How do the changes in these two characters illustrate

Question Description

Can you help me understand this English question?

What does each boy stand for? How do they change during the course of the book, and how do the changes in these two characters illustrate

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Final Answer

The boys symbolize the whole image of the society. For example Ralph; as we know that he is nice, just guy having democratic thought, represents the fair civilization and democratic rule. On the other hand Jack appears as tyrant,master in cruelty representing oppressive autocratic regime. Piggy looks like scholar so he is symbolizing intellectual part of the society.
The boys' character evolves overtime throughout the book : Jack, at first appears as a cool and harmless person just struggling for the leadership. But  in the power he completely changes. He lost his motive and develop an aggressive mood to hunt and kill that results in Simon demise.
Ralph appears in the start as a happiest and cheerful guy but soon he is distressed as story develops. He then feel sense of responsibility by thing about fire must keep going to rescue and toilet for lowering the diseases. he feels despondent when he comes to know that Jack does not like him.After the death of Piggy he totally despair. Simon, at first appears as feeble and hesitant guy but soon his character develops as bravery and truth speaker. 

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