SOC 203 Discussion Responses 4 in total at leat 150 words a piece

Mar 31st, 2014
Price: $20 USD

Question description

D1 Stan

Education-Race and/or Inequality


Korgen & Furst (2012) provide that one area in which inequality is evident in the United States is in how schools are funded.  For example, a 2011 U.S. Department of Education Report revealed that more than 40% of low-income schools across the United States receive less state and local funding than schools in higher income areas with schools of the same grade levels (Heuer & Stullich, 2011).  Inequality is also reflected by educational opportunities since millions of children worldwide do not have access to primary education.  While the percentage of children who do receive primary education in the developing world has risen to 89% in 2010, opportunities for education vary dramatically depending on geography. 

Race and Inequality in Education

  Korgen & Furst (2012) state that educational inequality in the U.S. educational system makes attaining a college degree difficult, if not impossible, for many Americans.  According to the U.S. Department of Education, the public education system was designed to "ensuring equal access" to quality education and, as President Obama has stated, "equal opportunity" for all American children (U.S. Department of Education, 2010; Obama, 2010).  These goals, however, do not reflect the reality of a public education system entrenched in bureaucracy and ideas that benefits some and keeps others at a disadvantage.

Korgen & Furst (2012) further add that wealthier Americans tend to succeed academically at a much higher rate than poor and minority students (Buchmann, Condron, & Roscigno, 2010).  According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 11% of students are educated in private K–12 schools (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010a).  These children tend to come from families who can afford private school tuition as opposed to families that qualify for financial aid.  Despite the mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 to close the achievement gap for academic proficiency, the U.S. public education system maintains systemic inequities (Korgen & Furst, 2012).


Buchmann, C., Condron, D. J., & Roscigno, V. J. (2010). Shadow education, American style: Test preparation, the SAT and college enrollment. Social Forces, 89(2), 435–461.

Heuer, R., & Stullich, S. (2011). Comparability of state and local expenditures among schools within districts: A report from the study of school-level expenditures. Retrieved January 21, 2012, from

Korgen, K. & Furst, G. (2012). Social problems: Causes & responses. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2010a). Facts for features: Back to school: 2010–2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011, from

U.S. Department of Education. (2011c, September 23). Obama administration sets high bar for flexibility from No Child Left Behind in order to advance equity and support reform. Retrieved January 27, 2012, from

D2 Steph

Affirmative Action as a policy in education, has opened the doorway for minorities to attend public colleges. Many states have turned to their citizens to weigh in on the issue by voting to ban Affirmative Action. Washington, Florida, Texas, California and Michigan are a few states which have banned public colleges from using; gender and race, as a factor in admissions procedures. From the research I have done on the effects of banning Affirmative Action in college admissions, it seems that the ban has had little effect on minorities attending college overall. In a research paper by Hinrichs on the Effects of Affirmative Action, Hinrichs details a four stage process involved in an individual’s college choice. They are participation, application, admissions and enrollment. His further analysis of the data finds that the ban on Affirmative Actions has not affected the first stage, which is a person’s overall decision to attend college. But the bans do effect where the person applies for college (Hinichs, 2012). The bans overall, effect the public college arena and not necessarily admissions to private colleges or a person participation in college.

The question of education creating a more equitable society should begin in early education. The inequality found in our primary education system is the telltale sign that determines who decides to go to college. The first stage earlier mentioned, participation, is developed in primary and secondary education. A child’s experience in middle school and high school lay the ground work for their participation in college. In addition to their parents participation in college and influence on the child’s individual goals for college. Because our education system has not effectively addressed the needs of children living in predominantly low-income neighborhoods, a large number of children in our society are not receiving the quality of education necessary to achieve success at college. Our text shows a graph of people’s education levels who are unemployed in 2010 and people’s weekly earnings verses their education levels of the same year. The highest rate of unemployment 14.9% is found with people with less than a high school diploma and the lowest rate of unemployment, less than 2% are people that hold a Doctorate down to a Bachelor’s Degree which was 5.4% (Korgen, 2012). What this tells me is that in order to achieve economic equality, it is important to earn a degree. Education then becomes an effective tool to bridge the overall inequality in our society, but the decision to participate in college has to begin in primary education.

In the Tom Brokaw interview, Michigan State President, Mary Sue Coleman makes a very convincing point in support of Affirmative Action. She states that, “a single student in the classroom should not have to represent their entire race” (Brokaw). This follows the belief that Affirmative Action is a necessary tool support diversity. Unfortunately, with states banning the use of Affirmative Action in admissions, the possibility of diversity in public colleges becomes less likely. Another interesting point that came to mind is the citizens of these states voting against Affirmative Action. The majority of the voting public are middle class white people, why then would we as a society want to rely on this demographic to ban the very law that was created because of the injustices the prejudiced white society caused in the first place. For instance, based on the 2010 Census, 80.1% of the voting public in Michigan are white (U.S.Census, 2010) And since I referred earlier to primary education playing a role in economic equality, the U.S Census for 2010 shows out of 281 children enrolled in kindergarten in Michigan, 187 are white and 37 are African American (U.S.Census 2010). I used the data from E. Lansing Michigan which is the town Michigan State University is located. I wanted to paint a picture of the demographic of the area that decided to ban Affirmative Action. This issue is important to understand yet has so many facets to it that one single weekly post cannot possibly cover it. I look forward to your response.


