BIO275 Central Piedmont Chemistry and Metabolism Questions

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1. Complete the following Flow Chart (from most general to more specific). I am asking for types of metabolism only. DO NOT INCLUDE THIS CHART ON YOUR ANSWER PAGE. (10 pts) 2. Complete the following flow Chart to identify the three major components in Respiration. (12pts) DO NOT INCLUDE THIS CHART ON YOUR ANSWER PAGE. Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration 3. Identify the structures: (hint: look at the arrows in the diagram and watch which way they are going) DO NOT INCLUDE THIS DIAGRAM ON YOUR ANSWER PAGE (10pts) 4. Copy and paste this diagram to a blank page in the same orientation as what is on this assignment. Label the diagram to show chemiosmosis happening. Please make sure your diagram is clear and pasted so that it is easy for me to read. (18pts) a. Label all necessary structures (as discussed in the lecture). b. Draw and label on this diagram. c. Take a picture of your drawing. d. Insert/paste your picture to the corresponding question. When inserting the picture, be mindful of where it ends up on the page. Crop your picture so that it is only showing what is needed. ** Label only what we talked about in lecture. Do NOT take the diagram from the text and copy what is there in the text. ** 5. Identify and explain the process of respiration in the diagram below. Note: Process. Explain the process from the beginning this diagram only. Start at the beginning of the process (“The process begins with NADH at the ____”) and follow it until the end of the process (“The process ends with _____”). (14pts)DO NOT INCLUDE THIS DIAGRAM ON YOUR ANSWER PAGE. 6. Draw/label Anaerobic Respiration using this cell below. (20pts) a. Label all necessary structures (as discussed in the lecture). Print the page to have the diagram to use. b. Draw and label on this diagram. c. Take a picture of your drawing. Please make sure your diagram is clear and pasted so that it is easy for me to read. d. Insert/paste your picture to the corresponding question. When inserting the picture, delete the original “cell” and fit your diagram on the page. 7. A. Identify this type of metabolism. B. Identify A, B, and C in this diagram. (8pts) Glucose A NADH ATP B C Unit 1 Lecture 2 Chemistry and Metabolism FA19 Chemistry Before we can move into metabolism, we need to review some basic chemistry. I will let you read and review the most basic parts of chemistry. Remind yourself of the 3 different types of bonding: covalent, ionic and hydrogen. These play major roles in metabolism. I will begin with organic molecules. How do you know a molecule is organic? In biology, we find that Carbon is combined very commonly with Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphate, Hydrogen and Sulfur. We will relate this as we move through this section and even on into the semester. Molecules can vary in size: from very small monomers (one part) to very large macromolecules (also known as polymers – molecules built from many parts). Every cell/organism will be required to synthesize (or make) macromolecules or break down macromolecules. The chemical reaction to make macromolecules is called dehydration. In dehydration, we watch water being released. The chemical reaction to break macromolecules is called hydrolysis. This requires water for the reaction to occur. Do not let all the chemical structures scare you. We can apply this to carbohydrates. If we take 2 simple sugars (monomers) like glucose and fructose and cause dehydration to occur, it would result in the making of the macromolecule, sucrose. You can see the loss of water. The reaction can go in the reverse order and you see that when you add water to sucrose it breaks the molecule down into its smaller parts/monomer. Draw a diagram of this happening using these sugars. How do you make this make sense and how do you keep them straight? This is where you will do well to find something in your life to relate this to. For me, when I was in school, I had 4 young children. The 2 boys (glucose and fructose) liked to ride their big wheel tricycles down the hill in front of our house. Because I still had 2 tiny children in the house, I attached baseball cards to the spokes so I could hear them and know where they were. At the bottom of the hill was a creek. We had a guard rail to protect anyone from falling into the creek. The older brother set up the game: they rode down the hill at the same time, but one swerved off to the right, the other to the left. It worked pretty well, but when