San Diego State University Security Systems Management Discussion

User Generated



San Diego State University


Discuss the importance of enforcing the separation of duties. Give examples to clarify and justify its importance. How does this relate to and reinforced job roles and responsibilities? How are separation of duties important in the realm of IT security? How do separation of duties differ from mandatory vacation and job rotation? Give some examples of why these tenants are important in cybersecurity?

2- Discussion Board

Discuss and give examples of the Federal Information and Management Act. How does this law impact the security across the federal government both indirectly and directly? Do you think it is enough? Give examples.

Example of My classmate answer: The Federal Information Security and Management Act is a signed legislation that was passed into a law by congress in the United States. This was set in motion to protect government information and any classified documents that are consider assets against general population unless authorize to reales by officials. There is a management of inventory in which information systems pass a process of maintaining data secure and is owned by the federal government. This law is passed throughout every state and extended lands such as Alaska Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The government ensures that there will be no break or breach of information by allowing the action to contract hackers in order to maintain the system impenetrable. This also includes security from what is known as social engineering. Social engineering is a old modern form of obtaining information through physical aspects. The data entered in these servers are consider protected and secure for that many cyber attacks have continuously raised throughout time due to modern technology being more accessible.

3 Discussion Board

Describe the difference between DNSSEC and DNSCURVE? How do they differ and why do you think people aren't moving toward DNSCURVE? Why are agencies promoting and requiring DNSSEC? what does this mean for the private sector? What do you think about this?

Short paper on the Safe Harbor Program (EU-US Privacy Shield Program)

Prepare to do a deepish dive into subject areas for preparation of the CISSP.

Short papers: Explain, contrast or compare the subject - 3-5 pages -

Compare and contrast the EU-US Privacy Shield Program /Safe Harbor to US privacy laws - Why is this important and how does this impact US companies doing business abroad?

single spacing, normal margins, use 12 pt font - reference what isn't yours please –

