Oxford Role of a Philosophical Attitude in a Moral and Intelligent Life Discussion

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Write a short philosophical essay on the following topic: What role should a philosophical attitude play in a life that is intelligently and morally lived?

In developing your account, you must use arguments and ideas found in at least three of the readings from this section of the course (Plato’s dialogues Euthyphro, Apology, Crito). In drawing on Plato, it is not sufficient merely to mention a dialogue; rather, you should explain one of Socrates’ arguments and/or show how his actions manifest a philosophical attitude.

I attached plato three readings that you must use all

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CRITO About the time of Socrates' trial . .• . . . 'a state gall h annua l re Izgzous mission to the s ll ey ad set out to Apollo, and while it was awa ma Aegean island of Del on an · h Y no executio os, sacred h[ace. So zt was t at Socrates w k , n was allowed t t k r h. h as ept tn p . o ae trial. The s zp as. now arrived at Cape Sun~son for a month after the . expected at the P . zraeus, Athens' p rt zum zn A _ttica and is th . hful fri d . o ' moment ·z S and fazt en ' Cnto, makes o l an y. o Socrates' old us . exz·1e, an d all arrang ne ast effort t escape into 11c o persuade him to . . ements for th. l It is thzs conversation between the two old . zs Pan have been made. to report in this dialogue. It is as Crito /~ends that Plato professes chance, but Socrates will not iake it an: iml~ tells_ him, his last refusal. Whether this conversation t;ok la e gzves ~zs re~sons for his not important, for there is every reas {~-at th1 s particular time is tried to plan his escape and that he ~:fuo / that Socrates' friends that the authorities would not have min;ed. atho mo~le than hznts the country. • e muc , as ong as he left f ~7e SOCRATES: Why have·you come so early, Crito? Or is it not still early? CRITO: It certainly is. 43 SOCRATES: How early? CRITO: Early dawn. SOCRATES: I am surprised that the warder was willing to listen to you. CRITO: He is quite friendly to . me by now, Socrates. I have been here often ~nd I have given him something. SOCRATES: Have you just come, or have you been here for some time? CRITO: A fair time. . SOCRATES: Then why did you not wake me right away but sit there m silence? . CRITO: By Zeus no, Socrates. I would not myself want to be in distress and awake so long. I have been surprised to see you so peacefully asleep. It was on purpose that I did not wake you, so that you sho~ld spend your time most agreeably. Often in th_e past thr~ughout my life, I have considered the way you live happy, and ~~pecially so now that You bear your present misfortune so easily and lightly. I SocRATES: It would not be fitting at my age to resent the fact that rnust die now. 43 b PLATO ht in such misfortunes, but e are caug of your ag . their fate. CRITO: Other rnen t them resenting I? their age does not preven have you come so ear y. but for SoCRATES: That is so. WhySocrates, not for you,d apparently, b I d . bring bad news, . b d and har to ear. n eed, I CRITO. 1 . d the news 1s a rne and all your fnen ~e hardest. would count it among th ship arrived from Delos, at the • 't? Or has e SocRATES: What is I . . ? arrival of which I rnust d'.e.d t but it will, I believe, arrive today, CRITO: It has not arnve ye ' brought from Sunium, where they ge some men d th according to a rnessa . th tit will come today, an at your life left it. This makes it obVIous a 44 C d 44 b C must end tomorrow_. b c th best. If it so please the gods, so be it. SOCRATES: May it e ior e . However, I do not think it will amve today. f h' ? CRITO: What indication have you o t is. . . . t II ou I must die the day after the ship arnves. SOCRATES: I WI11 e Y · CRITO: That is what those in authority say. s TES· Then I do not think it will arrive on this coming day, but ~~:e n~xt I take to witness of this a dream I had a little earlier during this night. It looks as if it was the righttime for you not to wake me. CRITO: What was your dream? SOCRATES: I thought that a beautiful and comely woman dressed in white approached me. She called me and said: "Socrates, may you arrive at fertile Phthia1on the third day." CRITO: A strange dream, Socrates. SOCRATES: But it seems clear enough to me, Crito. CRrTo: Too clear it seems, my dear Socrates, but listen to me even now and b~ saved. If you die, it