the younger brother didn’t swerve correctly, they ended up in a pile of bikes, arms and legs (sucrose). And of course, as part of the pile up, was TEARS – (giving off water). This was how I could see dehydration – because I thought of dehydration as shriveling up. It lost water, but looked smaller. This way, I could see something bigger and the loss of water. Whatever works for you (smile). Go to the discussion board and share your analogy with the class. I do not want any of you feeling intimidated by the chemistry. I want you to see how the chemistry that you have learned relates to biology, and specifically to cellular function. So, we will look, very gently at 4 groups of organic molecules that are necessary for life. These biologically important molecule groups are: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids. (This looks like our basic food groups, yes?) Biologically Important Molecule Groups Proteins: Proteins are the most abundant organic components in the cell. You have already learned many things about proteins and we will review the key points. They are made from amino acids that are then combined to make peptides (chains of amino acids). If you relate this to our earlier discussion, what are amino acids and what is a protein as far as size of molecules? When you look at the figures in the text of proteins, it can look very complex. As you see the different shapes of the proteins, we find that the structure of a protein will determine its function. Amino acid The peptide chains can be folded into 3D structures and these structures are held in place by hydrogen bonds. Think back through our discussion and find examples of proteins that we have already discussed and decide on their function. Now you can see that there is always a reason why we talk about the subject matter that we do, and even the order in which it is discussed (yes?). Since this section of material is going to lead into metabolism, I want to remind you of enzymes. Remember, you studied enzymes in basic biology class and learned about their ability to catalyze chemical reactions. These will play a major role in metabolism. Also remember that an enzyme has a specific shape and will work on only one particular molecule because of that molecules’ shape. In our human “control” mentality, we found that if we force an enzyme to unfold, what will happen? That unfolding or destruction of that protein is called denaturation. Denaturation can occur in one of 3 ways: adding excess heat, changing the pH of the environment the enzyme is in, and/or changing the salt concentration of the environment the enzyme is in. These methods of denaturing a protein occur because of the hydrogen bonds that hold the protein in its specific shape. When we add excess heat, the weak bonding will break because as we heat the molecules they move faster. When we change the pH, we either add more H+ or OH-. More H+ will compete with the H that is binding the protein into its shape, and adding more OH- will cause our H (that is holding the protein in shape) to let go and try to bind to the OH to form water. In the change of salt concentration method, we are altering ionic bonds – the attraction of opposite charges. See if you can explain to me how that works (use the discussion board for this). Nucleic Acids: If I ask you to give me examples of nucleic acids, your top two answers would be RNA and DNA. These are major macromolecules. Do you remember what these initials stand for and what their functions are? DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA – ribonucleic acid. They are built from nucleotides (which would be considered what? Hint: what size molecules are we talking about?) The nucleotides are composed of a sugar, a phosphate group and nitrogen bases. For DNA, a double stranded molecule, the nitrogen bases are: cytosine, guanine, adenine and thymine. You may have seen them listed as C, G, A and T. RNA, a single stranded molecule, differs only in one nitrogen base. It contains cytosine, guanine, adenine and Uracil. With two minor differences (the sugar: DNA has deoxyribose, RNA has ribose and the nitrogen bases: DNA has CGAT, RNA has CGAU) we find that these macromolecules will have two very different functions. DNA gives instructions for all cellular function. Nothing happens in the cell unless the DNA has told the cell what to do. RNA is critical in the building of proteins. It is part of the ribosome. There are 2 other molecules that fit under this group that have extremely important functions. They both use the nitrogen base, Adenine. One molecule