text book attached as a PDF

Unformatted Attachment Preview

CISSP® Certified Information Systems Security Professional Study Guide Seventh Edition James Michael Stewart Mike Chapple Darril Gibson Development Editor: Alexa Murphy Book Designers: Judy Fung and Bill Gibson Technical Editors: David Seidl, Brian O'Hara, Paul Calatayud Proofreaders: Josh Chase, Sarah Kaikini and Louise Watson, Word One New York Production Editor: Rebecca Anderson Copy Editors: Elizabeth Welch, Linda Recktenwald Indexer: J & J Indexing Editorial Manager: Mary Beth Wakefield Project Coordinator, Cover: Brent Savage Production Manager: Kathleen Wisor Cover Designer: Wiley Associate Publisher: Jim Minatel Cover Image: ©Getty Images Inc./Jeremy Woodhouse Media Supervising Producer: Richard Graves Copyright © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana Published simultaneously in Canada ISBN: 978-1-119-04271-6 ISBN: 978-1-119-04272-3 (ebk.) ISBN: 978-1-119-04275-4 (ebk.) 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The fact that an organization or Web site is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or Web site may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that Internet Web sites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was written and when it is read. For general information on our other products and services or to obtain technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at (877) 762-2974, outside the U.S. at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at For more information about Wiley products, visit Library of Congress Control Number: 2015948797 TRADEMARKS: Wiley, the Wiley logo, and the Sybex logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates, in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. CISSP is a registered certification mark of (ISC)², Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. Disclaimer: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., in association with (ISC)2, has prepared this study guide for general information and for use as training for the Official (ISC)2 CISSP ® CBK® and not as legal or operational advice. This is a study guide only, and does not imply that any questions or topics from this study guide will appear on the actual (ISC)2 CISSP ® certification examination. The study guide was not prepared with writers or editors associated with developing the (ISC)2 CISSP certification examination. The study guide may contain errors and omissions. (ISC)2 does not guarantee a passing score on the exam or provide any assurance or guarantee relating to the use of this study guide and preparing for the (ISC)2 CISSP ® certification examination. The users of the Official CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional Study Guide, Seventh Edition agree that John Wiley and Sons, Inc.. and (ISC)2 are not liable for any indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages up to and including negligence that may arise from use of these materials. Under no circumstances, including negligence, shall John Wiley and Sons, Inc.or (ISC)2, its officers, directors, agents, author or anyone else involved in creating, producing or distributing these materials be liable for any direct, indirect, incidental, special or consequential damages that may result from the use of this study guide. Whenever we look toward the future, we have to first look back and think about where we came from. Back in 1989, (ISC)2 was established by a handful of passionate volunteers who wanted to create a set of standards for a new concept, not yet a full-fledged career field, called information security. In the minds of those volunteers, having the initial 500 applicants sign up to take the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP®) exam was considered quite a success. Little did they imagine that 26 years later, not only would those 500 applicants grow to a cadre of 100,000 CISSP credential holders across more than 160 countries, the CISSP would also become recognized as the standard certification for the information security industry. Advancements in technology bring about the need for updates, and we work tirelessly to ensure that our content is always relevant to the industry. As the information security industry continues to transition, and cybersecurity becomes a global focus, the CISSP Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) is even more relevant to today's challenges. The new (ISC)² CISSP Study Guide is part of a concerted effort to enhance and increase our education and training offerings. The CISSP Study Guide reflects the most relevant topics in our ever-changing field and is a learning tool for (ISC)² certification exam candidates. It provides a comprehensive study guide to the eight CISSP domains and the most current topics in the industry. If you are on the path to getting certified, you have no doubt heard of the (ISC)2 Official Guides to the CBK. While our Official Guides to the CBK are the authoritative references to the Common Body of Knowledge, the new study guides are learning tools focused on educating the reader in preparation for exams. As an ANSI accredited certification body under the ISO/IEC 17024 standard, (ISC)² does not teach the CISSP exam. Rather, we strive to generate or endorse content that teaches the CISSP's CBK. Candidates who have a strong understanding of the CBK are best prepared for success with the exam and within the profession. (ISC)2 is also breaking new ground by partnering with Wiley, a recognized industry leading brand. Developing a partnership with renowned content provider Wiley allows (ISC)2 to grow its offerings on the scale required to keep our content fresh and aligned with the constantly changing environment. The power of combining the expertise of our two organizations benefits certification candidates and the industry alike. I look forward to your feedback on the (ISC)2 CISSP Study Guide. Congratulations on taking the first step toward earning the certification that SC Magazine named “Best Professional Certification Program.” Good luck with your studies! Best Regards, David P. Shearer, CISSP, PMP CEO (ISC)2 To Cathy, your perspective on the world and life often surprises me, challenges me, and makes me love you even more. —James Michael Stewart To Dewitt Latimer, my mentor, friend, and colleague. I miss you dearly. —Mike Chapple To Nimfa: Thanks for sharing your life with me for the past 23 years and letting me share mine with you. —Darril Gibson Acknowledgments I’d like to express my thanks to Sybex for continuing to support this project. Thanks to Mike Chapple and Darril Gibson for continuing to contribute to this project. Thanks also to all my CISSP course students who have provided their insight and input to improve my training courseware and ultimately this tome. Extra thanks to the seventh edition developmental editor, Alexa Murphy, and technical editor, David Seidl, who performed amazing feats in guiding us to improve this book. Thanks as well to my agent, Carole Jelen, for continuing to assist in nailing down these projects. To my adoring wife, Cathy: Building a life and a family together has been more wonderful than I could have ever imagined. To Slayde and Remi: You are growing up so fast and learning at an outstanding pace, and you continue to delight and impress me daily. You are both growing into amazing individuals. To my mom, Johnnie: It is wonderful to have you close by. To Mark: No matter how much time has passed or how little we see each other, I have been and always will be your friend. And finally, as always, to Elvis: You were way ahead of the current bacon obsession, with your peanut butter-banana-bacon sandwich; I think that’s proof you traveled through time! —James Michael Stewart Special thanks go to the information security team at the University of Notre Dame, who provided hours of interesting conversation and debate on security issues that inspired and informed much of the material in this book. I would like to thank the team at Wiley who provided invaluable assistance throughout the book development process. I also owe a debt of gratitude to my literary agent, Carole Jelen of Waterside Productions. My coauthors, James Michael Stewart and Darril Gibson, were great collaborators. David Seidl, our diligent and knowledgeable technical editor, provided valuable