will not be a single misfortune for me. Not only will I be deprived of a friend the like of whom I shall never find again, but many people who do 'not know you or me very well will think ~at I could have saved you if! were willing to spend money, but that I did not care to do S I h . so. ure y t ere can be no worse reputat10n - : - - - - - - -- 1. A quotation from the ninth b00k 0 f h . . all the presents of Ag t e Iliad (363). Achilles has reiected amemnon to go home. He says his h' .11for him . . t0 return to the battle and threatens . s ips w1 sail . . h he might arrive on the third d ... f, .m ti1e morning, and with good weat er takes the dream to mean th ?h m ~~bl~ Phthia" (which is his home). Socrates the third day. As always coa / wih die, and his soul will find its home, on is the day after tomorro\~. un mg t e first member of a series, the third day cRJTO 45 than to be thought to value money h' the majority will not believe that more ighly than one's friends, for 'l you yourself were t ·11· prison wh I e we were eager for you to do so. no w1 mg to leave SocRATES: My good Crito, why sh Id the majority think? The most reason we care so much for what ay more attention, will believe that t~· e peop1ed, to whom one should P mgs were one as they were done CR ITO: You see, Socrates, that one m t . · . . f th . . y us a1so pay attention to the opmion o e ma1onty. our present situati k l · · can m · fl 1ct ' not the least but pretty wellonthma es c ear .that ma1onty . the t 1 is slandered among them. e greateS ev1 s 1f one ~i° d SOCRATES: Would that the majority could 1·nfl'1ct th e greatest ev1·1s for they would then be capable of the greatest good, and that would be fine, but ~ow they cannot do either. They cannot make a man either wise or foolish, but they inflict things haphazardly. CRITO: That may be s_o. But tell me this, Socrates, are you anticipating that I and your other friends would have trouble with the informers if you escape from here, as having stolen you away, and that we should be compelled to lose all our property or pay heavy fines and suffer other punishment besides? If you have any such fear, forget it. We would be justified in running this risk to save you, and worse, if necessary. Do follow my advice, and do not act differently. SOCRATES: I do have these things in mind, Crito, and also many others. CRITO: Have no such fear. It is not much money that some people require to save you and get you out of here. Further, do you not see that those informers are cheap, and that not much money would be needed to deal with them? My money is available and is, I think, sufficient~If, because of your affection for me, you feel you should not spend any of mine, there are those strangers here ready to spend money. One of them, Simmias the Theban, has brought enough for this very purpose. Cebes, too, and a good many others. So, as I say, do n~t l~t this fear make you hesitate to save yourself, nor let what you said m court trouble you, that you would not know what to do with your~elf if you left Athens for you would be welcomed in many places to which you might go. If 'you want to go to Thessaly, I have friends_ there who will greatly appreciate you and keep you safe, so that no one m Thessaly will harm you. . . . Besides, Socrates, I do not think that what you are domg is iust, to give up your life when you can save it, and to hasten_y~ur fa~e as_ yiur enemies would hasten it and indeed have hastened it m the1~ w1s . to destroy you. Moreover, think you are betraying your sons Y gomg I e 45 b C PLATO d bring them up and educate I ou cou . b Th 46 · them when Y hat their fate may e. ey will away and J:vinghoW n~ concern fo~ w s Either one should not have them. You us;e usual fate of 0 ant~ the end the toil of upbringing pr~bably have e should share with ernhoose the easiest path, whereas children, d ortionn You seern to medto cd courageous man wou ld ch oose and : u~~ ;h~ose the path a gthoo anhout one's life to care for virtue ' one _s o)urly when one clairns lfrougd on behalf of us, your friends le~t particu a beha an d· ' feel ashamed on your b thought due to cowar ice on our part: 1 I that has happened to you e rt when it need not have done so aI . I came to cou d d' h' , the fact that your tna . . If d now this absur en mg w 1ch will the handling of the tnal ~tse ';°our control through some cowardice be thought to have got eyort,n •nee we did not save you, or you save . on our pa s1 f h d and unman Iine~s 