is ATP- Adenosine Tri-Phosphate. What is its function? The other molecule is NAD (the book may also talk about FAD). You do not need to know the full name of this molecule. The A refers to Adenosine, the D refers to a Di-Phosphate (two phosphates). The NAD and FAD are transporters of Hydrogen between molecules during cellular metabolism. The book may refer to these molecules as electron transporters. The electron is coming with the Hydrogen. We’ll talk about these more when we get into metabolism. Start to mentally pull together the cell membrane, cell wall, proteins and nucleic acids. We will start making a picture of how the cell does what it does. Carbohydrates: As with the previous 2 groups of biologically important molecules, we can see that carbohydrates have a variety of sizes. They can be seen as monomers, also known as “simple sugars” or monosaccharides. These molecules are commonly seen as 5-6 carbon sugar rings. Glucose and fructose are examples of simple sugars. Energy and nutrient source are the main functions of simple sugars. Disaccharides are 2 sugars and now can be considered a macromolecule (because there is more than one unit). A couple of examples of disaccharides are sucrose and lactose. We find that bacteria are good at using disaccharides as an energy source. Monosaccharide We, humans, must make enzymes to break down these sugars to their monomers in order to get the energy. Those people who are lactose intolerant do not make enough of the enzyme lactase. (Enzymes will be named with the suffix – ase). So, when a person that is lactose intolerant ingests lactose, lactose becomes a waste product. We will find huge numbers of bacteria living in our intestines. These microbes do not generally get much in the way of food – our small intestines will have absorbed the vast majority of the food. When lactose gets to the large intestines, these bacteria think they have just hit the jackpot. They ingest the lactose and metabolize this food source quickly and easily. The bacteria that live in the intestines will undergo the metabolism of fermentation. Fermentation forms CO2, a gas. That is when the person that is lactose intolerant feels the result of overly feeding the bacteria in their intestines. The persons’ intestines bloat from the gas and they are in pain for hours, until the bacteria have used up the lactose, formed all the CO2 they can and the person can pass the gas out of their system. The last carbohydrates we will mention are polysaccharides (many sugars). Examples of these are the components in plant cell walls and bacterial cell walls (what is the polysaccharide in bacterial cell walls?). Here we find that the sugar is no longer used as an energy or nutrient source, but now a structural component of the cell. Lipids: Lipids are not polymers but dehydration synthesis forms lipids. There are 3 forms of lipids: Fats, phospholipids and sterols. Fats and phospholipids contain fatty acid chains, sterols do not contain fatty acids. Fatty acid ( Sterol Fats, in general, store energy; as much as twice the amount of ATP as carbohydrates. However, looking at the phospholipid in the picture on the left, what is the function of the phospholipids? An example of a sterol that we are most familiar with is cholesterol. These structures are more globular in nature. Notice from the diagram on the right (above) you see what looks like monosaccharides bonded together. They bond differently than polysaccharides. These will be the fats that store energy. Now that we have looked at the basic structures of cells and some basic chemistry, we can begin to see how the chemistry relates to biology. We will take it a step further to watch how a cell actually “grows”. When the DNA tells the cell that it needs some particular macromolecule or it needs energy to do some work, the cell must comply. This is when things start to get to be very cool (grin). We will keep this very simple. We will only look at how a cell metabolizes sugar to form energy (ATP). You should be able to answer Review Exercises #6-9, 12; Self-Test Questions #2,4,7,9,10 from Chapter 2 in the text. Metabolism When the cell is instructed to make molecules that will be needed in order to make a new cell, it will require lots of different chemical reactions. The chemical reactions that happen within a body (or a cell) are called biochemical reactions. Metabolism, then, is a collection of chemical reactions in a cell. Metabolism is a process in which raw materials are converted into finished products. There are 5 steps in metabolism: 1. Entry mechanism – raw materials are brought into the cell. 2. Catabolic reactions – catabolic = “to break down” The cell begins refining raw materials to building materials needed. 