Planning for task must include: materials that will be required, possible risks that may be associated with the
experiment as well as anticipating problems that you might encounter while conducting the experiment. Note
that considerable analysis should be conducted to ensure the usefulness of the data collected.
Ball A has been released into a tube or a pluming
pipe, as shown on the diagram.
(i) Determine the horizontal distance of the
ball A as it leaves the tube and travels in the
(ii) Calculate the velocity of the ball A
straight after it leaves the tube.
(iii) Evaluate how much of the initial
potential energy was converted into kinetic
energy of the ball straight after it leaves the
Using the energy transformation concepts
and the law of conservation of momentum,
together with projectile motion concept, to
The horizontal distance travelled by the
ball B after being hit by ball A of the
same mass, which is released into a tube
or plumbing pipe as shown in the
(ii) The velocity of the ball B straight after the collision
with ball A.
(iii) The velocity at which ball B hits the ground.
(iv) Verify the conservation of momentum in the
(v) Investigate the conservation of kinetic energy in
Repeat the experiment using the lighter ball as a
Conducting the Experiment:
When conducting this experiment, you must ensure you maintain detailed records of all results and
Data sets that are collected should be repeated in order to ensure that errors and uncertainties are kept to a
You should demonstrate the following abilities/skills whilst conducting the experiment:
• Use experimental apparatus and equipment appropriately and safely.
• Make detailed and insightful observations and comments relevant to the experiment.
• Be able to identify inconsistencies or possible inaccuracies from experimental data and design.
• Be able to analyse and interpret data as it is collected to ensure that it is appropriate and accurate.
After having collected the data you are then required to write a practical investigation report. The report
should be no more than 1500 words in length and it should provide a detailed account and analysis of the data
collected. You can type or hand-write your report. It is recommended that you use the headings provided.
Your report must demonstrate the following characteristics:
A clear aim and hypothesis to the investigation.
A clear outline of the significant concepts, relationships and principles underpinning the investigation.
An outline of all relevant variables, including controlled and uncontrolled variables.
A process of obtaining reliable and repeatable results.
A discussion of the limitations of the apparatus and measuring instruments.
A detailed analysis of the data collected which should be used to derive some relationship between
the variables and quantities measured or observed.
An analysis of the degree of the uncertainty in the data and how this affects the uncertainty of any
physical quantities that are calculated as a result of the investigation.
When writing your report remember to:
• Include a title and contents page.
• Ensure that each page is numbered.
• Include a full list of references and resources.
• Do not include tables, graphs, diagrams, formulae and appendices of data and calculation in
the word count.
Write a brief statement on the purpose of this experiment.
Predict what you expect to find out in your experiment.
List all relevant variables and explain how they were controlled and investigated.
List all the Physics concepts and ideas that you think are relevant to your investigation.
List all the materials and equipment you will require in order to conduct the investigation. Draw a labelled
diagram to illustrate your proposed experiment set up.
Describe the method you used to conduct the experiment. The description of your method should be detailed,
but it can be explained in simple point form.
The accuracy of each measuring instrument can be included at this stage.
Problems and solutions
What possible problems do you anticipate encountering during the investigation and what measures will you
be taking to try to avoid them?
What possible risks are there and what are the safety precautions you will be taking during this experiement?
Results and calculations
Describe you experimental observations here. Where appropriate, tabulate, graph and/or draw your results or
observations. You need only show one sample calculation of each type in your text.
Analysis of results
You have to evaluate your results/graphs and relate them to the relevant theories. Try to explain any
unexpected results. Discuss what could be done to improve your results.
Explain all sources of error qualitatively, analyse any percentage errors where possible.
Comment on experimental errors and how they could be reduced, any difficulties you faced, and ways you
could improve the results. Can you suggest any further analyses?
The conclusion is usually a brief statement that summarises whether the experiment results support or
contradict the stated hypothesis and prediction of the experiment. Any differences between expected and
obtained results should also be commented on, as should the possibilities for extending or improving the
Use g=10m/s in all your calculations.
Formulas and calculations are required for all answers.
Use the following information to answer Questions 1-3:
There are two metal balls, A and B. A has a mass of 100g and B has a mass of 200g
Assume there is no friction force.
When both balls are dropped from the same height, which will reach the ground first? Explain your
A and B are projected horizontally from the same height with different speeds, A is projected with the
speed of 1m/s and B is projected with the speed of 2m/s. Which ball reaches the ground first?
Suppose that two balls are projected horizontally, with the speed of one twice of that of the other.
Measured along the floor from a point directly below their common starting point, how do the
distances to their landing points compare?
In the movie, Car Escape, Taylor and Jones drove their sports car across a horizontal car park in
building 1 and landed it in the car park of building 2, landing one floor lower. Building 2 is 20
meters from building 1, as shown in Figure 1. The floor where the car lands in building 2 is
4.0meters below the floor from which it started in building 1. In Questions 4 and 5 treat the car as
a point particle and assume air resistance is negligible.
Calculate the minimum speed at which the car should leave building 1 in order to land in the car park
of building 2.
In order to be sure of landing in the car park of building 2, Taylor and jones in fact left building 1 at a
speed of 25m/s
Calculate the magnitude of the velocity of the car just prior to landing in the car park of building 2.
After landing, Taylor applies the brakes and the car slows down until its speed is 11.0ms^-1.
The car then collides head-on with a concrete pillar. The car comes to rest in a time of 0.10s. The car
comes to rest against the pillar. The mass of the car and occupants is 1.30 tonne.
Determine the average force on the car during the impact with the pillar.
Explain how the crumple zone of the car can minimises the extent of injuries experienced by the
occupants of the car. (Assume that the occupants are wearing seatbelts).
A moving railway truck (X) of mass 10tonnes, moving at 6.0m/s, collides with a stationary
railway truck(Y) of mass 5.0tonnes. After the collision they are joined together and move
off as one. This situation is shown in figure 2.
Calculate the final speed of the joined railway trucks after the collision.
Calculate the magnitude of the total impulse that truck Y exerts on truck X during the collision.
Explain why this is an example of an inelastic collision. Calculate specific numerical values to justify
The following information is provided for Questions 11 and 12.
A road safety slogan is ‘Stay alive-wipe off five”. This is to encourage drivers to travel more slowly,
so as to reduce the stopping distance when reacting to a road hazard.
For a car travelling at 60km/h the speed-time graph for a driver with a reaction time of 0.2s and
then braking to a stop with a constant braking force is shown below in figure 3.
On the graph of figure 3, draw the speed-time graph for the same car and driver travelling at 65km/h
reacting to a hazard and then braking o a stop with the same constant breaking force.
With reference to figure 3, describe how you could determine the difference between the stopping
distances at 65km/h and 60km/h.
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