many contributions to the fiber and textile industry. Perhaps one of her most wellknown inventions is the flame-retardant fiber. Ruth Wakefield, the inventor of the Toll House Cookie, the first chocolate chip cookie, which she created c. 1938. She was also a graduate and educator, a business owner, a chef, and an author. Rachel Zimmerman, In the mid-1980s, a twelve-year old girl developed an invention that greatly helped people who have difficulty communicating. Rachel Zimmerman of Ontario, Canada created a software program using Blissymbols: symbols that enable non-speaking people, such as those with severe physical disabilities like cerebral palsy, to communicate. Indra Nooyi, CEO and chair of PepsiCo Irene Rosenfield, chair and CEO of Kraft Virginia Rometty, CEO of IBM Ursula Burns, chair and CEO of Xerox Corp. Meg Whitman, former eBay chief and new CEO of Hewlett Packard Maria das Gracas Silva Foster, CEO of Brazilian oil company Petrobas. Diane Von Furstenberg, clothing designer and President of the Council of Fashion Designers of America. Amy Pascal, co-chair of Sony Pictures Entertainment Sheri McCoy, CEO at Avon, the world’s largest direct seller of beauty products. Mary Barra, Senior Vice President of Global Product Development at General Motors Laura Lang, CEO of Time, Inc. Former CEO of Digitas. 6 • • Diplomacy o Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese politician, diplomat, and author o Eleanor Roosevelt, an American politician, diplomat, and activist. o Shirley Temple Black, an American actress, singer, dancer, businesswoman, and diplomat who was Hollywood's number one box-office draw as a child actress from 1935 to 1938. As an adult, she was named United States ambassador to Ghana and to Czechoslovakia and served as Chief of Protocol of the United States. o Condoleezza Rice, an American political scientist and diplomat. She served as the 66th United States Secretary of State, the second person to hold that office in the administration of President George W. Bush. o Anne Cox Chambers, Active in business and politics, Chambers was appointed ambassador to Belgium by U.S. president Jimmy Carter, a post she held from 1977 to 1981. o Golda Meir, an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel. o Madeleine Albright, is an American politician and diplomat. She is the first woman to have become the United States Secretary of State. o Geraldine Ferraro o Crown Princess of Japan Masako - Japanese diplomat who became the crown princess of Japan when she married Crown Prince Naruhito in 1993. o Leonore Annenberg, an American businesswoman, government official, and philanthropist, noted for serving as Chief of Protocol of the United States from 1981 to 1982. Annenberg was married to Walter Annenberg, who was an Ambassador to the United Kingdom and newspaper publishing magnate. In her role as the ambassador's wife, Leonore directed a major renovation of the ambassador's official residence. The Annenbergs contributed to Ronald Reagan's 1980 presidential campaign and upon his inauguration, Leonore was named Chief of Protocol, placing her in charge of advising the president, vice president, and Secretary of State on matters relating to diplomatic protocol. o Patricia Roberts Harris, served in the American administration of President Jimmy Carter as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and United States Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (which was renamed the Secretary of Health and Human Services during her tenure). She was the first African American woman to serve in the United States Cabinet, and the first to enter the line of succession to the Presidency. She previously served as United States Ambassador to Luxembourg under President Lyndon B. Johnson, and was the first African-American woman to represent the United States as an ambassador. Art o Rihanna, Barbadian singer, songwriter, and actress o Madonna, American singer, songwriter, actress, and businesswoman o Jennifer Lopez, American singer, actress, dancer, fashion designer, author, and producer o Barbra Streisand, American singer, songwriter, actress, and filmmaker o Oprah Winfrey, American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, producer, and philanthropist. 7 o o o o o o o o o o o o o Fannie Brice, an American illustrated song model, comedian, singer, theater and film actress who made many stage, radio and film appearances and is known as the creator and star of the top-rated radio comedy series The Baby Snooks Show. Mat Hari, a Dutch exotic dancer and courtesan who was convicted of being a spy for Germany during World War I and executed by firing squad in France. Mae West, an American actress, singer, playwright, screenwriter, comedian, and sex symbol whose entertainment career spanned seven decades. Louise Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun, prominent French painter in the Neoclassical and Rococo styles. Mary Cassatt, an American painter and printmaker. She was born in Pennsylvania, but lived much of her adult life in France, where she first befriended Edgar Degas and later exhibited among the Impressionists. Cassatt often created images of the social and private lives of women, with emphasis on the intimate bonds between mothers and children. Georgia O’Keefe, an American artist. She was best known for her paintings of enlarged flowers, New York skyscrapers, and New Mexico landscapes. O'Keeffe has been recognized as the "Mother of American modernism Frida Kahlo, a Mexican painter, who mostly