Theologian Karl Barth argued that God is the object of God's own self-knowledge, and
revelation in the Bible means the self-unveiling to humanity of the God who cannot be
discovered by humanity simply through its own efforts.
What is Revelation?
Simply: Way in which a God reveals or speaks to creation and interacts.
Two types of Revelation
General Revelation- General being that God or deity reveals God’s self-knowledge through indirect
means be it through natural world, through reason or conscience, and the moral sense.
For Example: Sunrise and waterfalls, birth and death, goodness and evil, etc.…
Special Revelation- is when a deity reveals directly to an individual or community Is a theological term
used mainly by evangelical scientists and Christian theologians which refers to the belief that knowledge
of God and of spiritual matters can be discovered through supernatural means, such as miracles or the
scriptures, a disclosure of God's truth through means other than through man's reason
For Example: Scripture, Miracles, Prophets, Angels, etc.…
Many traditions in the Christian and Abrahamic traditions believe that the bible was inspired by way of
special revelation. The traditions would also highlight that it was inspired directly to an individual or
community in the original manuscript.
I say this because when we get into our biblical text, we may see differences between
translations. This is where error comes into play. Most Christian communities hold that this text is the
Inerrant (without error) word of God in its original form.
“We don’t have access usually to the original” so, the community must study to find the original.
Through Biblical criticism (not negative bashing) but, study tools – Reading for Wednesday’s
class and will discuss more in the physical class.
Communities will differ on how this inspiration is seen. Some, it the literal words black and white on the
page. Others will say it’s a mix of literal words and what is beneath the text invisible where inspiration
and revelation is given. Yet, other will say it is only what is not seen that is truth.
Moodle Chat Question:
Discuss among yourselves based on what you have experienced of the faith world (In the U.S.
and Outside U.S. through media, social media, worship, school, readings) what do you feel the faiths
ascribe to as revelation? Where do you see short comings? Where would you fall and why?
Intro of N.T. Spring 2019
Instructor: Rev. Bruce Gowe
What is Exegesis and Hermeneutics?
Exegesis as defined in your text book pg. 70
Is a scholarly study of the bible with particular text and with certain methods or tools in which to
academically study the work. A narrowing in on a text
Is a philosophical understanding of the interpretation.
What is the goal of interpretation?
What makes these authoritative?
So, Exegesis is the how and hermeneutics is the why? And understanding yourself coming to the text?
What is our hermeneutical lens or
What is our goal in interpreting?
Methods: Biblical Criticism
Text- comparing manuscripts available to find
the most reliable reading of the document
when there is no original.
Archaeology – study of human history through
study of artifacts, and physical remains
Sociological- social science to study unique
characterization of the times in which the text
Form- what is the genre, the purpose of the text
Redaction- what is missing, or has been edited
Narrative -use modern literary analysis to study
the effects the text might have on its readers
Cultural anthropology- a study of the text
cultural by studying others as well
Ideological- how might the text be heard and
used from a certain perspective
Historical- general study of the time it was
Deconstruction - subjective criteria and not on
any intrinsic claims
Source- study of the matter that contributed to
the formation of the text
-A tool is used to unlock a question of the text. The text is like a diamond with many faces and one tool
may help view one side yet not the whole.
Powell, Mark Allan 2nd Ed. Chapter 3
Short Essay # 1
The early church and each faith tradition in the first century, as well as today have different
ideas of both these concepts. However, it can be argued that each individual has a belief of what
is or is not sacred. As well as, what is inspired or the source of inspiration?
What does sacred and inspiration mean to me?
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