Abbott Academy of Cosmetology WK7 Exercise on Iliad and Beowulf Essay



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Answer the questions in the Week Seven Exercise on Iliad and Beowulf file. The answers to all questions are in lecture 8 and lecture 9. Uploaded to attachment. Please refer to the Style sheet for the format of the quoted text.

Do not accept any answers found on the web or in other books. All answers must be found in the two attachments uploaded.

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Week Seven Exercise: Iliad and Beowulf You must find all of your answers in the lectures on the Iliad and Beowulf, the texts (with introductions and notes) for those two works in your anthology, and the Glossary. I advise you not to turn to the Internet first or at all, as you may not get the answer you need. Use the internet only to lead you to answers you can validate in the assigned sources of answers just mentioned. Again, your answers MUST come from these works or the lectures and other information I’ve given you that is related directly to them. Nothing else will count. If you think you can get the answers by not reading the texts of these two epics and relying instead on the several wretched film versions, including the 2004 Troy and 2007 CGI Beowulf, you will get the wretched grade you deserve. Any errors in title form, quotation or parenthetical reference in your answers will cost you ½ point each. Other errors in mechanics will count ¼ to ½ point each. And be especially careful since you need to distinguish the character Beowulf from the literary work Beowulf that also carries his name. You do not have to cite (quote and provide a parenthetical reference) for any answer unless I specifically direct you to do so. It is always in your best interest to give as complete an answer as the question requires, but not to do more. If you write more than is necessary, you leave yourself open to making needless errors or leaving unclear what you understand in the question I’m asking. Anything more or less than a complete but concise answer may result in lost points. Regular Questions (2 points each): 1. Towards which two men is Achilles’ anger most directed? 2. Explain where (give the page numbers only—no line numbers) 28 women are twice used to demonstrate a heroic age culture’s objectification of women. 3. Explain how those 28 women also demonstrate part of the oral formulaic hypothesis. 4. What does the year 520 C.E. approximately have to do with the Beowulf? 5. Using the number of lines featuring them as your measure, list in order the three most prominent females in Beowulf. 6. Place these relatively modern contributors in order of first to last for their contribution to our knowledge of these two epics: a. Allen Frantzen, b. Heinrich Schliemann, c. Milman Perry, d. Dorothy Whitelock (you may use the letters or the last names in your list). 7. Give an example of an epithet from the Iliad for the sea and an example of a kenning from Beowulf for the sea. Just give the phrasing for the epithet and kenning found in the readings, lectures, or supplementary materials you study for this exercise; you don’t need to provide parenthetical references. 8. In what way were Beowulf and Beowulf harmed by fire? 9. Whose head and whose arm and shoulder get taken as trophies? 10. What is extraordinary about the parentage of Sarpedon, Achilles, and Helen? 11. In what book of the Iliad and in whose form and for what purpose does Apollo appear in disguise? 12. In what book of the Iliad and in whose form and for what purpose does Apollo’s sister Athena appear in disguise? 13. What feature of epic poetry do the instances in questions 11 and 12 best demonstrate? 14. (two points). Explain the roles of Eris and Iris in the story of the Iliad. Make plain which one does what. 15 (two points). Provide a parenthetical reference (just the page and line number[s], no quotation) for the first epic simile in Book IX of the Iliad. 16 (two points). Who foretells the death of Achilles before the Scaean gate of Troy? And who does the killing of Achilles? 17 (two points). Indicate any of the following that is/are true: a. the Iliad and Beowulf have the traditional epic feature of fatalism, b. the Iliad and Beowulf have the traditional epic feature of heroic similes, c. the Iliad and Beowulf open with the traditional epic feature of an announcement of the theme, d. the Iliad and Beowulf open with the traditional epic feature of an invocation of the muse, e. the Iliad and Beowulf have the traditional heroic feature of trophy-taking, f. the Iliad and Beowulf have the traditional heroic feature of long set speeches, g. the Iliad and Beowulf have the traditional epic or heroic feature of revenge as a motivation, h. all are true, i. none is true? 18 (two points). Explain in a few sentences or brief paragraph how it is wrong to say that Homer wrote the Iliad. 