painted self-portraits. Inspired by Mexican popular culture, she employed a naïve folk-art style to explore questions of identity, postcolonialism, gender, class, and race in Mexican society. Her paintings often had strong autobiographical elements and mixed realism with fantasy. Helen Frankenthaler, an American abstract expressionist painter. She was a major contributor to the history of postwar American painting. Judy Chicago, an American feminist artist, art educator, and writer known for her large collaborative art installation pieces, which examine the role of women in history and culture. Agnes Martin, born in Canada, was an American abstract painter. Her work has been defined as an "essay in discretion on inward-ness and silence". Although she is often considered or referred to as a minimalist, Martin considered herself an abstract expressionist. (Elaine) Sturtevant, achieved recognition for her carefully inexact repetitions of other artists' works, that prefigured appropriation. Yayoi Kusama, a Japanese artist and writer. Throughout her career she has worked in a wide variety of media, including painting, collage, soft sculpture, performance art, and environmental installations, most of which exhibit her thematic interest in psychedelic colors, repetition, and pattern. A precursor of the pop art, minimalist and feminist art movements, Kusama influenced her contemporaries such as Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenburg, and George Segal and exhibited works alongside the likes of them Adrian Piper, an American conceptual artist and philosopher. Her work addresses ostracism, otherness, racial "passing" and racism. 8 Men • Politics o Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam o Mao Zedong, Chinese Communist revolutionary who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers’ Party of Vietnam. o Nelson Mandela, South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. o Mahatma Gandhi, leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. o John F. Kennedy, American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. o Ronald Reagan, American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. o Cesar Chavez, American labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association (later the United Farm Workers union, UFW) in 1962. o Yoshihiko Noda, Japanese politician who was Prime Minister of Japan from 2011 to 2012. o Vladimir Putin, current President of Russia, holding the office since 7 May 2012. o Julius Caesar, Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. o Muhammad Ali, American professional boxer and activist. o Steve Biko, South African anti-apartheid activist. o Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. o Bill Clinton, American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 o Donald Trump, current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality. o George Washington, American politician and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. o Barack Obama, American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. o Lech Walesa, retired Polish politician and labour activist. o Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India 9 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Manuel Valls – Prime Minister of France David Cameron – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Enrique Pena Nieto – President of Mexico Larry Ellison - Co-Founder of Oracle Imran Khan - Pakistani Leader and former cricketer Alexis Tsipras – Prime Minister of Greece Fidel Castro, a Cuban revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008. Winston Churchill, a British politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Manny Pacquiao, Boxer and politician Theodore Roosevelt, an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909. Benito Mussolini, an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943. Dwight D. Eisenhower, an American politician and Army general who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. Abraham Lincoln, American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Peter the Great, ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May (O.S. 27 April) 1682 until his death Charlemagne, King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognized emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. Charles V, ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. Justinian, a Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Tokugaw Ieyasu, founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Louis XIV, a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a country in European history. Stalin, a Soviet revolutionary, politician and political theorist. He governed the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953. Shaka, also known as Shaka[a] Zulu, was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom. 10 o o Alexander the Great, a king (basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead dynasty. He created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece to northwestern India Ivan the Terrible, the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then "Tsar of All the Russias" until his death in 1584. • Military o Ernesto “Che” Guevara, Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist. o Genghis Khan, born Temüjin, was the Great Khan and founder of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. o Norman Schwarzkopf, was a Vietnam War veteran, commander of the U.S. Central Command and a four-star general in the U.S. Army. o Napoléon