insight as we brought this edition to press. I’d also like to thank the many people who participated in the production of this book but whom I never had the chance to meet: the graphics team, the production staff, and all of those involved in bringing this book to press. —Mike Chapple Thanks to Carol Long and Carole Jelen for helping get this update in place before (ISC)2 released the objectives. This helped us get a head start on this new edition and we appreciate your efforts. It’s been a pleasure working with talented people like James Michael Stewart and Mike Chapple. Thanks to both of you for all your work and collaborative efforts on this project. The technical editor, Dave Seidl, provided us with some outstanding feedback and this book is better because of his efforts. Thanks again, David. Last, thanks to the team at Sybex (including project managers, editors, and graphics artists) for all the work you did helping us get this book to print. —Darril Gibson About the Authors James Michael Stewart, CISSP, has been writing and training for more than 20 years, with a current focus on security. He has been teaching CISSP training courses since 2002, not to mention other courses on Internet security and ethical hacking/penetration testing. He is the author of and contributor to more than 75 books and numerous courseware sets on security certification, Microsoft topics, and network administration. More information about Michael can be found at his Mike Chapple, CISSP, Ph.D., is Senior Director for IT Service Delivery at the University of Notre Dame. In the past, he was chief information officer of Brand Institute and an information security researcher with the National Security Agency and the U.S. Air Force. His primary areas of expertise include network intrusion detection and access controls. Mike is a frequent contributor to TechTarget’s SearchSecurity site and the author of more than 25 books including CompTIA Security+ Training Kit and Information Security Illuminated. Mike can be found on Twitter @mchapple. Darril Gibson, CISSP, is the CEO of YCDA, LLC (short for You Can Do Anything) and he has authored or coauthored more than 35 books. Darril regularly writes, consults, and teaches on a wide variety of technical and security topics and holds several certifications. He regularly posts blog articles at about certification topics and uses that site to help people stay abreast of changes in certification exams. He loves hearing from readers, especially when they pass an exam after using one of his books, and you can contact him through the blogging site. Contents Introduction Assessment Test Chapter 1 Security Governance Through Principles and Policies Understand and Apply Concepts of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Apply Security Governance Principles Develop and Implement Documented Security Policy, Standards, Procedures, and Guidelines Understand and Apply Threat Modeling Integrate Security Risk Considerations into Acquisition Strategy and Practice Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 2 Personnel Security and Risk Management Concepts Contribute to Personnel Security Policies Security Governance Understand and Apply Risk Management Concepts Establish and Manage Information Security Education, Training, and Awareness Manage the Security Function Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 3 Business Continuity Planning Planning for Business Continuity Project Scope and Planning Business Impact Assessment Continuity Planning Plan Approval and Implementation Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 4 Laws, Regulations, and Compliance Categories of Laws Laws Compliance Contracting and Procurement Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 5 Protecting Security of Assets Classifying and Labeling Assets Identifying Data Roles Protecting Privacy Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 6 Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms Historical Milestones in Cryptography Cryptographic Basics Modern Cryptography Symmetric Cryptography Cryptographic Life Cycle Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 7 PKI and Cryptographic Applications Asymmetric Cryptography Hash Functions Digital Signatures Public Key Infrastructure Asymmetric Key Management Applied Cryptography Cryptographic Attacks Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 8 Principles of Security Models, Design, and Capabilities Implement and Manage Engineering Processes Using Secure Design Principles Understand the Fundamental Concepts of Security Models Select Controls and Countermeasures Based on Systems Security Evaluation Models Understand Security Capabilities of Information Systems Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 9 Security Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Countermeasures Assess and Mitigate Security Vulnerabilities Client-Based Server-Based Database Security Distributed Systems Industrial Control Systems Assess and Mitigate Vulnerabilities in Web-Based Systems Assess and Mitigate Vulnerabilities in Mobile Systems Assess and Mitigate Vulnerabilities in Embedded Devices and Cyber-Physical Systems Essential Security Protection Mechanisms Common Architecture Flaws and Security Issues Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 10 Physical Security Requirements Apply Secure Principles to Site and Facility Design Design and Implement Physical Security Implement and Manage Physical Security Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 11 Secure Network Architecture and Securing Network Components OSI Model TCP/IP Model Converged Protocols Wireless Networks General Wi-Fi Security Procedure Cabling, Wireless, Topology, and Communications Technology Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 12 Secure Communications and Network Attacks Network and Protocol Security Mechanisms Secure Voice Communications Multimedia Collaboration Manage Email Security Remote Access Security Management Virtual Private Network Virtualization Network Address Translation Switching Technologies WAN Technologies Miscellaneous Security Control Characteristics Security Boundaries Prevent or Mitigate Network Attacks Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 13 Managing Identity and Authentication Controlling Access to Assets Comparing Identification and Authentication Implementing Identity Management Managing the Identity and Access Provisioning Life Cycle Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 14 Controlling and Monitoring Access Comparing Access Control Models Understanding Access Control Attacks Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 15 Security Assessment and Testing Building a Security Assessment and Testing Program Performing Vulnerability Assessments Testing Your Software Implementing Security Management Processes Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 16 Managing Security Operations Applying Security Operations Concepts Provisioning and Managing Resources Managing Configuration Managing Change Managing Patches and Reducing Vulnerabilities Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 17 Preventing and Responding to Incidents Managing Incident Response Implementing Preventive Measures Logging, Monitoring, and Auditing Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 18 Disaster Recovery Planning The Nature of Disaster Understand System Resilience and Fault Tolerance Recovery Strategy Recovery Plan Development Training, Awareness, and Documentation Testing and Maintenance Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 19 Incidents and Ethics Investigations Major Categories of Computer Crime Incident Handling Ethics Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 20 Software Development Security Introducing Systems Development Controls Establishing Databases and Data Warehousing Storing Data and Information Understanding Knowledge-Based Systems Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Chapter 21 Malicious Code and Application Attacks Malicious Code Password Attacks Application Attacks Web Application Security Reconnaissance Attacks Masquerading Attacks Summary Exam Essentials Written Lab Review Questions Appendix A Answers to Review Questions Chapter 1: Security Governance Through Principles and Policies Chapter 2: Personnel Security and Risk