Thank you for the opportunity to help you with your question!
The DNA or also referred to as Deoxyribonucleic Acid is the basic unit of a genetic instruction. The DNA is double spiraled and is made up of two strands that include ribose sugars and phosphates which occur in alternations. Furthermore, they connected by bases guanine, thymine, adenine, and cytosine.
In its raw state, the DNA is long and a fragile polymer. Packing it into a more compact structure which allows it to fit into the nucleus, which thus protects it from any damage, and also allows cellular control. The Strands of the DNA wrap around the histone proteins. This, in turn, form structures are known as the nucleosomes. Creating the chromatin-a level of structure that often is compared to beads on a string. The Chromatin then does fold again being aided with the H1 histone, thus, become more compact. The proteins which act as a shell on the outer part cause more folding and twisting, hence completing the structure that is referred to as a chromosome.
The Chromosomes that are being prepared to undergo cell division do incorporate additional supporting proteins which in turn create more folds. These folding's then make the chromosomes more compact and less liable to break.
Please let me know if you need any clarification. I'm always happy to answer your questions.
15 Million Students Helped!
Sign up to view the full answer