Bonaparte, French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. o Pericles, a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age—specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. o Ataturk, a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938. o Frederick the Great, King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king. His most significant accomplishments during his reign included his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. o Constantine, a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer, and his consort Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. o Simon Bolivar, a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule. o Robert E. Lee, an American general known for commanding the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War from 1862 until his surrender in 1865. o Ulysses S. Grant, As Commanding General (1864–69), Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War. • Religion o Jesus of Nazareth, Jewish preacher and religious leader who became the central figure of Christianity o Malcolm X, African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist o Martin Luther King, Jr., American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the Civil Rights Movement 11 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Ras Tafari/Haile Selassie - Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. Precise interpretations of his identity differ. For Rastas, Haile Selassie is believed to be the messiah predicted in the Biblical Old Testament, and the Second Coming of Jesus of Nazareth. John Hagee, founder of the Cornerstone megachurch in San Antonio, CEO of Global Evangelism Television and John Hagee Ministries, and founder of Christian-Zionist group Christians United for Israel. Pope Francis, current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, the first Jesuit pope Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German pastor, theologian, spy, anti-Nazi dissident, and key founding member of the Confessing Church. Buddha, an ascetic and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. Sun Myung Moon (1920-2012), Korean religious leader, also known for his support of business ventures and social and political causes. Jim Jones (1931-1978), an American cult leader and communist Marshall Applewhite (1931-1997), American cult leader who founded what became known as the Heaven's Gate religious group and organized their mass suicide in 1997, claiming the lives of thirty-nine people. Charles Manson (1934- ), American criminal and former cult leader who led what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune that arose in California in the late 1960s. David Koresh (1959-1993), American leader of the Branch Davidians religious sect, believing himself to be its final prophet. Pope John Paul II, was Pope from 1978 to 2005. He is called by some Catholics Saint John Paul the Great. Muhammad, the prophet and founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was God's Messenger, sent to confirm the essential teachings of monotheism preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Gregory the Great, Pope of the Catholic Church from 3 September 590 to his death in 604. Gregory is famous for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome to convert a pagan people to Christianity. St. Paul, an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world. Martin Luther, a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Moses, a prophet in the Abrahamic religions. According to the Hebrew Bible, he was a former Egyptian prince who later in life became a religious leader and lawgiver, to whom the authorship of the Torah, or acquisition of the Torah from Heaven is traditionally attributed. Francis of Assisi, an Italian Roman Catholic friar, deacon and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis and the Custody of the Holy Land. Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history. Jesse Jackson, an American civil rights activist, Baptist minister, and politician. He was a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988 and served as a 12 shadow U.S. Senator for the District of Columbia from 1991 to 1997. He is the founder of the organizations that merged to form Rainbow/PUSH. • Intellectual, Scientific o Peter Drucker, Austrian-born American management consultant, educator, and author, whose writings contributed to the philosophical and practical foundations of the modern business corporation. o Stephen Hawking, an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. o Richard Feynman, an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics o Albert Einstein , a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the theory of relativity o Thomas Edison, an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor. o Neil Armstrong, an American astronaut, engineer, and the first person to walk on the Moon. He was also an aerospace engineer, naval aviator, test pilot, and university professor. o Niccolo Machiavelli, an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science. o Karl Marx, a Prussian-born philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. o Socrates, a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy. o Henry David Thoreau, an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian. o Friedrich Nietzsche, a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, philologist, and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. o Confucius, a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. o Galileo, an Italian polymath: astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician. o Charles Darwin, an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. o Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, a German writer and statesman. His works include epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; treatises on botany, anatomy, and color; and four novels. • Inventors and Entrepreneurs o Rupert Murdoch, an Australian-born American media mogul, CEO of 21st Century Fox o Jack Welch, American retired business executive, author, and chemical engineer. He was chairman and CEO of General Electric between 1981 and 2001. 