Management Concepts Chapter 3: Business Continuity Planning Chapter 4: Laws, Regulations, and Compliance Chapter 5: Protecting Security of Assets Chapter 6: Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms Chapter 7: PKI and Cryptographic Applications Chapter 8: Principles of Security Models, Design, and Capabilities Chapter 9: Security Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Countermeasures Chapter 10: Physical Security Requirements Chapter 11: Secure Network Architecture and Securing Network Components Chapter 12: Secure Communications and Network Attacks Chapter 13: Managing Identity and Authentication Chapter 14: Controlling and Monitoring Access Chapter 15: Security Assessment and Testing Chapter 16: Managing Security Operations Chapter 17: Preventing and Responding to Incidents Chapter 18: Disaster Recovery Planning Chapter 19: Incidents and Ethics Chapter 20: Software Development Security Chapter 21: Malicious Code and Application Attacks Appendix B Answers to Written Labs Chapter 1: Security Governance Through Principles and Policies Chapter 2: Personnel Security and Risk Management Concepts Chapter 3: Business Continuity Planning Chapter 4: Laws, Regulations, and Compliance Chapter 5: Protecting Security of Assets Chapter 6: Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms Chapter 7: PKI and Cryptographic Applications Chapter 8: Principles of Security Models, Design, and Capabilities Chapter 9: Security Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Countermeasures Chapter 10: Physical Security Requirements Chapter 11: Secure Network Architecture and Securing Network Components Chapter 12: Secure Communications and Network Attacks Chapter 13: Managing Identity and Authentication Chapter 14: Controlling and Monitoring Access Chapter 15: Security Assessment and Testing Chapter 16: Managing Security Operations Chapter 17: Preventing and Responding to Incidents Chapter 18: Disaster Recovery Planning Chapter 19: Incidents and Ethics Chapter 20: Software Development Security Chapter 21: Malicious Code and Application Attacks Comprehensive Online Learning Environment EULA List of Tables Chapter 2 Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Chapter 5 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Chapter 6 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Chapter 7 Table 7.1 Chapter 8 Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4 Chapter 9 Table 9.1 Chapter 10 Table 10.1 Table 10.2 Chapter 11 Table 11.1 Table 11.2 Table 11.3 Table 11.4 Table 11.5 Table 11.6 Table 11.7 Table 11.8 Table 11.9 Chapter 12 Table 12.1 Table 12.2 Table 12.3 Chapter 18 Table 18.1 List of Illustrations Chapter 1 Figure 1.1 The CIA Triad Figure 1.2 The five elements of AAA services Figure 1.3 Strategic, tactical, and operational plan timeline comparison Figure 1.4 Levels of government/military classification Figure 1.5 Commercial business/private sector classification levels Figure 1.6 The comparative relationships of security policy components Figure 1.7 An example of diagramming to reveal threat concerns Chapter 2 Figure 2.1 An example of separation of duties related to five admin tasks and seven administrators Figure 2.2 An example of job rotation among management positions Figure 2.3 Ex-employees must return all company property. Figure 2.4 The elements of risk Figure 2.5 The six major elements of quantitative risk analysis Figure 2.6 The categories of security controls in a defense-in-depth implementation Figure 2.7 The six steps of the risk management framework Chapter 3 Figure 3.1 Earthquake hazard map of the United States Chapter 5 Figure 5.1 Data classifications Figure 5.2 Clearing a hard drive Chapter 6 Figure 6.1 Challenge-response authentication protocol Figure 6.2 The magic door Figure 6.3 Symmetric key cryptography Figure 6.4 Asymmetric key cryptography Chapter 7 Figure 7.1 Asymmetric key cryptography Figure 7.2 Steganography tool Figure 7.3 Image with embedded message Chapter 8 Figure 8.1 The TCB, security perimeter, and reference monitor Figure 8.2 The Take Grant model’s directed graph Figure 8.3 The Bell-LaPadula model Figure 8.4 The Biba model Figure 8.5 The Clark-Wilson model Figure 8.6 The levels of TCSEC Chapter 9 Figure 9.1 In the commonly used four-ring model, protection rings segregate the operating system into kernel, components, and drivers in rings 0 through 2 and applications and programs run at ring 3. Figure 9.2 The process scheduler Chapter 10 Figure 10.1 A typical wiring closet Figure 10.2 The fire triangle Figure 10.3 The four primary stages of fire Figure 10.4 A secure physical boundary with a mantrap and a turnstile Chapter 11 Figure 11.1 Representation of the OSI model Figure 11.2 Representation of OSI model encapsulation Figure 11.3 Representation of the OSI model peer layer logical channels Figure 11.4 OSI model data names Figure 11.5 Comparing the OSI model with the TCP/IP model Figure 11.6 The four layers of TCP/IP and its component protocols Figure 11.7 The TCP three-way handshake Figure 11.8 Single-, two-, and three-tier firewall deployment architectures Figure 11.9 A ring topology Figure 11.10 A linear bus topology and a tree bus topology Figure 11.11 A star topology Figure 11.12 A mesh topology Chapter 13 Figure 13.1 Graph of FRR and FAR errors indicating the CER point Chapter 14 Figure 14.1 Defense in depth with layered security Figure 14.2 Role-based access controls Figure 14.3 A representation of the boundaries provided by lattice-based access controls Figure 14.4 Wireshark capture Chapter 15 Figure 15.1 Nmap scan of a web server run from a Linux system Figure 15.2 Default Apache server page running on the server scanned in Figure 15.1 Figure 15.3 Nmap scan of a large network run from a Mac system using the Terminal utility Figure 15.4 Network vulnerability scan of the same web server that was port scanned in Figure 15.1 Figure 15.5 Web application vulnerability scan of the same web server that was port scanned in Figure 15.1 and network vulnerability scanned in Figure 15.4 Figure 15.6 The Metasploit automated system exploitation tool allows attackers to quickly execute common attacks against target systems. Figure 15.7 Fagan inspections follow a rigid formal process, with defined entry and exit criteria that must be met before transitioning between stages. Figure 15.8 Prefuzzing input file containing a series of 1s Figure 15.9 :The input file from Figure 15.8 after being run through the zzuf mutation fuzzing tool Chapter 16 Figure 16.1 A segregation of duties control matrix Figure 16.2 Creating and deploying images Figure 16.3 Web server and database server Chapter 17 Figure 17.1 Incident response Figure 17.2 SYN flood attack Figure 17.3 A man-in-the-middle attack Figure 17.4 Intrusion prevention system Figure 17.5 Viewing a log entry Chapter 18 Figure 18.1 Flood hazard map for Miami–Dade County, Florida Figure 18.2 Failover cluster with network load balancing Chapter 20 Figure 20.1 Security vs. user-friendliness vs. functionality Figure 20.2 The waterfall life cycle model Figure 20.3 The spiral life cycle model Figure 20.4 The IDEAL model Figure 20.5 Gantt chart Figure 20.6 The DevOps model Figure 20.7 Hierarchical data model Figure 20.8 Customers table from a relational database Figure 20.9 ODBC as the interface between applications and a backend database system Chapter 21 Figure 21.1 Typical database-driven website architecture Introduction The CISSP: Certified Information Systems Security Professional Study Guide, Seventh Edition, offers you a solid foundation for the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) exam. By purchasing this book, you’ve shown a willingness to learn and a desire to develop the skills you need to achieve this certification. This introduction provides you with a basic overview of this book and the CISSP exam. This book is designed for readers and students who want to study for the CISSP certification exam. If your goal is to become a certified security professional, then the CISSP certification and this study guide are for you. The purpose of this book is to adequately prepare you to take the CISSP exam. Before you dive into this book, you need to have accomplished a few tasks on your own. You need to have a general understanding of IT and of security. You should have the necessary five years of full-time paid work