Education-Race and/or Inequality
& Furst (2012) provide that one area in which inequality is evident
in the United States is in how schools are funded. For example, a 2011
U.S. Department of
Education Report revealed that more than 40% of low-income schools
across the United States receive less state and local funding than
schools in higher income areas with schools of the same grade levels
(Heuer & Stullich, 2011). Inequality is also reflected
by educational opportunities since millions of children worldwide do
not have access to primary education. While the percentage of children
who do receive primary education in the developing world has risen to
89% in 2010, opportunities for education vary
dramatically depending on geography.
Race and Inequality in Education
Korgen & Furst (2012) state that educational inequality in the U.S.
educational system makes attaining a college degree difficult, if not
impossible, for many Americans. According
to the U.S. Department of Education, the public education system was
designed to "ensuring equal access" to quality education and, as
President Obama has stated, "equal opportunity" for all American
children (U.S. Department of Education, 2010; Obama, 2010).
These goals, however, do not reflect the reality of a public education
system entrenched in bureaucracy and ideas that benefits some and keeps
others at a disadvantage.
& Furst (2012) further add that wealthier Americans tend to succeed
academically at a much higher rate than poor and minority students
(Buchmann, Condron, &
Roscigno, 2010). According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 11% of students
are educated in private K–12 schools (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010a). These
children tend to come from families who can afford private school
tuition as opposed to families that qualify for
financial aid. Despite the mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act
(NCLB) of 2001 to close the achievement gap for academic proficiency,
the U.S. public education system maintains systemic inequities (Korgen
& Furst, 2012).
C., Condron, D. J., & Roscigno, V. J. (2010). Shadow education,
American style: Test preparation, the SAT and college enrollment. Social
Forces, 89(2), 435–461.
R., & Stullich, S. (2011). Comparability of state and local
expenditures among schools within districts: A report from the study of
school-level expenditures. Retrieved January 21, 2012,
Korgen, K. & Furst, G. (2012). Social problems: Causes & responses. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010a). Facts for features: Back to school: 2010–2011. Retrieved October 6, 2011, from
Department of Education. (2011c, September 23). Obama administration
sets high bar for flexibility from No Child Left Behind in order to
advance equity and support reform. Retrieved January
27, 2012, from
Affirmative Action as a
policy in education, has opened the doorway for minorities to attend
public colleges. Many states have turned to their citizens to weigh in
on the issue by voting to ban Affirmative Action.
Washington, Florida, Texas, California and Michigan are a few states
which have banned public colleges from using; gender and race, as a
factor in admissions procedures. From the research I have done on the
effects of banning Affirmative Action in college
admissions, it seems that the ban has had little effect on minorities
attending college overall. In a research paper by Hinrichs on the
Effects of Affirmative Action, Hinrichs details a four stage process
involved in an individual’s college choice. They are
participation, application, admissions and enrollment. His further
analysis of the data finds that the ban on Affirmative Actions has not
affected the first stage, which is a person’s overall decision to attend
college. But the bans do effect where the person
applies for college (Hinichs, 2012). The bans overall, effect the
public college arena and not necessarily admissions to private colleges
or a person participation in college.
The question of education creating a more equitable society should begin
in early education. The inequality found in our primary education
system is the telltale sign that determines who decides to go to
college. The first stage earlier mentioned, participation,
is developed in primary and secondary education. A child’s experience
in middle school and high school lay the ground work for their
participation in college. In addition to their parents participation in
college and influence on the child’s individual goals
for college. Because our education system has not effectively addressed
the needs of children living in predominantly low-income
neighborhoods, a large number of children in our society are not
receiving the quality of education necessary to achieve success
at college. Our text shows a graph of people’s education levels who are
unemployed in 2010 and people’s weekly earnings verses their education
levels of the same year. The highest rate of unemployment 14.9% is found
with people with less than a high school
diploma and the lowest rate of unemployment, less than 2% are people
that hold a Doctorate down to a Bachelor’s Degree which was 5.4%
(Korgen, 2012). What this tells me is that in order to achieve economic
equality, it is important to earn a degree. Education
then becomes an effective tool to bridge the overall inequality in our
society, but the decision to participate in college has to begin in
In the Tom Brokaw
interview, Michigan State President, Mary Sue Coleman makes a very
convincing point in support of Affirmative Action. She states that, “a
single student in the classroom should not have to
represent their entire race” (Brokaw). This follows the belief that
Affirmative Action is a necessary tool support diversity. Unfortunately,
with states banning the use of Affirmative Action in admissions, the
possibility of diversity in public colleges becomes
less likely. Another interesting point that came to mind is the
citizens of these states voting against Affirmative Action. The majority
of the voting public are middle class white people, why then would we
as a society want to rely on this demographic to
ban the very law that was created because of the injustices the
prejudiced white society caused in the first place. For instance, based
on the 2010 Census, 80.1% of the voting public in Michigan are white
(U.S.Census, 2010) And since I referred earlier to
primary education playing a role in economic equality, the U.S Census
for 2010 shows out of 281 children enrolled in kindergarten in Michigan,
187 are white and 37 are African American (U.S.Census 2010). I used the
data from E. Lansing Michigan which is the
town Michigan State University is located. I wanted to paint a picture
of the demographic of the area that decided to ban Affirmative Action.
This issue is important to understand yet has so many facets to it that
one single weekly post cannot possibly cover
it. I look forward to your response.
Korgen, K. & Furst, G. (2012).
Social problems: Causes & responses. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc. This text is a Constellation™ course digital materials (CDM) title.