3. Anabolic reactions – anabolic = “to build” The cell begins producing the basic building materials. For example, producing an amino acid 4. Polymerization – joining of the building materials to produce macromolecules. For example, joining the amino acids to form a peptide chain. 5. Assembly – The cell puts any finishing touches on the macromolecule. For example, assembling a complete ribosome. All of these reactions will either require or release energy. We will also see that many of these reactions will involve 2 complementary reactions known as oxidation and reduction. Oxidation is the removal of electrons from a molecule or compound. Reduction is the addition of electrons to a molecule or compound. As we go through metabolism, watch for these reactions. There are 2 main types of metabolism: Aerobic (requires oxygen) and Anaerobic (no oxygen required) metabolism. We will start with the more complicated Aerobic metabolism. This is one that you have actually learned in basic biology already. You probably learned this metabolism as Aerobic Respiration or Cellular Respiration. We cannot use the term Cellular Respiration in microbiology. By the time we finish this topic, you will be able to see why this is true. I will give you the basic process using words; I will show you in diagram form what the words are showing you. Use the Power Point, Metabolism Explained, that I have posted for you. Aerobic Metabolism (Aerobic Respiration): Three Major Components – Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain 1. Substances enter the cell, sometimes requiring a small amount of energy to get them transported into the cell. 2. Substances are broken down through a series of chemical reactions and generate intermediate molecules known as metabolites (intermediate products). 3. The substances will move through 2 main pathways producing 12 precursor metabolites necessary for the cell’s growth. These pathways are Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle. In Glycolysis, glucose enters the pathway and the following products leave the pathway: NADH, pyruvate (or pyruvic acid) and ATP. In the Krebs Cycle, the pyruvate enters the pathway and the following products leave the pathway: NADH/FADH, CO2. 4. During the production of these metabolites, a series of oxidation and reduction reactions occur. We find that the NADH/FADH will move to the Electron Transport Chain located in the membrane. Recognize NAD? Remember what NAD does? As the NADH releases the Hydrogen, the NADH is losing an electron = oxidation. By the time we finish the process, we will find that the electron moves along the Electron Transport Chain until it get to the end and is finally accepted by Oxygen. Now the oxygen has added an electron = reduction. 5. The last two processes involved in this metabolism are Chemiosmosis and Respiration. You will want to look at the diagrams to help you visualize this, but see if you can follow the last of this type of metabolism. We have just watched the NADH release the Hydrogen (and electron). The H+ moves across the membrane. Because there will be more H+ outside the membrane than inside, the H+ chemically must try to balance itself on either side of the membrane. Also, because it has a charge, it cannot just diffuse across the membrane (simple diffusion). It needs a protein channel, which the cell just so happens to provide, for the H+ to flow back inside the cell. This protein channel, called an ATPase channel also functions as an enzyme. This enzyme will take ADP (that is used up ATP) and convert it to ATP. ATP is one of the final products. This movement of H+ and conversion of ATP is the process of Chemiosmosis. We are almost done, but the cell has to finish dealing with the positive charged H+. H+ likes to bind to OHto form water. Here is how the cell finishes its metabolism. Once the electron has been accepted by the Oxygen at the end of the Electron Transport Chain, the Oxygen now is looking for Hydrogen. The hydrogens and oxygen bind and form water. Water is the last final product from the process of Aerobic Respiration in this Aerobic Respiration metabolism. Take each of these steps and start drawing a very simple diagram to show what is happening in each step. Also use the Power Point that I have posted for you. ***Take notice of what molecule is moving, where it is moving from, where it is moving to, what it is attaching to, what the products of each component