19 (two points). What two interpretations did I use to explain why Achilles’ shield in Book XVIII gets so much attention? Bonus Questions (1 point each): Bonus 1. This tribe of Germanic people settled mainly in the southwestern part of what became AngloSaxon England. Bonus 2. Which of these does not appear alongside the others: the eagle, the wyrm, the raven, the wolf. Bonus 3. Find the epithet for Hector closest to the end of Book XXIV and quote the line containing it here with a full and correct citation. Bonus 4 (two points). How does Priam’s kissing the hand of Achilles both violate and exemplify the heroic code? 1 Lecture Nine, Homer’s Iliad We’re at a work so long and complex that there is no way to treat it in detail. That’s typical of survey courses. By necessity, a great work like Homer’s Iliad will get only superficial treatment for much of it— more’s the pity. The work has twenty-four divisions in it called “books,” some of which the editors didn’t include, and parts of those assigned will get little or no mentioning in the lecture. Nevertheless, do read all of the selections in the anthology. I’ll emphasize its epic and heroic features mainly. Let’s start with the heroic code as an essential concept to understanding the epic. Here’s much of the definition from the Glossary: Heroic code: The concept of the heroic code has leant its name to other related terms you’ll often hear: “the Heroic Ideal,” and “the Heroic Age,” a period through which all great cultures apparently pass as they develop from a tribal people into a nation. The Heroic Age is an age of heroes to put it simply, and in the literature covered by this course you can find examples in the Ancient and Classical Ages and the early part of the Middle Ages. The heroic society is at first organized by families with the head of the family as chief of his close kinsmen. Over time, the family grows larger and intermarries with others so that a sort of confederated group of families comes to be united under a single superior chieftain or “king” (the modern English word derived from the Anglo-Saxon word cyning for “chieftain”). These larger groups would still number only a few hundred members. Only in times of crisis caused, say, by invasion or famine and the need to migrate would the political identities grow larger into anything resembling a nation. And usually once the crisis passed, the “nation” would break apart again into squabbling tribes. Other features of heroic culture include an intensely male-dominated perspective. Women, when mentioned at all in the literature of heroic culture, are often simply objectified, part of some man’s collection of prized possessions. Women or wives might be counted among a warrior’s number of swords, utilitarian objects like bowls, animals such as cattle and horses, land and even food storehouses as evidence of his prowess and successes. 2 Blood-revenge, especially for slain or injured or humiliated family members, was essential. Recourse to payment made by a person being pursued for revenge was sometimes an option. We’ll see it in Priam’s payment as a ransom to Achilles in exchange for the body of Hector. And in Beowulf, we’ll see several times this same concept of payment to escape being pursued for revenge where it is called wer-gild in Old English meaning “man-price.” The idea of kingship was also important. The king must be a preeminent hero if his people are to succeed; if his powers fail, so do the hopes of the people he leads. The heroic ideal was excellence; the hero/king had to do better than any others and at all pursuits. Skill and courage were the foremost qualities of the hero, whether he was a warrior or a king; but story-telling, political judgment, extravagant feasting and rewarding of followers were also important. The heroic ideal had two chief aims: 1. to lead to the practical success for a hero and his people during his lifetime and 2. to guarantee a fame that would live on after the death of the hero (almost no heroic cultures had religions like Christianity which promised an afterlife). Given the importance of fame in and after a lifetime, the bard who could tell the tales of deeds of prowess was especially prized. An Old Engraving Showing Heroes of the Trojan War As you read the work, notice how Homer’s poem illustrates the essential features of the heroic ideal, but don’t be surprised to find that some of the features aren’t perfectly represented in that epic. As you study the Iliad, look also for features of the epic, including epic similes. The Glossary definitions of the epic and epic simile, slightly abbreviated, follow: Epic: An epic is a long narrative (story-telling) poem in elevated style presenting characters of high position in adventures and forming an organic whole through the characters’ relation to a central heroic figure and through the development of episodes important to the history of a nation or a race. Epics with no known or an obscure author are called folk epics. Epics written in conscious imitation of folk epics but by poets whose existence we can be sure of are known as art epics. Homer’s two epics, because of the poet’s obscure role in them, are said to be folk epics, like the anonymous Beowulf. Virgil’s Aeneid, Dante’s Divine Comedy, and Milton’s Paradise Lost with their clearly known authors are art epics. Both folk and art epics share common characteristics: 1. the hero is a figure of imposing stature, of national or international importance, and of great historical or legendary significance; 2. the setting is vast for the culture which