GEO104 University Of California Salinity Mass Volume & Density Questions

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Question Description

I need these questions answered, with step by step solutions. This is for my course, Physical Oceanography, and we are working with salinity, volume, density of sea water, mass, etc. I don't know how to solve these and need help in the solutions and how you solved them, with what equations.

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Geography 104 Homework #2 (due: Friday, 18 October) Fall Quarter 2019 1. Salinas Guerrero Negro in Baja California Sur produces Ms = 7 million metric tons (1 metric ton = 103 kg) of salt per year by evaporating seawater and harvesting the salt left behind. In this problem you will find the volume of seawater that contained the mass of salt Ms. Assume that the salinity of the Pacific Ocean water from which the salt is harvested is S = 34. Assume the density of the seawater is r = 1025 kg m-3. a) Write a simple equation for the mass of salt Ms involving the salinity S and the mass of seawater Msw from which the salt was harvested. Then use algebra to solve for Msw. b) Write an equation in terms of r and Msw for the seawater volume Vsw that contained the salt. c) Combine equations from parts a) and b) to find an equation for Vsw involving the known quantities Ms, S, and r. d) Substitute values for known quantities in the equation for part c) to calculate Vsw. e) How long are the sides of a cube in m that would contain the Vsw? 1 2. In this problem you will use information in Appendix 2 on page 523 to find or estimate dimensional factors of the Pacific Ocean. You will then estimate an average residence time for water parcels to move through the Pacific Ocean. Note your residence time estimate will not be very precise. An assumption that will be made is that the largest volume flow (or volume flux, units of volume/time) of seawater into the Pacific comes from the Southern Ocean at a known rate. a) Use the average depth D and the area A of the Pacific Ocean to estimate its volume. Disregard the fact that marginal seas are included in the area estimate, but excluded in the depth estimate. b) Estimate the residence time in years of a water parcel in the Pacific Ocean? Assume that the volume inflow to the Pacific comes from the Southern Ocean is at a rate of V’ = 25x106 m3 s-1. 3. Freshwater with salinity S = 0 flows into the ocean from a river to produce a mixed water mass. a) If the ocean salinity offshore of the river mouth is S = 35 and mixing occurs such that Msw = 2 kg ocean water mixes with Mfw = 3 kg freshwater, what is the salinity Sm of the mixed water mass? Neglect the density difference between fresh and saltwater in determining the mixed salinity (i.e. assume the densities are the same. This assumption produces a small error). b) What is the concentration of sodium (Na) of the mixed water mass? To estimate this, use the principle of constant proportions (see bottom of p. 98 of the textbook). That is, assume the ratio of the concentration of Na to total salt concentration (i.e. salinity S) is the same in the ocean water as in the mixed water mass. See Table 5.5 to get the concentration of Na in ocean water with S = 35. 2 ...
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Tutor Answer

jlco88
School: UC Berkeley

Here you go! If you have any doubts feel free to ask.

1.

a)

Salinas Guerrero Negro in Baja California Sur produces M s = 7 million metric tons (1 metric ton = 10 3 kg)
of salt
per year by evaporating seawater and harvesting the salt left behind. In this problem you will find the
volume of
seawater that contained the mass of salt Ms. Assume that the salinity of the Pacific Ocean water from which
the salt
is harvested is S = 34. Assume the density of the seawater is ρ = 1025 kg m-3.
Write a simple equation for the mass of salt Ms involving the salinity S and the mass of seawater Msw from
which the salt was harvested. Then use algebra to solve for M sw.

Salinity is defined as the weight in grams of salt in one kilogram of water. It is therefore expressed as
S‰ – in parts per thousand.
𝑆=

𝑀𝑠
𝑀𝑠𝑀

π‘“π‘Ÿπ‘œπ‘š π‘€β„Žπ‘’π‘Ÿπ‘’ 𝑀𝑠𝑀 =

𝑀𝑠
𝑆

b) Write an equation in terms of ρ and Msw for the seawater volume Vsw...

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