and process*** Anaerobic Metabolism: These reactions allow cells to grow in the absence of Oxygen. We can categorize cells by their need (or lack) of oxygen. We have already looked at cells (microbes, in our case) that need oxygen. They are called Strict Aerobes. We can separate the microbes that do not need oxygen into Strict (or Obligate) Anaerobes and Facultative Anaerobes. The Strict Anaerobes can grow only in the absence of oxygen. The Facultative Anaerobes can grow in either the presence or absence of oxygen. These microbes are seen to use two different types of anaerobic metabolism: Anaerobic respiration or Fermentation. Anaerobic Respiration vs Fermentation The major difference in these two groups is whether they 1. Have and/or use an Electron Transport Chain and 2. How they generate their ATP. Cells that use a compound other than oxygen as their final electron acceptor use Anaerobic Respiration. They will use either Nitrogen or Sulfur as their final electron acceptor. These cells will have and/or use an Electron Transport Chain. They will also use Chemiosmosis in generating their ATP. Once you have learned Aerobic Metabolism (respiration), you will know Anaerobic Respiration. Everything is the same except for the final electron acceptor. With this case, what changes about the final products? Draw Anaerobic Respiration Metabolism for yourself. Use all the information and diagrams from Aerobic Respiration Metabolism to help you. Fermentation: In Fermentation, there is no Electron Transport Chain used and their generation of ATP is by way of Substrate Level Phosphorylation. Fermentation will generate much less ATP than respiration: only 2-3 ATP per glucose molecule. Fermentation, because it does not use the Electron Transport Chain, will not use a Krebs Cycle either, so we find that they will not form all 12 precursor metabolites that would be found in respiration. We will mention only 2 types of fermentation. These you are actually somewhat familiar with. One type of fermentation is Lactic Acid Fermentation. In this situation, Pyruvate is reduced(converted) to Lactic Acid. Bacteria that are used to convert milk to yogurt is a good example of this. Your own muscles, at times, will use fermentation. When the muscle cells run out of oxygen, the pyruvate gets converted to lactic acid…. That’s when your muscles get sore. When you sit down, exhausted (because now you are making much less ATP) and are breathing very hard, you are bringing more oxygen to your cells so that they can return to Aerobic Respiration again. The other type of fermentation is Alcohol Fermentation. In this situation, Pyruvate is reduced (converted) to Ethanol and CO2. Here again, some bacteria and yeast are added to beverages, allowed to ferment the sugars in the beverage and you end up with beer and wine. Go to your book and read the section “Microorganisms and Food Production” pages 315-317. You will be responsible for this section of information on your exam. I have provided “notes” from that section here. Microbes and Food Production: Some key points: Microbes contribute to unique flavors to foods as well as change the texture of foods Milk ----Cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, sour cream, kefir. Kefir is a cultured probiotic beverage similar in taste and texture to drinkable yogurt, and made from milk fermented with kefir cultures. Originating over 2000 years ago in the Caucasus Mountains-where many people live well over 100 years-kefir has been associated with a long list of health benefits. Bread ---- sour dough - different yeast and bacteria Beer/wine ---- different yeasts will give variety to the flavor of these drinks Cheese: (milk) Milk + bacteria + ENZYME called RENNIN ----makes a PROTEIN called CASEIN LACTIC ACID bacteria FERMENTS LACTOSE ---- CASEIN coagulates to CURD Other microbes involved in Cheese: Penicillium, YEAST; Propionibacterium, bacteria – Swiss Bread: (grains – wheat, oat, rice) Fermentation of sugar in the grains of bread (wheat/rice etc.) releases CO2 + Alcohol. CO2 causes bread to RISE, Alcohol evaporates as bread cooks. Beer: (grains – barley) Yeast is doing the fermentation. Yeast cannot ferment starch, so the complex sugars in the grains have to be broken to simple sugars. = MALTING Yeast is added but aerobic respiration occurs first = increases the population of yeast. They use up the oxygen and then convert to doing fermentation. Fermentation = Alcohol and CO2 produced Wine: (fruit/ grapes) Yeast fermentation = Alcohol and CO2 produced Spirits: (potatoes, agave, molasses) Fermentation is followed by distillation - produce the Vodka, Tequila, Rum. You should be able to answer Review Exercises #1-11; Self-Test Questions #2,7,8 from Chapter 5 in the text. Chemistry Review Worksheet: 1. Organic Chemistry involves molecules that contain ______________. 