'bl and could be done i we a been of yourself, when it was fdossi Se crates whether this is not only evil but 0 . ht t use · Consi er, ' ' d r r us Take counsel wit· h yourse lf, or rather th e sI,g es 110 • shame fu) ' both for you I . anast and the decision should h ave been taken the time for. counse is p . furth opportunity for this. who1e b usmess must be' and there 1s no er ' · ·11 I b 'bl · ended tonight If we delay now, then ,t w1 no anger e poss1 e; it will be too late. Let me persuade you on every count, Socrates, and do J d e 46 b C d not act otherwise. SocRATES: My dear Crito, your eagerness is worth much if it should have some right aim; if not, then the greater your ke~nness the more difficult it is to deal with. We must therefore examme whether we should act in this way or not, as not only now but at all times I am the kind of man who listens to nothing within me but the argument that on reflection seems best to me. I cannot, now that this fate has come upon me, discard the arguments I used; they seem to me much the same. I value and respect the same principles as before, and if we have no better arguments to bring up at this moment, be sure that I shall n?t agree wi~ you, not even if the power of the majority were to ~ighten u~ with more bogeys, as if we were children, with threats of mcarcer~tions ~nd executions and confiscation of property. How should we examme th1s matter most reasonably? Would it be by taking up first yourthargument about the opinions of men, whether it is sound in every case atthone should pay atten t·ion to some opinions but not to others? 0 r was at well-spoken befo th . . ' now it is clear th t th' re_ _e necessity to die came upon me, but it was in truth plaay dis was said m vain for the sake of argument, that an nonsense? I 'th you, Crito whether th' · am eager to examine together w1 ' ,s argument will . d rr tt me in my present c· appear m any way ineren o . remains the same, whether we are to abaucumstances d . ' or wheth er 1t n on 1t or beli eve 1·t. It was said on every occasion . cRJTO 4 by those who thought they were k' 7 . h spea mg se 'bl been .speakmg, t at one should I nsi Y, as I have just now but no t oth ers. Does that seem tgreat y value so me peop1e's opinions You, as far as a human being/ ytoull a sound statement? ' . an e ' are exem t fi th . of dymg tomorrow, so the present . fi . P rom e likelihood astray. Consider then, do you not ;.'s ~~ne is not likely to lead you roust not value all the opinions of m ~ a sound statement that one the opinions of all men but those ;en, ut sdome and not others, nor · ' some an not of 0 th 7 Wh d you say? Is th 1s not well said? ers. at o CRITO: It is. SOCRATES: One should value the good opm1ons, · · ' and not the bad ones.7 CRITO: Yes. SocRATES:· hThe good opinions are those of wi·se men, th e bad ones those of foohs men? CRITO: Of course. SocRATE~: Come then, what of statements such as this: Should a man professionally engaged in physical training pay attention to the praise and blame and opinion of any man, or to those of one man only, namely a doctor or trainer? CRITO: To those of one only. SOCRATES: He should therefore fear the blame and welcome the praise of that one man, and not those of the many? CRITO: Obviously. SOCRATES: He must then act and exercise, eat and drink in the way the one, the trainer and the one who knows, thinks right, not all the others? CRITO: That is so. SOCRATES: Very well. And if he disobeys the one, disregards his opinion and his praises while valuing those of the many who have no knowledge, will he not suffer harm? e 47 b C CRITO: Of course. SOCRATES: What is that harm, where does it tend, and what part of the man who disobeys does it affect? CRITO: Obviously the harm is to his body, which it ruins. SOCRATES: Well said. So with other matters, not to enumerate them all, and certainly with actions just and unjust, shameful and beautiful, good and bad about which we are now deliberating, should we follow the opinion of the many and fear it, or that of the one, if there is one d PLA'f'o 48 . d before whom we feel fear and dge of these things a?nlf we do not follow his directions who has knowIe I th thers. h · · ' th n before al e O f ourselves t at 1s improved by shamhe mil ohrennaand corrupt tha~ part ot_ ns Or is there nothing in this'? we s a a d by un1ust ac IO . . just actions and destroye . I is Socrates. e 48 b CRITo: I think there certain y .' that which is improved by health if we ruin · · f th SocRATES: Comd~ now, by not following the o~md1onAnsod hos~ who and corrupted by isease hen that is rume ? t at ts the . · g for us w know, is life worth IiVJn body, is it not? Crurn: Yes. . . rth living with a body that is corrupted and SocRATES: And is hfe wo in bad condition? CRITO: In no way. . f . -c rth living for us with that part o us corrupted 1 SOCRATES· An d is ue wo fi O d h. k . ·. h nd ·ust action bene ts? r o we t m that that un1ust action anns a 1 •h · · d· · . · that is concerned wit 1ushce an m1ushce , part of us, whatever 1·t 1s, is inferior to the body? CruTo: Not at all. SOCRATES: It is more valuable? CRITO: Much more. SOCRATES: We should not then think so much of what the majority will say about us, but what he will say who understands justice and injustice, the one, that is, and the truth itself. So that, in the first place, you were wrong to believe that we should care for the opinion of the many about what is just, beautiful, good, and their opposites. "But," someone might say, "the m~ny are able to put us to death." CRITO: That too is obvious, Socrates, and someone might well say so. SOCRATES: And, my admirable friend, that argument that we have gone through remains, I think, as before. Examine the following statement in turn as to whether it stays the same or not that the most important thing is not life, but the good life. ' CRITO: It stays the same. SthOCRATES: And that the good life, the beautiful life and the just life are e same; does that still hold, or not? ' CRITO: It does hold. C SOCRATES: As we have agreed £ it is just for me t try t0 so ar, we must examine next whether acquitted me If ~t · get oubt of here when the Athenians have not · is seen to e just, we will try to do so; if it is not, cRJTO 49 will abandon the idea. As for those q f weputation, the upbringing of childrenueCs '.otns yhou raise a?out money, re th belong to th ose people who easil, n o' t ose cons1d era t·ions m · tru t -f Yput men to death and would bring them o I e agam I they could, without thi k. . I · ·ty of men For us h . n mg, mean the rna1on . · . .' owever, smce our argument leads to this as we were saying · t . h h ' the only valid ·cons1derahon, · htl 111 · •. Jus now, 1s w et er we should be actmg ng Y givmg money and gratitude to those who will lead me out of here, and ourselves helping with th Whether in truth we shall do wrong in doing all th" If 't e escapeth,or · · tl 1s. 1 appears at we shall be actmg un1us Y, then we have no need at all to take into account whether we shall have to die if we stay here and keep quiet, or suffer in another way, rather than do wrong. n · d CRITO: I think you put that beautifully, Socrates, but see what we should do. SOCRATES: Let us examine the question together, my dear friend, and if you can make any objection while I am speaking, make it and I will listen to you, but if you have no objection to make, my dear Crito, then stop now from saying the same thing so often, that I must leave here against the will of the Athenians. I think it important to persuade you before I act, and not to act against your wishes. See whether the start of our inquiry is adequately stated, and try to answer what I ask you in the way you think best. CRITO: I shall try. SOCRATES: Do we say that one must never in any way do wrong willingly, or must one do wrong in one way and not in another? ls to do wrong never good or admirable, as we have agreed in the past, or have all these former agreements been washed out during the last few days? Have we at our age failed to notice for some time that in our serious discussions we were no different from children? Above all, is the truth such as we used to say it was, whether the majority agree or not, and whether we must still suffer worse things than we do now, or will be treated more gently, that nonetheless, wrongdoing or injustice is in every way harmful and shameful to the wrongdoer? Do we say so or not? CRITO: We do. SOCRATES: So one must never do wrong. CRITO: Certainly not. SOCRATES: Nor must one, when wronged, inflict wrong in return, as the majority believe, since one must never do wrong. e 49 b cJVTO 50 C d e 50 b b the case. cwo: That seems to e Id one do harm to anyone or not, Crito? ow shou . SocRATES: Come n , t never do so. . . .I h CRrro·· One musth n if one 1s. done harm, is it ng 1t, as t e ma,·or·h, 1,1 . e ' or IS· I·t not 7. SOCRATES'. Well t do harm in retum, say, o . . ht. cwo: It 1s never ng h is no different from wrongdoing . ople arm · SocRATES: Doing pe at is true. d · re tu rn, nor do any ma do wrong m CRITO: Th houl never AdC . n SocRATES: 0 ne s h have done to you. n nto, see that harm no matter what . e matrayry to your belief. For I know that on} ' to this con . d h . Y you do not agree . '. or will hold 1t, an t ere 1s no common th1 a few people hold s VJhewhold this view and those who do not but groun d betwee n those . w oh other's views. So th en cons1'd er very ,care. 