experience (or four years if you have a college degree) in two or more of the eight domains covered by the CISSP exam. If you are qualified to take the CISSP exam according to (ISC)2, then you are sufficiently prepared to use this book to study for it. For more information on (ISC)2, see the next section. (ISC)2 The CISSP exam is governed by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)2. (ISC)2 is a global not-for-profit organization. It has four primary mission goals: Maintain the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) for the field of information systems security. Provide certification for information systems security professionals and practitioners. Conduct certification training and administer the certification exams. Oversee the ongoing accreditation of qualified certification candidates through continued education. The (ISC)2 is operated by a board of directors elected from the ranks of its certified practitioners. (ISC)2 supports and provides a wide variety of certifications, including CISSP, SSCP, CAP, CSSLP, CCFP, HCISPP, and CCSP. These certifications are designed to verify the knowledge and skills of IT security professionals across all industries. You can obtain more information about (ISC)2 and its other certifications from its website at The Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) credential is for security professionals responsible for designing and maintaining security infrastructure within an organization. Topical Domains The CISSP certification covers material from the eight topical domains. These eight domains are as follows: Security and Risk Management Asset Security Security Engineering Communication and Network Security Identity and Access Management Security Assessment and Testing Security Operations Software Development Security These eight domains provide a vendor-independent overview of a common security framework. This framework is the basis for a discussion on security practices that can be supported in all type of organizations worldwide. The topical domains underwent a major revision as of April 2015. The domains were reduced from ten to eight, and many topics and concepts were re-organized. For a complete view of the breadth of topics covered on the CISSP exam from these eight new domain groupings, visit the (ISC)2 website at to request a copy of the Candidate Information Bulletin. This document includes a complete exam outline as well as other relevant facts about the certification. Prequalifications (ISC)2 has defined the qualification requirements you must meet to become a CISSP. First, you must be a practicing security professional with at least five years’ full-time paid work experience or with four years’ experience and a recent IT or IS degree. Professional experience is defined as security work performed for salary or commission within two or more of the eight CBK domains. Second, you must agree to adhere to a formal code of ethics. The CISSP Code of Ethics is a set of guidelines the (ISC)2 wants all CISSP candidates to follow to maintain professionalism in the field of information systems security. You can find it in the Information section on the (ISC)2 website at (ISC)2 also offers an entry program known as an Associate of (ISC)2. This program allows someone without any or enough experience to qualify as a CISSP to take the CISSP exam anyway and then obtain experience afterward. Associates are granted six years to obtain five years’ of security experience. Only after providing proof of such experience, usually by means of endorsement and a resume, can the individual be awarded CISSP certification. Overview of the CISSP Exam The CISSP exam focuses on security from a 30,000-foot view; it deals more with theory and concept than implementation and procedure. It is very broad but not very deep. To successfully complete this exam, you’ll need to be familiar with every domain but not necessarily be a master of each domain. The CISSP exam consists of 250 questions, and you have six hours to complete it. The exam can be taken in PBT (paper-based test) form or in CBT (computer-based test) form. You’ll need to register for the exam through the (ISC)2 website at for the PBT form or at for the CBT form. The CBT form of the exam is administered at a Pearson Vue testing facility ( The PBT form of the exam is administered using a paper booklet and answer sheet. This means you’ll be using a pencil to fill in answer bubbles. If you take a PBT exam, be sure to arrive at the testing center around 8 a.m., and keep in mind that absolutely no one will be admitted into the exam after 8:30 a.m. Once all test takers are signed in and seated, the exam proctors will pass out the testing materials and read a few pages of instructions. This may take 30 minutes or more. Once that process is finished, the sixhour window for taking the test will begin. CISSP Exam Question Types Most of the questions on the CISSP exam are four-option, multiple-choice questions with a single correct answer. Some are straightforward, such as asking you to select a definition. Some are a bit more involved, asking you to select the appropriate concept or best practice. And some questions present you with a scenario or situation and ask you to select the best response. Here’s an example: 1. What is the most important goal and top priority of a security solution? A. Preventing disclosure B. Maintaining integrity C. Maintaining human safety D. Sustaining availability You must select the one correct or best answer and mark it on your answer sheet. In some cases, the correct answer will be very obvious to you. In other cases, several answers may seem correct. In these instances, you must choose the best answer for the question asked. Watch for general, specific, universal, superset, and subset answer selections. In other cases, none of the answers will seem correct. In these instances, you’ll need to select the least incorrect answer. By the way, the correct answer for this sample question is C. Maintaining human safety is always your first priority. In addition to the standard multiple-choice question format, ISC2 has added in a few new question formats. These include drag-and-drop and hotspot questions. The drag-and-drop questions require the test taker to move labels or icons to mark items on an image. The hotspot questions require the test taker to pinpoint a location on an image with a cross-hair marker. Both of these question concepts are easy to work with and understand, but be careful about your accuracy of dropping or marking. To see live examples of these new question types, access the Exam Outline: Candidate Information Bulletin. In a later section titled “Sample Exam Questions,” a URL is provided that leads to a tutorial of these question formats. Advice on Taking the Exam The CISSP exam consists of two key elements. First, you need to know the material from the eight domains. Second, you must have good test-taking skills. With six hours to complete a 250-question exam, you have just less than 90 seconds for each question. Thus, it is important to work quickly, without rushing but also without wasting time. One key factor to remember is that guessing is better than not answering a question. If you don’t answer a question, you will not get any credit. But if you guess, you have at least a chance of improving your score. Wrong answers are not counted against you. So, near the end of the sixth hour, be sure you’ve selected an answer for every question. In the PBT form of the exam, you can write on the test booklet, but nothing written on it will count for or against your score. Use the booklet to make notes and keep track of your progress. We recommend circling your selected answer in the question booklet before you mark it on your answer sheet. In the CBT form of the exam, you will be provided a dry-erase board and a marker to jot down thoughts and make notes. But nothing written on that board will be used to alter your score. And that board must be returned to the test administrator prior to departing the test facility. To maximize your test-taking activities, here are some general guidelines: Answer easy questions first. Skip harder questions, and return to them later. Either use the CBT bookmarking feature or jot down a list of question numbers in a PBT. Eliminate wrong answers before selecting the correct