2. In Biologically Important Molecules, their units are known as ___________________ which are very small to __________________ which are larger. 3. Complete the chart below. Diagrams of structures are given to help you decide which group of Biologically Important Molecule they represent, what the monomers and polymers are for each group, and give key characteristics of each of the groups. Groups Structure Monomer/Polymer Characteristics Use this to help you with understanding the steps in Metabolism Use the terms that we used in class: give words to explain each step and then diagram each of these steps. Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Fermentation Glycolysis - Goes in/ Goes out - Diagram it Kreb’s Cycle - Goes in/ Goes out - Diagram it Electron Transport Chain - Goes in/ Goes out - Diagram it Chemiosmosis - Goes in/ Goes out - Diagram it Substrate Level Phosphorylation Last but not least: Diagram each of these types of metabolism using 1 cell. Use this chart to help you organize your understanding of Microbes and Food Production. Basic Ingredients Cheese Breads Beer Wine Spirits 1. Metabolism used? 2. Microbes produce __? Examples of microbes used Metabolism: putting it all together Fall 2019 3 Major Components of Cell Respiration • 1 – Glycolysis • 2 – Kreb’s Cycle • 3 – Electron Transport Component #1: • Glycolysis- “glyco..” means sugar, “…lysis” means breaking. Prokaryotic Cell: Glycolysis • Here is a prokaryotic cell. Watch what occurs in the first main pathway/component in this cell. What happens to Glycolysis products? NADH The NAD molecule has picked up a Hydrogen atom (NADH) and will carry to its next position in respiration ATP Pyruvate (Pyruvic Acid) The ATP will help in The Pyruvate will be the chemical broken down further reactions that must in the Kreb’s Cycle. occur in the Kreb’s cycle. Component #2: • Kreb’s Cycle Prokaryotic Cell: Kreb Cycle Now we add the 2nd main pathway/component to our prokaryotic cell. What happens to Kreb Cycle products? NADH • Transports the Hydrogen to the Electron Transport Chain for final processing. CO2 • Exits the cell as a waste product Prokaryotic Cell: Finish the 2nd major pathway/component . Component #3: • Component 3 involves a set of enzymes called the Electron Transport Chain (ETC). • The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) involves two process that happen simultaneously. Steps in processes involving the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) • Step 1. The NADH have now transported their Hydrogen atoms to the ETC. Step 2: • The electron (e-) is removed from the Hydrogen of NADH and sent into the ETC Step 3: • While the e- is moving into the ETC, the H+ is being pumped across the membrane. (This is using some of the ATP formed in Glycolysis and Kreb Cycle.) Step 4. Hydrogens moving across membrane. Note that they are pumped out of the cell and re-enter the cell with facilitated diffusion. Step 5: • 2 functions of ATP synthase : • a channel for H+ to move through • an enzyme to convert ADP to ATP. • The H+ will only trigger the enzyme, it does not become part of the ATP itself. Chemiosmosis Step 6: Electrons (e-) are moving from one enzyme to another in the Electron Transport Chain. Step 7: An Oxygen molecule waits at the end of the Electron Transport Chain to grab the e- as it exits the ETC. Step 8: The H+ ions now are attracted to the Oxygen with the extra e- and Water is formed. Prokaryotic Cell: Finish the 3rd component with its 2 processes. (Green arrows follow Respiration/ Red arrows follow Chemiosmosis) Anaerobic Metabolism: 2 types Respiration Fermentation • Do everything that you did in slides 2-17. • Do everything that you did in slide 4. • Slide 18: what change do you make? • Finish slide 18 and 19 with that ONE change. What changes are created in final products? • Finish fermentation as you see in the lecture. Unit 1 Lecture 2 FA19 C hemistry • Main Topics : Making/Breaking of Macromolecules • Polymer versus Monomer • T he Groups of Biologically Important Molecules and their functions • **These are main topics, use the lecture document to be clear with what details you need to know. Making and Breaking of Macromolecules View short video by clicking on the words below. This will only work when the power point is in Slide Show mode. Building and