produced it; 3. the action consists of deeds of great valor or requiring superhuman skill; 4. supernatural forces—gods, demons, angels—involve themselves in the actions and intervene from time to time; 5. a style of sustained elevation and grand simplicity is used; and 6. the epic poet recounts the deeds of heroes with a measure of objectivity. To this list (some of which are omitted in particular epics) may be added another list of common devices or conventions used by most epic poets. The poet opens by stating the theme, invokes a muse, and begins the narrative in medias res (literally, “in the middle of things”)—this last device is not used in Homer’s Iliad but is used in his Odyssey, which I didn’t assign. The poet 3 includes catalogs or lists of items or persons like warriors, demigods, ships, or armies. The poet also gives extended speeches to the main characters and makes frequent use of epic simile. Epic Simile: An epic simile (also called the Homeric or heroic simile) is an elaborated comparison. Because it is a simile, an epic simile will contain the words “like” or “as,” thus distinguishing itself from a metaphor in which two things are equated rather than compared. The epic simile differs from an ordinary comparison in being more involved, ornate and lengthy. In the following passage from the Iliad, Paris’ anxiousness to rejoin the battle is described through an epic simile as the mettlesomeness of a proud horse: Nor did Paris linger in his high-roofed house, but when he had put on his glorious armor, elaborate in bronze, then he sped through the city, confident in the swiftness of his feet. As when a horse confined to a stall, fed on barley at the manger, breaking his tether runs with pounding feet across the plain to immerse himself in the fair-flowing waters of his accustomed river, triumphant, and he holds his head high, his mane streaming about his shoulders; emboldened by his beauty, his knees bear him lightly to the pasture and places horses love; so Paris, son of Priam, from the heights of Pergamos set out radiant in his armor like the sun, laughing out loud, his swift feet carrying him. (p. A255, ll. 503-514) To make plain the actual epic simile in this passage I’ve used a burnt orange font color for it. Note also that in the next-to-last line of this passage, you have a simple simile: “like the sun.” This isn’t an epic simile or part of one—just an everyday simile such as we commonly use. The thing being compared is Paris; the thing to which he is being compared is the stallion. Note in this example how in an epic simile the description of the thing to which the comparison is made (the stallion) is so arresting that it threatens to distract the reader from the awareness of the thing (Paris) which first evoked the comparison. Look also for the subtle ways Homer gave this long poem its design. One is the way he draws comparisons between the Greeks and Trojans and between the mortals and the gods. Consider, for example, how women figure importantly, though somewhat in the background, as the cause for much of the poem’s action. The Trojan War, after all, came about by Paris’ abduction of Helen, wife of a Greek king Menelaus. The poem also opens with fateful disputes over Chryseïs and Briseïs, two women taken as war prizes. Then there’s the strife in Olympia mainly between the god Zeus and the goddesses Hera and Athena that keeps the lives of the mortals in turmoil. As the introduction to the Iliad indicates, the poem opens near the end of the ten-year-long Trojan War. And as you’ll see, the Iliad ends before the fall of Troy, and many of the most memorable features of the Trojan War (Achilles’ heel, the Trojan Horse) aren’t included in Homer’s Iliad. A few get recounted in The Odyssey; still others in Greek plays and other sorts of narratives. However, the end of this war, including the Trojan Horse episode, was best told by Virgil in his Roman epic Aeneid. Book I (The Wrath of Achilles), pp. A232-246: Many of what follow are epic features such as those found listed in the Glossary definition above. The Homeric poems of the Iliad and the Odyssey are where many of those epic features first appeared. 4 Having been recorded there, the features became conventional because almost all of the western epics derive from or were imitative of these two Homeric poems. Beowulf, the only other epic we study this term, however, is not clearly derived from the Homeric tradition, and for that reason you won’t find a few of the key epic features like the invocation of the muse and announcement of the theme in the opening or the epic simile in Beowulf. The Iliad opens with two epic features, the invocation of the muse and the announcement of the theme, p. A232. Invoking the muse was a sort of gesture of modesty. It was the poet’s way of suggesting that he or she got divine help or inspiration from a muse. The muses were the nine daughters of Memory, known to the Greeks as Mnemosyne, who presided over nine areas of literary, scientific, and musical art. Calliope, the muse of epic and heroic poetry, is the one invoked (prayed to for assistance) here (p. A232, l. 1). But here’s a list of all nine: Calliope (the ‘beautiful of speech’): chief of the muses and muse of epic