one. Watch for double negatives. Be sure you understand what the question is asking. Manage your time. You should try to complete about 50 questions per hour. This will leave you with about an hour to focus on skipped questions and double-check your work. Be sure to bring food and drink to the test site. You will not be allowed to leave to obtain sustenance. Your food and drink will be stored for you away from the testing area. You can eat and drink at any time, but that break time will count against your total time limit. Be sure to bring any medications or other essential items, but leave all things electronic at home or in your car. Wear a watch, but make sure it is not a programmable one. If you are taking a PBT, bring pencils, a manual pencil sharpener, and an eraser. We also recommend bringing foam ear plugs, wearing comfortable clothes, and taking a light jacket with you (some testing locations are a bit chilly). If English is not your first language, you can register for one of several other language versions of the exam. Or, if you choose to use the English version of the exam, a translation dictionary is allowed. You must be able to prove that you need such a dictionary; this is usually accomplished with your birth certificate or your passport. Occasionally, small changes are made to the exam or exam objectives. When that happens, Sybex will post updates to its website. Visit before you sit for the exam to make sure you have the latest information. Study and Exam Preparation Tips We recommend planning for a month or so of nightly intensive study for the CISSP exam. Here are some suggestions to maximize your learning time; you can modify them as necessary based on your own learning habits: Take one or two evenings to read each chapter in this book and work through its review material. Answer all the review questions and take the practice exams provided in the book and in the test engine. Complete the written labs from each chapter, and use the review questions for each chapter to help guide you to topics for which more study or time spent working through key concepts and strategies might be beneficial. Review the (ISC)2’s Exam Outline: Candidate Information Bulletin from Use the flashcards included with the study tools to reinforce your understanding of concepts. We recommend spending about half of your study time reading and reviewing concepts and the other half taking practice exams. Students have reported that the more time they spent taking practice exams, the better they retained test topics. You might also consider visiting online resources such as and other CISSP-focused websites. Completing the Certification Process Once you have been informed that you successfully passed the CISSP certification, there is one final step before you are actually awarded the CISSP certification. That final step is known as endorsement. Basically, this involves getting someone who is a CISSP, or other (ISC)2 certification holder, in good standing and familiar with your work history to submit an endorsement form on your behalf. The endorsement form is accessible through the email notifying you of your achievement in passing the exam. The endorser must review your resume, ensure that you have sufficient experience in the eight CISSP domains, and then submit the signed form to (ISC)2 digitally or via fax or post mail. You must have submitted the endorsement files to (ISC)2 within 90 days after receiving the confirmation-of-passing email. Once (ISC)2 receives your endorsement form, the certification process will be completed and you will be sent a welcome packet via USPS. If you happen to fail the exam, you may take the exam a second time, but you must wait 30 days. If a third attempt is needed, you must wait 90 days. If a fourth attempt is needed, you must wait 180 days. You can attempt the exam only three times in any calendar year. You will need to pay full price for each additional exam attempt. Post-CISSP Concentrations (ISC)2 has three concentrations offered only to CISSP certificate holders. The (ISC)2 has taken the concepts introduced on the CISSP exam and focused on specific areas, namely, architecture, management, and engineering. These three concentrations are as follows: Information Systems Security Architecture Professional (ISSAP) Aimed at those who specialize in information security architecture. Key domains covered here include access control systems and methodology; cryptography; physical security integration; requirements analysis and security standards, guidelines, and criteria; technology-related aspects of business continuity planning and disaster recovery planning; and telecommunications and network security. This is a credential for those who design security systems or infrastructure or for those who audit and analyze such structures. Information Systems Security Management Professional (ISSMP) Aimed at those who focus on management of information security policies, practices, principles, and procedures. Key domains covered here include enterprise security management practices; enterprise-wide system development security; law, investigations, forensics, and ethics; oversight for operations security compliance; and understanding business continuity planning, disaster recovery planning, and continuity of operations planning. This is a credential for professionals who are responsible for security infrastructures, particularly where mandated compliance comes into the picture. Information Systems Security Engineering Professional (ISSEP) Aimed at those who focus on the design and engineering of secure hardware and software information systems, components, or applications. Key domains covered include certification and accreditation, systems security engineering, technical management, and U.S. government information assurance rules and regulations. Most ISSEPs work for the U.S. government or for a government contractor that manages government security clearances. For more details about these concentration exams and certifications, please see the (ISC)2 website at Notes on This Book’s Organization This book is designed to cover each of the eight CISSP Common Body of Knowledge domains in sufficient depth to provide you with a clear understanding of the material. The main body of this book comprises 21 chapters. The domain/chapter breakdown is as follows: Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4: Security and Risk Management Chapter 5: Asset Security Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10: Security Engineering Chapters 11 and 12: Communication and Network Security Chapters 13 and 14: Identity and Access Management Chapters 15: Security Assessment and Testing Chapters 16, 17, 18, and 19: Security Operations Chapters 20 and 21: Software Development Security Each chapter includes elements to help you focus your studies and test your knowledge, detailed in the following sections. Note: please see the table of contents and chapter introductions for a detailed list of domain topics covered in each chapter. The Elements of This Study Guide You’ll see many recurring elements as you read through this study guide. Here are descriptions of some of those elements: Summaries The summary is a brief review of the chapter to sum up what was covered. Exam Essentials The Exam Essentials highlight topics that could appear on the exam in some form. While we obviously do not know exactly what will be included in a particular exam, this section reinforces significant concepts that are key to understanding the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) area and the test specs for the CISSP exam. Chapter Review Questions Each chapter includes practice questions that have been designed to measure your knowledge of key ideas that were discussed in the chapter. After you finish each chapter, answer the questions; if some of your answers are incorrect, it’s an indication that you need to spend some more time studying the corresponding topics. The answers to the practice questions can be found at the end of each chapter. Written Labs Each chapter includes written labs that synthesize various concepts and topics that appear in the chapter. These raise questions that are designed to help you put together various pieces you’ve encountered individually in the chapter and assemble them to propose or describe potential