  Korgen, K. & Furst, G. (2012). Social problems: Causes & responses. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. This text is a Constellation™ course digital materials (CDM) title.

  Tom Brokaw, Affirmative Action vs. Cultural Diversity, video interview.


  U.S. Census Bureau Statistics on Voting Demographics

Dis 3 Stan

Title IX

Title IX a Remedy to Gender Inequality

  The Title IX is best known for breaking down barriers in sports for women and girls, it also opens the door for girls to pursue math and science, requires fair treatment for pregnant and parenting students, and protects students from bullying and sexual harassment, among other things (National Women’s Law Center, 2012).

This learner, being a male, believes the Title IX is a logical response to gender inequality.  It provides safety and comfort for women of any age.  It also allows for women and men to function equally and protected in society.  As the National Women’s Center (2012) explains, the Supreme Court appropriately recognized that when Congress passed Title IX it intended to create a new statutory remedy that would supplement, not replace, Constitutional and other legal protections against sex discrimination. Effective enforcement of both Title IX and the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution remains essential if sex discrimination in educational institutions is to be eliminated.

Title IX Accomplishments

   Title IX has greatly accomplished the intended goals for all women.  The National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education published a comprehensive report to help give educators, parents, students, and lawmakers a better understanding of Title IX's impact and challenges that remain in many areas of education, in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Career and Technical Education, Bullying and Sexual Harassment, Single-Sex Education, Pregnant and Parenting Students and Athletics (National Women’s Law Center, 2012). 

Title IX Impact

  Title IX has impacted this learner’s life by providing safety and protection for my son in school.  This learner feels secured in knowing that Title IX exists and provides a remedy for bullying and sexual harassment.  By my son being an athlete, this learner is sometimes on edge about the hazing’s that could take place at the school.  However, Title IX provides the comfort in knowing that hazing, bullying, sexual harassment, etc. are not acceptable act amongst students and are dealt with accordingly and fairly.   

Title IX and the Differences amongst the Ages

  Compared to 40 years ago, the way girls and young women viewed sports today is very different.  As the National Women’s Law Center (2012) confirms, before Title IX things were different; the primary physical activities for girls were cheerleading and square-dancing.  Only 1 in 27 girls played high school sports.  There were virtually no college scholarships for female athletes.  And, female college athletes received only two percent of overall athletic budgets. 

  The National Women’s Law Center (2012) further explain how participation in sports has changed women and their role in society by the increasing growth in the number of women who participate in sports, receive scholarships, and benefit from increased budgets.  There are more opportunities to compete at elite levels through competitions like the Olympics, World Championships and professional leagues.  Even more importantly, playing sports makes women healthier and aids in decreasing their likeliness to smoke, drink, use drugs and experience unwanted pregnancies.  Also, studies have linked sports participation in the reduction of incidences of breast cancer and osteoporosis later in life.  These health benefits for women and society alone should be reason to keep Title IX strong.

Changes in Perception

  Other than Title IX, some other changes in the perception according to the National Women’s Law Center (2012) are as follows:

  • President Obama Signs The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act-President Obama signed his first bill into law on January 29, 2009 approving the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, a law named for Ms. Ledbetter, an Alabama woman who at the end of a 19-year career as a supervisor in a tire factory complained that she had been paid less than men (NWLC, 2012).
  • National Girls & Women in Sports Day- began in 1987 as a day to remember Olympic Volleyball player Flo Hyman for her athletic achievements and her work to assure equality for women's sports.  Events are conducted around the country and on Capitol Hill throughout the month to celebrate the athletic achievements of girls and women and to promote the continued expansion of opportunities for girls to play sports and live physically active lives (NWLC, 2012).


National Women’s Law Center. (2012). Title IX. Retrieved from

Dis 4 Rach

After reading the 10 key areas on Title IX’s website I would have to say that it was a logical problem solver. By simply putting a law out there that states that women can’t be turned away from these things based on gender only makes a lot of sense in regards to gender inequality.

I don’t believe that Title IX was successful in taking down all gender inequality. As mentioned, gender inequality is still ranked quite highly in the US. While it has improved it does still exist.

Title IX has impacted my life. While I may not have realized any of this at the time of impact. If it were not for Title IX I would not have been permitted to take a technology course in middle school. I would not be attending Ashford right now to further my education if this had not been passed. “Hard to believe, but until the ‘70s, many colleges and universities refused to admit women. It was believed that women were more concerned about marriage and children than higher education.”(National Women’s Law Center. 2012). This was in fact hard for me to believe. I had no idea that this was the case and it may have changed in due time but not as quickly if it weren’t for Title IX.

I think that girls are more open to playing and watching sports. Women feel more empowered now to go out and play a sport that a man does. Whether it be on an all girls or co-ed team. I also feel that part of this openness can be attributed to how a girl was raised. I was never very athletic in high school but I always enjoyed watching football games on television or even in person. This had to do with that being an activity that my father and I did together, and is still something I enjoy doing to this day.

There are many other social changes that have contributed to this. Women being allowed into the workforce is a huge one. Taking the sterotype off of women that all they are to do is stay home and tend to the house and children has been major. This has led to all the other things that have become acceptable.

National Women’s Law Center. (2012).Title IX. Retrieved from

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