13 o • Billy Martin, American Major League Baseball second baseman and manager. He is best known as the manager of the New York Yankees, a position he held five different times. o Steve Jobs, American entrepreneur, businessman, inventor, and industrial designer. He was the co-founder, chairman, and chief executive officer (CEO) of Apple Inc.; CEO and majority shareholder of Pixar o Gary C. Kelly, Chairman and CEO of Southwest Airlines o Ray Kroc, an American businessman, joined McDonald's in 1955 and built it into the most successful fast food corporation in the world. o Thomas J. Watson, Sr. served as the chairman and CEO of International Business Machines (IBM) He oversaw the company's growth into an international force from 1914 to 1956. o William Harley, one of the founders of Harley-Davidson, with the three Davidson brothers, Arthur, William, and Walter. o Jeff Bezos, American technology and retail entrepreneur, investor, and philanthropist who is best known as the founder, chairman, and chief executive officer of Amazon.com, which is the world's largest online shopping retailer. o Kazuo Hirai - CEO of SONY Corporation o David Karp - Founder and CEO of TUMBLR o Jay Y. Lee - Vice Chairman of Samsung o Jack Dorsey - Co-Founder and Chairman of Twitter o Robert Allen “Bob” Iger – Chairman and CEO of Walt Disney Company o Mark Zuckerberg – Founder and CEO of Facebook o Sergey Brin - Co-Founder of Google, Inc. o Robin Li - CEO, Co-founder and Chairman of Baidu o Elon Musk - CEO of Tesla Motors and Spacex o Drew Houston - CEO of Dropbox, Inc. o Sir Richard Branson – founder of VIRGIN Group o Satya Nadella, CEO Microsoft o Henry Ford, an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. o Al Capone, an American gangster who attained fame during the Prohibition era as the co-founder and boss of the Chicago Outfit. His seven-year reign as crime boss ended when he was 33 years old. Diplomacy o Henry Kissinger, a German-American diplomat and political scientist who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. o Otto von Bismarck, a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s, he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states, deliberately excluding Austria, into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germany's position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. 14 o o o o o o o o • Klemens von Metternich, a German diplomat and statesman and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation. a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006. Annan and the UN were the corecipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize Benjamin Franklin, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a renowned polymath and a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. Colin Powell, an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army. Tony Blair, a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. Sidney Poitier, a Bahamian-American actor, film director, author and diplomat. From 1997 to 2007, he served as the non-resident Bahamian ambassador to Japan. Ralph Bunche, an American political scientist, academic, and diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his late 1940s mediation in Israel. Alan Keyes, an American conservative political activist, pundit, author, former diplomat, and perennial candidate for public office. Art o o o o o o o o o o o o Bono, an Irish singer-songwriter, musician, venture capitalist, businessman, and philanthropist., George Clooney, an American actor, filmmaker, activist, businessman, and philanthropist. Ai Weiwei, Artist and Activist John Lennon, an English guitarist, singer, and songwriter who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful and musically influential band in the history of popular music. Oscar Wilde, an Irish playwright, novelist, essayist, and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. Elvis Presley, an American singer-songwriter and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is often referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or simply "the King" Mark Twain, an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. Dwayne Johnson, an American actor, producer, and professional wrestler. Tupac, an American rapper and actor. Freddy Mercury, a British singer, songwriter and record producer, known as the lead vocalist and co-principal songwriter of the rock band Queen. Jim Morrison, an American singer, songwriter, and poet, best remembered as the lead singer of the Doors. Johnny Cash, an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, actor, and author. 