security strategies or solutions. Real-World Scenarios As you work through each chapter, you’ll find descriptions of typical and plausible workplace situations where an understanding of the security strategies and approaches relevant to the chapter content could play a role in fixing problems or in fending off potential difficulties. This gives readers a chance to see how specific security policies, guidelines, or practices should or may be applied to the workplace. What’s Included with the Additional Study Tools Readers of this book can get access to a number of additional study tools. We worked really hard to provide some essential tools to help you with your certification process. All of the following gear should be loaded on your workstation when studying for the test. Readers can get access to the following tools by visiting The Sybex Test Preparation Software The test preparation software, made by experts at Sybex, prepares you for the CISSP exam. In this test engine, you will find all the review and assessment questions from the book plus additional bonus practice exams that are included with the study tools. You can take the assessment test, test yourself by chapter, take the practice exams, or take a randomly generated exam comprising all the questions. Electronic Flashcards Sybex’s electronic flashcards include hundreds of questions designed to challenge you further for the CISSP exam. Between the review questions, practice exams, and flashcards, you’ll have more than enough practice for the exam! Glossary of Terms in PDF Sybex offers a robust glossary of terms in PDF format. This comprehensive glossary includes all of the key terms you should understand for the CISSP, in a searchable format. Bonus Practice Exams Sybex includes bonus practice exams, each comprising questions meant to survey your understanding of key elements in the CISSP CBK. This book has four bonus exams, each comprising 250 full-length questions. These exams are available digitally at How to Use This Book’s Study Tools This book has a number of features designed to guide your study efforts for the CISSP certification exam. It assists you by listing at the beginning of each chapter the CISSP Common Body of Knowledge domain topics covered in the chapter and by ensuring that each topic is fully discussed within the chapter. The review questions at the end of each chapter and the practice exams are designed to test your retention of the material you’ve read to make sure you are aware of areas in which you should spend additional study time. Here are some suggestions for using this book and study tools (found at Take the assessment test before you start reading the material. This will give you an idea of the areas in which you need to spend additional study time as well as those areas in which you may just need a brief refresher. Answer the review questions after you’ve read each chapter; if you answer any incorrectly, go back to the chapter and review the topic, or utilize one of the additional resources if you need more information. Download the flashcards to your mobile device, and review them when you have a few minutes during the day. Take every opportunity to test yourself. In addition to the assessment test and review questions, there are bonus practice exams included with the additional study tools. Take these exams without referring to the chapters and see how well you’ve done—go back and review any topics you’ve missed until you fully understand and can apply the concepts. Finally, find a study partner if possible. Studying for, and taking, the exam with someone else will make the process more enjoyable, and you’ll have someone to help you understand topics that are difficult for you. You’ll also be able to reinforce your own knowledge by helping your study partner in areas where they are weak. X: 0 1 1 0 1 0 Y: 0 0 1 1 0 1 _________________ X ∨ Y: ? 1. 2. 3. 4. 011111 011010 001000 001101 In what type of cipher are the letters of the plain-text message rearranged to form the cipher text? 1. 2. 3. 4. Substitution cipher Block cipher Transposition cipher One-time pad What is the length of a message digest produced by the MD5 algorithm? 1. 2. 3. 4. 64 bits 128 bits 256 bits 384 bits If Renee receives a digitally signed message from Mike, what key does she use to verify that the message truly came from Mike? 1. 2. 3. 4. Renee’s public key Renee’s private key Mike’s public key Mike’s private key Which of the following is not a composition theory related to security models? 1. 2. 3. 4. Cascading Feedback Iterative Hookup The collection of components in the TCB that work together to implement reference monitor functions is called the ____________________. 1. Security perimeter 2. Security kernel 3. Access matrix 4. Constrained interface Which of the following statements is true? 1. 2. 3. 4. The less complex a system, the more vulnerabilities it has. The more complex a system, the less assurance it provides. The less complex a system, the less trust it provides. The more complex a system, the less attack surface it generates. Ring 0, from the design architecture security mechanism known as protection rings, can also be referred to as all but which of the following? 1. 2. 3. 4. Privileged mode Supervisory mode System mode User mode Audit trails, logs, CCTV, intrusion detection systems, antivirus software, penetration testing, password crackers, performance monitoring, and cyclic redundancy checks (CRCs) are examples of what? 1. 2. 3. 4. Directive controls Preventive controls Detective controls Corrective controls System architecture, system integrity, covert channel analysis, trusted facility management, and trusted recovery are elements of what security criteria? 1. 2. 3. 4. Quality assurance Operational assurance Life cycle assurance Quantity assurance Which of the following is a procedure designed to test and perhaps bypass a system’s security controls? 1. 2. 3. 4. Logging usage data War dialing Penetration testing Deploying secured desktop workstations Auditing is a required factor to sustain and enforce what? 1. 2. 3. 4. Accountability Confidentiality Accessibility Redundancy What is the formula used to compute the ALE? 1. 2. 3. 4. ALE = AV * EF * ARO ALE = ARO * EF ALE = AV * ARO ALE = EF * ARO What is the first step of the business impact assessment process? 1. 2. 3. 4. Identification of priorities Likelihood assessment Risk identification Resource prioritization Which of the following represent natural events that can pose a threat or risk to an organization? 1. 2. 3. 4. Earthquake Flood Tornado All of the above What kind of recovery facility enables an organization to resume operations as quickly as possible, if not immediately, upon failure of the primary facility? 1. 2. 3. 4. Hot site Warm site Cold site All of the above What form of intellectual property is used to protect words, slogans, and logos? 1. 2. 3. 4. Patent Copyright Trademark Trade secret What type of evidence refers to written documents that are brought into court to prove a fact? 1. 2. 3. 4. Best evidence Payroll evidence Documentary evidence Testimonial evidence Why are military and intelligence attacks among the most serious computer crimes? 1. The use of information obtained can have far-reaching detrimental strategic effects on national interests in an enemy’s hands. 2. Military information is stored on secure machines, so a successful attack can be embarrassing. 3. The long-term political use of classified information can impact a country’s leadership. 4. The military and intelligence agencies have ensured that the laws protecting their information are the most severe. What type of detected incident allows the most time for an investigation? 1. 2. 3. 4. Compromise Denial of service Malicious code Scanning If you want to restrict access into or out of a facility, which would you choose? 1. 2. 3. 4. Gate Turnstile Fence Mantrap What is the point of a secondary verification system? 1. 2. 3. 4. To verify the identity of a user To verify the activities of a user To verify the completeness of a system To verify the correctness of a system Spamming attacks occur when numerous unsolicited messages are sent to a victim. Because enough data is sent to the victim to prevent legitimate activity, it is also known as what? 1. 2. 3. 