The question is to answer the discussion question on some criminal Justice reading that was given to us.

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The requirement is to answer the discussion questions on the readings that i uploaded. This assignment is due tomorrow 1pm September 1, 2019.

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LesserGenius
School: University of Maryland

Attached.

Running head: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

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A Study of Theoretical Criminology
Name
Institution

Running head: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

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Answers for Vold’s Theoretical Criminology Chapter 1
Question 1
The effects of this spiritual view on the criminal justice system today are varied. For
instance, compurgation developed into the modern witnesses under oath and jury system of
determining criminality. The foundation of the system is in the belief that individuals will not
lie under oath. The modern prison system also originated from a spiritual belief system. A
part of Quakers in about 1790 acquired the idea of isolating lawbreakers. Provisions offered
in isolation were a bible and some manual labor. The belief here was that criminals would
take this time to reflect on their former transgressions and repent.
Question 2
Correlation, where a relationship of systematic variance of events exists, is important
in studying patterns of crime. Certain situations could be viewed as pro crime. For instance,
parental approach on a child’s discipline could be attributed to higher chances of
delinquency. Harsh disciplinary tactics could consequently lead to rebellion which, in turn,
could lead to criminal behavior. The harsh discipline might not be the direct cause of
delinquency. Many factors such as the sociological, psychological and biological
backgrounds of the individual also have an effect. It is safe to conclude that harsh discipline
is not the direct cause of the delinquency although there appears a correlation.
Question 3
Biological, psychological and sociological factors affect an individual’s risk level of
offending. For example, consider a morally upright twenty year old black male of perfect
health who lives in perfectly conducive neighborhood. It provides a perfect case for study.
Altering this individual’s qualities is bound to alter their behavior. For instance, take the
subject to have biologically inherited robust body build, which alone, might not affect the

Running head: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

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probability of offending. It is important to observe that it might encourage offending in
different situations.
For example, assuming the subject experienced poor parenting due to poverty. It
might lead to depression. The picture portrayed here is that of a sociological problem that
instigates a psychological one. The developed personality disorder adds another aspect to the
scenario. The subject might acquire antisocial behavior and aggression might be exhibited
with factors such as lack of inhibition manifesting. It is my view that all these factors increase
the likelihood of the subject offending.
Question 4
The classical perspective assumes that crime is the product of an individual’s
own free will only, and, is not affected by other factors. On the other hand, the positivistic
perspective puts forward the assumption that an offender’s personality plays no part
whatsoever in their law breaking. Finally, the theory of the behavior of criminal law makes
the assumption that the levels of crime and offender characteristics are a direct illustration of
the enactment and enforcement of law on the ground.
The classical perspective blames crime on an individual’s own decision and free will.
Consequently, it points to the criminal justice policy of deterrence. The point of this idea is
to come up with systems of punishment that deter crime hence reducing it. On the contrary,
positivists are keen on uncovering the underlying causes. The positivist approach is that of
tackling the external influences to crime. The idea is that by tackling the external factors
crime is reduced.
Vold’s Theoretical Criminology Chapter 2
Question 1
The publications Crime and Punishment in America and Body Count reveal in a way
the political nature of their authors. In Body Count, the authors portray their conservative

Running head: CRIMINAL JUSTICE

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political nature. The authors advocate for the strengthening of institutions such as the church
to combat moral poverty. They also believe in engaging the penal system more fully and
efficiently. On the contrary, the author of Crime and Punishment in America is liberal in their
explanations. The argument they put across is that of avoiding punitive measures in tackling
crime. The idea they stand for is that of intervention through rehabilitation and combating
poverty as preventive means.
Question 2
It is important for criminologists to understand the factors behind the crime
decline. A proper comprehension of the causes of decline will help in formulation of more
effective crime combating strategies. More so, it will become easier to predict future trends
in crime such as through the observation of the effects of lagged events. For example,
understanding how factors such as socio-economic aspects, population demographics, police
strength and imprisonment rates among others work, it will be possible to formulate more
objective criminal justice policies.
Question 3
Some of the explanations for the crime decline required the use of a lagged effect. The
reason for this is that these are factors that occurred sometime before the decline but with
effects that may have manifested to cause the decline. The explanations include the
emergence and recession of the crack cocaine epidemic, the legalization of abortion and use
of leaded gasoline. The lag is evident in the fact that gaps of up to twenty years exist between
some of the occurrences, for example, legalization of abortion, and, the set in of the crime
decline.
Question 4
New York’s crime decline rate is unique. It is similar to the national experience in that
both have been in gradual decline. It is important to note though that The New York City has

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stood out from other large cities in the country. The reason behind this is that its crime
decline rate is at nearly double the national rate. The cause of this great drop in crime can be
attributed to numerous factors. Mainly, positive adjustments in policing and tactics and new
management have been instrumental. For example, Hotspot policing is such one tactic. The
police carry out aggressive patrols, surveillance and added to this is robu...

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