Running head: MORAL VALUES
Deontological theory is one of the moral theories derived from the Greek word deon,
which means duty or obligation and logos, which means science n; it also is known duty ethics.
The theory was developed by a philosopher known as Immanuel Kent (Matthew, and Octavio
50). Deontological ethics emphasizes that an individual is ethical when he or she follows what is
right as defined by established rules or duties. It means that an individual is morally right as far
he or she does what the law or the duty requires. Unlike Aristotle's ethical theory, which
emphasizes the character, Kent Deontological theory solely emphasizes the act itself. The duty
ethics theory assumes that duty or obligation is primary to ethics. In Kent’s view, a person's
actions are wrong when he or she fails to act as per established rational rules which are universal
and necessary. Therefore, doing wrong means an individual is irrational.
A Critique of Duty Ethics
Duty ethics suggests that an individual act is morally right if they are consistent with the
established rational rules and were not concerned with the consequences of an individual's
actions, whether they cause harm to another person's interests. He focused on personal motives
as well as willingness to do good for others, even if the actions result in a personal loss (Matthew
and Octavio 50). It is important to do something to a person for the right reason than just
concentrating on the outcome of the actions. The theory emphasizes that people should do the
right things because they are right to do and should avoid doing wrong things since they are
wrong to do. For instance, it asserts that it is wrong to lie, kill an innocent person, or steal.
Furthermore, it argues that it right for an individual to keep a promise. Duty ethics requires
people to follow the established rules to the letter without questions. It encourages people to do
the right thing even if it harms others or it produces the wrong results. The duty ethics can be
applied in professional life as it encourages people to act as per ethical principles established by
the organization. Secondly, duty ethics gives people clear guidelines that they can apply in
making ethical decisions without thinking about the possible outcomes. It encourages people to
law-abiding citizens. However, duty ethics have some limitations, which make it not apply in
some instances. The approach becomes irrational when an individual is given the duty to make
the world morally worse (Matthew, and Octavio 51). Therefore, the individual needs to consider
the consequences of his or her actions. The theory can only apply when an individual encounters
two certain duties. The theory can be applied to solve the ethical dilemma that people encounter
in life. It ensures that they take actions that are right irrespective of their outcomes.
The article “Trump vows executive order requiring 'free speech' at colleges” narrates how
president trump said that he would sign an executive order that will require all the universities
and colleges in America to maintain free speech on their campuses. The president threatened the
Universities and colleges in the country would lose the federal research funds if they fail to
comply with the free speech order. He made those remarks during the annual conservative
political action conference after bringing Hayden Williams a conservative student who was
kicked off from the Uni...
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