or heroic poetry; Clio (the ‘glorious one’): muse of history; Erato (the ‘amorous one’): muse of love or erotic poetry, lyrics, and marriage songs; Euterpe (the ‘well-pleasing’): muse of music and lyric poetry; Melpomene (the ‘chanting one’): muse of tragedy; Polyhymnia or Polymnia: muse of sacred song, oratory, lyric, singing and rhetoric; Terpsichore (the ‘[one who] delights in dance’): muse of choral song and dance; Thalia (the ‘blossoming one’): muse of comedy and bucolic poetry; Urania (the ‘celestial one’): muse of astronomy. The second epic feature in the opening is the announcement of the theme: the rage of Achilles—here called “the ruinous wrath of Peleus’ son Achilles” (p. A232, l. 1). The theme traditionally appears simple and direct, but as the epic continues, it takes on complications. You’ll see in Book I that Achilles’ rage is directed, ironically, at his fellow Greeks and his commander-in-chief Agamemnon in particular for depriving Achilles, the Greek’s champion or greatest warrior, of Briseïs, a woman taken as a war-prize. Later in the poem, Achilles’ rage is redirected away from Agamemnon and towards Hector for killing Achilles’ great friend Patroclus. The story’s opening is fairly clear, but I will summarize some. An epizootic (man- and animal-killing) plague (p. A233, ll. 48-53) has been visited on the Greeks, a punishment for Agamemnon’s blustering dismissal of Chryses, an important Trojan-allied priest of Apollo, who had come to ask the Greek commander to return Chryses’ daughter Chryseïs. Agamemnon refuses haughtily, and Chryses prays to Apollo, the god of health, to punish them, and the god obliges. (By the way, Homer never calls the Greeks the “Greeks”; to him they are Achaeans, Argives or Danaans; and they are also sometimes known by their tribal identities: Menelopians, Ithacans, Myceneans, and so on). Because of the plague crisis caused by Agamemnon, the other Greeks meet in a war-council at which they naturally defer to Achilles, their greatest warrior, and he is chosen to confront their commander. Agamemnon is a proud man and belligerent in the face of any threat to his authority. Achilles begins his appeal reasonably enough, but the two soon descend into wrangling that has all of the subtlety of two teenagers disagreeing on the neighborhood basketball court (pp. A234-235, ll. 130-171), and Agamemnon says in effect he’ll go home and take Achilles’ ball with him: “And you can’t do anything about it. Nyah, nyah, nyah!” Actually, since Agamemnon realizes he must give up Chryseïs to end the disastrous plague, he tries to save face by appropriating Briseïs, another woman taken as a war-prize, from Achilles. Achilles’ impulse is to draw his sword and run Agamemnon through, but he is stopped by Pallas Athena the goddess of wisdom who appears only to him and tells him if he’ll restrain himself to only telling Agamemnon off, he’ll get three times the reward as compensation for his commander’s arrogance (p. A236, ll. 197-214). This instance is an interesting and distinctly mythological one of the intervention of the gods, another typical epic feature. Athena is the goddess of wisdom, and one way of understanding her visitation is not as a literal visit but as Achilles’ reconsideration of what to do and decision to be patient. We’d say that “he used his better judgment or wisdom,” and perhaps that’s all that happened 5 here if we’re to rationalize the moment, but Achilles and Homer prefer to see it as submitting to the influence of the goddess who can induce a man to act wisely. This incident also connects to other features of the heroic code and epic. Heroic warriors are immensely proud and are concerned about their standing among fellow warriors. This is an occasion when Achilles has to “lose face,” an expression from Chinese traditional culture. He must give up a war prize, a measure of his value as a warrior, and do so to an arrogant commander he doesn’t respect who is being high-handed in an obvious power play because Agamemnon is also anxious not to lose face. Athena’s intervention, as already mentioned, is an instance of a typical epic feature: supernatural presence and influence. It is also an instance of the macrocosmic/microcosmic connection in the work. That thoroughly Greek term translates as “large world” / “small world,” and it means the way things in a larger setting reflect things in a smaller setting and vice-ver ...
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Final Answer




Iliad and Beowulf
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Regular Question 1
Achilles directs his anger towards Agamemnon, who is Achilles' Commander-in-chief
and also towards Hector.
Regular Question 2
Agamemnon is ready to provide a list of good things to allure Achilles to return to the
battle. Women are among the goodies inserted in the list as if they were just grocery list items.
The 28 women are used as a great example of the Women Objectification, a heroic literature's
feature (pp. A259-260).
Question 3
The 28 women were part of the gifts that Achilles was to receive and were described in a
lengthy passage. They were repeated with a sepa...

Zneevr (21157)
Purdue University

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