15 o o o o o Paul McCartney, an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and composer. He gained worldwide fame as the bass guitarist and singer for the rock band the Beatles, widely considered the most popular and influential group in the history of pop music. Fred Rogers, an American television personality, famous for creating, hosting, and composing the theme music for the educational preschool television series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (1968–2001), which featured his kind-hearted, gentle, softspoken personality, and directness to his audiences. Pablo Picasso, a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Leonardo Da Vinci, an Italian Renaissance polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. John Denver, an American musician, singer-songwriter, record producer, activist, actor, and humanitarian, whose greatest commercial success was as a solo singer. 16 Compare and Contrast 1 -- Two Leaders in ART 1. Select any two leaders who fall under the ART category. You may choose one woman and one man, or two women, or two men. 2. Do some research on the web. You may start with Wikipedia, but go on to read other websites, too. Take some notes or make a little chart on each leader, in terms of their demonstrated character traits, behaviors or strategies. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/cutting-edgeleadership/201210/what-is-charisma-and-charismaticleadership Use these categories if they help you, which are based on the website above. If you find another good website with charismatic leadership traits, use it, and be sure to include the link pasted into your submission. • • Idealized Influence Ability to be a positive (and moral) role model for followers, “walks the talk,” and is on the “front line” working with followers (think MLK, Jr.), or leaders who sacrifice along with their followers. In business, the charismatic/transformational leader sometimes serves as the “face” of the company or the movement (think Steve Jobs). Inspirational Motivation Ability to inspire and motivate followers to perform at high levels, and to be committed • • to the organization or the cause. Inclined toward personal risk taking. Intellectual Stimulation – challenging followers to be creative and think outside of the box. Adept at using unconventional behavior. Articulate and visionary. Individualized Consideration – being responsive to the feelings and developmental needs of followers. Sensitivity to their environment and the needs of their employees or followers. To Submit in D2L 1. First, assemble your findings and write the body of an essay in 3-4 paragraphs of 5 complete sentences each in which you compare and contrast your two selected ART leaders. Compare means to determine how two things are alike, and Contrast means to identify how they are different, as per the graphic below. So, for example, in one paragraph (or a few sentences), you might describe how Jennifer Lopez and Mary Cassatt used Idealized Influence. For each, what similarities do you notice in how they demonstrated character traits, behaviors or strategies in presenting themselves as an Idealized Influence? And in what ways did Lopez and Cassatt accomplish being an Idealized Influence differently? And repeating the same writing structure, examine them both in terms of being an Inspirational Motivation. How did Lopez and Cassatt go about this similarly? How did they do it differently? And then do the same writing exercise for Intellectual Stimulation and Individualized Consideration. 2. After you have written the body paragraphs for your essay (see step 1 above), read it over and create an introduction paragraph at the beginning that looks something like this: In this essay, I compare and contrast Jennifer Lopez and Mary Cassatt as charismatic leaders in art, according to the characteristics of Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, and Individualized Consideration. They were most similar in terms of _______ and __________ and differed greatly in their demonstrated behaviors in terms of __________ and __________. 3. After you have written the introduction paragraph, read it and your whole essay over once more, and then create a conclusion paragraph at the end. In this paragraph, you do more than restate what the introductions says. You take the whole experience of comparing and contrasting these two and come up with your own conclusion. It can be a speculation on your part. It might look something like this: Jennifer Lopez and Mary Cassatt, as charismatic leaders in Art, were most similar in terms of _______ and __________ and differed greatly in their demonstrated behaviors in terms of __________ and __________. I think these similarities were due to factors like…. Their differences were likely due to differences in…. In the end, I think Lopez (or Cassatt) best fits the model I chose for characteristics of a charismatic leader. ** Remember, I used Lopez and Cassatt as examples to show how to create your essay. You may use whomever you like under the Art category on our list, or other artist[s] you believe may be charismatic leaders. **
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Running Head: CHARISMA LEADERS

Charismatic Leaders

Student’s Name
Institution Affiliation

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CHARISMA LEADERS

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History is not short of leaders who espoused Charisma. The notable leaders who
possessed the ability to eloquently and emotionally connect with their audiences vary across
disciplines. In the art scene, Mae West and Oprah Winfrey particularly expound the import of
charismatic traits in leaders. In this es...


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