Breaking of Macromolecules What macromolecule is this associated with? A. B. E. C. D. Proteins • Built from monomers = Amino Acids • Form Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Structures • Can be unfolded/destroyed in 3 ways • • Excess Heat • Change concentration of Salt • Change concentration of pH Losing Structure = Losing Function Watch this 5 minute video (must use “Slide Show” mode to see video) Protein Structure and Denaturation Metabolism • Main Topics: • • • • • Steps of Metabolism Types of Metabolism Respiration Process vs Aerobic Respiration Chemiosmosis Process Fermentation **These are main topics, use the lecture document and the Metabolism power point to be clear with what details you need to know. ** Use the additional power point (Metabolism Explained) to help you with this material** What is metabolism? • What is a process? • a series of actions or steps taken in order to achieve a particular end • What is the particular end? • Convert raw material to finished product Main Types of Metabolism AEROBIC METABOLISM ANAEROBIC METABOLISM • Requires oxygen • Requires NO oxygen • How many types? • Aerobic Respiration • • Major Components How many types? • Anaerobic Respiration • Fermentation • Major Components Draw Major Pathways of Metabolism in a Prokaryotic Cell Use the Metabolism Explained PowerPoint to help you with this. • 1. Draw Glycolysis in a Prokaryotic Cell. • 2. Now add the Krebs Cycle to your cell. • As you go through the next several slides, add the processes of respiration and chemiosmosis to your cell. What ARE THESE structures? What is the function of each of these structures? Do you need to go look up the names of these individual structures? How do you know that? What is this process called? (NADH is losing an electron) • What moves? Where does it move to? • Draw that on your cell Continuing with drawing Metabolism on your Prokaryotic Cell, (use stick figures as you draw) 3. Show Chemiosmosis process and then 4. Show Aerobic Respiration process Add 2 processes at last major component • Now we will work on drawing Chemiosmosis and Aerobic respiration (process) • Chemiosmosis: • What molecule moves in Chemiosmosis? • What other structure do you need to draw? Where do you place it? • What other molecule do you need to add to make this work? • What is the end product? • Aerobic respiration: • What molecule moves in Aerobic respiration? • What other molecule do you need to add to make this work? • What is the end product? Make sure you are placing structures and molecules in the correct places… in the cell, out of the cell, in the membrane, crossing the membrane etc. Anaerobic Metabolism ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION FERMENTATION • Major Components • Major Components • How is ATP generated? • How is ATP generated? • How much ATP is generated? • How much ATP is generated? • What is/are the final product(s)? • Compare this to both Anaerobic Respiration and Aerobic Respiration (metabolisms) • What is/are the final products? • Compare this to Aerobic Respiration (metabolism) Applied Microbiology (Food Production pg. 315-317) • Main Topics Microbe/food interaction • Foods involved with fermentation • **These are main topics, use the lecture document to be clear with what details you need to know. Interaction of microbes with food Microbes can change: • The taste of food (milk to yogurt, sour cream) • The texture of food (milk to cheese) • Properties of the food (potato to Vodka) Microbes changing taste, texture and properties of food • Making Cheese from milk Making Cheese from Milk, enzyme and bacteria • Making Beer: Making Beer • malting to break complex sugar to simple sugar, • Add yeast- allow aerobic metabolism to increase their numbers and use up oxygen. • Yeast switches to fermentation to develop the alcohol content
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Homework Two - Chemistry and Metabolism
Institutional Affiliation

1. Complete the following Flow Chart (from most general to more specific). I am asking for types of
metabolism only. (10 pts)
The types of metabolism indicated in the chart are as listed below;
a. Aerobic metabolism
b. Anaerobic metabolism
c. Aerobic Respiration
d. Anaerobic respiration
e. Fermentation
2. Complete the following flow Chart to identify the three major components in Respiration.
The three major components of anaerobic respiration are;
a. Glycolysis
b. Krebs Cycle
c. Electron Transport Chain
The final products of anaerobic respiration are; ATP, Carbon Dioxide and...

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