'tab! despise they mevi Y h eac th' VJ·ew in common, and wh ether you agree l h ther we ' ave is . .h ' ful Y w e . th b . four deliberation, that ne1t er to do wrong d I t this be e as1s o . . h . an e ·sever correct, nor 1s domg arm m return for nor to return a wrong I disagree and do not share th'1s view . as a basis harm. done.. 0 rIdhO youheld it for a long time · an d sh·11 hoId 1t · now but for d1scuss10n.7 ave ·k ' if you think otherwise, tell me now._If, however, you she to our former opinion, then listen to the next pomt. CRITO: I stick to it and agree with you. So say on. SOCRATES: Then I state the next point, or rather I ask you: when one has come to an agreement that is just with someone, should one fulfill it or cheat on it? Cruro: One should fulfill it. SOCRATES: See what follows from this: if we leave here without the city's permission, are we harming people whom we should least do harm to? And are we sticking to a just agreement, or not? CRITO: I cannot answer your question, Socrates. I do not know. SOCRATES: Look at it this way. If, as we were planning to run away from here, or whatever one should call it the laws and the state came and confronted us and asked: "Tell me, So~rates, what are you intending to do? Do you no~ by this action you are attempting intend to destroy us, the laws, _and_ mdee_d the whole city, as far as you are concerned? Or_do you th mk it possible for a city not to be destroyed if the verdicts ?f 1~ _courts have no force but are nullified and set at naught by private md1v1duals?". What shaII we answer to this. and other such arguments.7 F or many thmgs could be said, especially by an orator on behalf of this 51 we are destroying, which orders that the · d f h laW .d Sh l JU gments o t e courts l be carne out. a l we say in answer "Th • C shal .. t . h ,, , e city wronge d me, and its dec1s10n was no ng t. Shall we say that, or what? CRJTO: Yes, by Zeus, Socrates, that is our answer. socRATES: Then what if t?e laws said: "Was that the agreement between us, So~rates, or was it to respect the judgments that the city carne to?" And if we wondered at their ...
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The Role of a Philosophical Attitude in a Moral and Intelligent Life
What is philosophical attitude, and for what good would it be for an individual seeking
to live a moral and intelligent life? These are prompts that initiates intense level of thinking
and imaginations as one try to develop a sense of wonder or curiosity, for with which to
provide answers, not only to these questions, but also to many other challenges that emerge at
different points in life. It is imperative that a society is made up of people who comprehend
the meaning that their processes of articulating perspectives have in life, along with ultimate
contributions that these articulations have on their insights toward better understandings,
since it is only then that life would be termed moral and intelligent, and this is philosophical
attitude is about (Sorley, 143). This paper discusses the role that philosophical attitude should
play in a moral and intelligent life.
Morality and intelligence are some of the most important themes in life. Ranging from
political practices to religious or legal settings, morality and intelligence are themes that are
given much weight; they are ultimately primary to many practices in life, on which many
quests or desires in life are based. Therefore, imagine the state of mind that only sieves good
judgments from all the dirt of the world, and directs choices and actions based on these
‘good’ judgements. Personally, I think having such an attitude is essential to living a moral
and intelligent life. This notion that this paragraph has portrayed in the previous statements
describe what philosophical attitude entails; to always remain thoughtful and detached even
when subjected to difficulties in life, some of which may be devastating (Sorley, 156). Even

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