Tom Brokaw, Affirmative Action vs. Cultural Diversity,
Hinrichs, P. (2012).
THE EFFECTS OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION BANS ON COLLEGE ENROLLMENT,
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, AND THE DEMOGRAPHIC COMPOSITION OF UNIVERSITIES. Review of Economics & Statistics, 94(3), 712-722.
U.S. Census Bureau Statistics on Voting Demographics
Dis 3 Stan
Title IX a Remedy to Gender Inequality
The Title IX is best known for breaking down barriers in sports for
women and girls, it also opens the door for girls to pursue math and
science, requires fair treatment for pregnant
and parenting students, and protects students from bullying and sexual
harassment, among other things (National Women’s Law Center, 2012).
learner, being a male, believes the Title IX is a logical response to
gender inequality. It provides safety and comfort for women of any
age. It also allows
for women and men to function equally and protected in society. As the
National Women’s Center (2012) explains, the Supreme Court
appropriately recognized that when Congress passed Title IX it intended
to create a new statutory remedy that would supplement,
not replace, Constitutional and other legal protections against sex
discrimination. Effective enforcement of both Title IX and the Equal
Protection Clause of the Constitution remains essential if sex
discrimination in educational institutions is to be eliminated.
Title IX Accomplishments
Title IX has greatly accomplished the intended goals for all women.
The National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education published a
comprehensive report to help give educators,
parents, students, and lawmakers a better understanding of Title IX's
impact and challenges that remain in many areas of education, in
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Career and Technical
Education, Bullying and Sexual Harassment, Single-Sex
Education, Pregnant and Parenting Students and Athletics (National
Women’s Law Center, 2012).
Title IX Impact
Title IX has impacted this learner’s life by providing safety and
protection for my son in school. This learner feels secured in knowing
that Title IX exists and provides a remedy
for bullying and sexual harassment. By my son being an athlete, this
learner is sometimes on edge about the hazing’s that could take place at
the school. However, Title IX provides the comfort in knowing that
hazing, bullying, sexual harassment, etc. are
not acceptable act amongst students and are dealt with accordingly and
Title IX and the Differences amongst the Ages
Compared to 40 years ago, the way girls and young women viewed sports
today is very different. As the National Women’s Law Center (2012)
confirms, before Title IX things were different;
the primary physical activities for girls were cheerleading and
square-dancing. Only 1 in 27 girls played high school sports. There
were virtually no college scholarships for female athletes. And, female
college athletes received only two percent of overall
The National Women’s Law Center (2012) further explain how
participation in sports has changed women and their role in society by
the increasing growth in the number of women who
participate in sports, receive scholarships, and benefit from increased
budgets. There are more opportunities to compete at elite levels
through competitions like the Olympics, World Championships and
professional leagues. Even more importantly, playing
sports makes women healthier and aids in decreasing their likeliness to
smoke, drink, use drugs and experience unwanted pregnancies. Also,
studies have linked sports participation in the reduction of incidences
of breast cancer and osteoporosis later in life.
These health benefits for women and society alone should be reason to
keep Title IX strong.
Changes in Perception
Other than Title IX, some other changes in the perception according to
the National Women’s Law Center (2012) are as follows:
Obama Signs The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act-President Obama signed his
first bill into law on January 29, 2009 approving the Lilly Ledbetter
Fair Pay Act, a law named for Ms. Ledbetter, an Alabama woman who at
the end of a 19-year career as a supervisor in a tire factory complained
that she had been paid less than men (NWLC, 2012).
Girls & Women in Sports Day- began in 1987 as a day to remember
Olympic Volleyball player Flo Hyman for her athletic achievements and
her work to assure equality for women's sports. Events are conducted
around the country and on Capitol Hill throughout the month to celebrate
the athletic achievements of girls and women and to promote the
continued expansion of opportunities for girls to
play sports and live physically active lives (NWLC, 2012).
National Women’s Law Center. (2012). Title IX. Retrieved from http://www.titleix.info/Default.aspx
Dis 4 Rach
After reading the 10 key areas on
Title IX’s website I would have to say that it was a logical problem
solver. By simply putting a law out there that states that women can’t
be turned away from these things based on gender
only makes a lot of sense in regards to gender inequality.
I don’t believe that Title IX was
successful in taking down all gender inequality. As mentioned, gender
inequality is still ranked quite highly in the US. While it has improved
it does still exist.
Title IX has impacted my life. While I
may not have realized any of this at the time of impact. If it were not
for Title IX I would not have been permitted to take a technology
course in middle school. I would not be attending
Ashford right now to further my education if this had not been passed.
“Hard to believe, but until the ‘70s, many colleges and universities
refused to admit women. It was believed that women were more concerned
about marriage and children than higher education.”(National
Women’s Law Center. 2012). This was in fact hard for me to believe. I
had no idea that this was the case and it may have changed in due time
but not as quickly if it weren’t for Title IX.
I think that girls are more open to
playing and watching sports. Women feel more empowered now to go out and
play a sport that a man does. Whether it be on an all girls or co-ed
team. I also feel that part of this openness
can be attributed to how a girl was raised. I was never very athletic
in high school but I always enjoyed watching football games on
television or even in person. This had to do with that being an activity
that my father and I did together, and is still something
I enjoy doing to this day.
There are many other social changes
that have contributed to this. Women being allowed into the workforce is
a huge one. Taking the sterotype off of women that all they are to do
is stay home and tend to the house and children
has been major. This has led to all the other things that have become
National Women’s Law Center. (2012).Title IX.
Retrieved from http://www.titleix.info/Default.aspx