4. Sniffing Denial of service Brute-force attack Buffer overflow attack Which type of intrusion detection system (IDS) can be considered an expert system? 1. 2. 3. 4. Host-based Network-based Knowledge-based Behavior-based Answers to Assessment Test 1. C. Detective access controls are used to discover (and document) unwanted or unauthorized activity. 2. D. Strong password choices are difficult to guess, unpredictable, and of specified minimum lengths to ensure that password entries cannot be computationally determined. They may be randomly generated and utilize all the alphabetic, numeric, and punctuation characters; they should never be written down or shared; they should not be stored in publicly accessible or generally readable locations; and they shouldn’t be transmitted in the clear. 3. B. Network-based IDSs are usually able to detect the initiation of an attack or the ongoing attempts to perpetrate an attack (including denial of service, or DoS). They are, however, unable to provide 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. information about whether an attack was successful or which specific systems, user accounts, files, or applications were affected. Host-based IDSs have some difficulty with detecting and tracking down DoS attacks. Vulnerability scanners don’t detect DoS attacks; they test for possible vulnerabilities. Penetration testing may cause a DoS or test for DoS vulnerabilities, but it is not a detection tool. B. Not all instances of DoS are the result of a malicious attack. Errors in coding OSs, services, and applications have resulted in DoS conditions. Some examples of this include a process failing to release control of the CPU or a service consuming system resources out of proportion to the service requests it is handling. Social engineering and sniffing are typically not considered DoS attacks. A. Network hardware devices, including routers, function at layer 3, the Network layer. D. Dynamic packet-filtering firewalls enable the real-time modification of the filtering rules based on traffic content. D. A VPN link can be established over any other network communication connection. This could be a typical LAN cable connection, a wireless LAN connection, a remote access dial-up connection, a WAN link, or even an Internet connection used by a client for access to the office LAN. C. A Trojan horse is a form of malware that uses social engineering tactics to trick a victim into installing it—the trick is to make the victim believe that the only thing they have downloaded or obtained is the host file, when in fact it has a malicious hidden payload. D. The components of the CIA Triad are confidentiality, availability, and integrity. B. Privacy is not necessary to provide accountability. C. Group user accounts allow for multiple people to log in under a single user account. This allows collusion because it prevents individual accountability. B. The data owner must first assign a security label to a resource before the data custodian can secure the resource appropriately. C. The Managed phase of the SW-CMM involves the use of quantitative development metrics. The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) defines the key process areas for this level as Quantitative Process Management and Software Quality Management. B. Layers 1 and 2 contain device drivers but are not normally implemented in practice. Layer 0 always contains the security kernel. Layer 3 contains user applications. Layer 4 does not exist. B. The SYN packet is first sent from the initiating host to the destination host. The destination host then responds with a SYN/ACK packet. The initiating host sends an ACK packet, and the connection is then established. B. Parameter checking is used to prevent the possibility of buffer overflow attacks. A. The ∼OR symbol represents the OR function, which is true when one or both of the input bits are true. C. Transposition ciphers use an encryption algorithm to rearrange the letters of the plain-text message to form a cipher text message. B. The MD5 algorithm produces a 128-bit message digest for any input. C. Any recipient can use Mike’s public key to verify the authenticity of the digital signature. C. Iterative is not one of the composition theories related to security models. Cascading, feedback, and hookup are the three composition theories. B. The collection of components in the TCB that work together to implement reference monitor functions is called the security kernel. B. The more complex a system, the less assurance it provides. More complexity means more areas for vulnerabilities to exist and more areas that must be secured against threats. More vulnerabilities and more threats mean that the subsequent security provided by the system is less trustworthy. D. Ring 0 has direct access to the most resources; thus user mode is not an appropriate label because 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. user mode requires restrictions to limit access to resources. C. Examples of detective controls are audit trails, logs, CCTV, intrusion detection systems, antivirus software, penetration testing, password crackers, performance monitoring, and CRCs. B. Assurance is the degree of confidence you can place in the satisfaction of security needs of a computer, network, solution, and so on. Operational assurance focuses on the basic features and architecture of a system that lend themselves to supporting security. C. Penetration testing is the attempt to bypass security controls to test overall system security. A. Auditing is a required factor to sustain and enforce accountability. A. The annualized loss expectancy (ALE) is computed as the product of the asset value (AV) times the exposure factor (EF) times the annualized rate of occurrence (ARO). This is the longer form of the formula ALE = SLE * ARO. The other formulas displayed here do not accurately reflect this calculation. A. Identification of priorities is the first step of the business impact assessment process. D. Natural events that can threaten organizations include earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornados, wildfires, and other acts of nature as well. Thus options A, B, and C are correct because they are natural and not man made. A. Hot sites provide backup facilities maintained in constant working order and fully capable of taking over business operations. Warm sites consist of preconfigured hardware and software to run the business, neither of which possesses the vital business information. Cold sites are simply facilities designed with power and environmental support systems but no configured hardware, software, or services. Disaster recovery services can facilitate and implement any of these sites on behalf of a company. C. Trademarks are used to protect the words, slogans, and logos that represent a company and its products or services. C. Written documents brought into court to prove the facts of a case are referred to as documentary evidence. A. The purpose of a military and intelligence attack is to acquire classified information. The detrimental effect of using such information could be nearly unlimited in the hands of an enemy. Attacks of this type are launched by very sophisticated attackers. It is often very difficult to ascertain what documents were successfully obtained. So when a breach of this type occurs, you sometimes cannot know the full extent of the damage. D. Scanning incidents are generally reconnaissance attacks. The real damage to a system comes in the subsequent attacks, so you may have some time to react if you detect the scanning attack early. B. A turnstile is a form of gate that prevents more than one person from gaining entry at a time and often restricts movement to one direction. It is used to gain entry but not exit, or vice versa. D. Secondary verification mechanisms are set in place to establish a means of verifying the correctness of detection systems and sensors. This often means combining several types of sensors or systems (CCTV, heat and motion sensors, and so on) to provide a more complete picture of detected events. B. A spamming attack (sending massive amounts of unsolicited email) can be used as a type of denial-of-service attack. It doesn’t use eavesdropping methods so it isn’t sniffing. Brute force methods attempt to crack passwords. Buffer overflow attacks send strings of data to a system in an attempt to cause it to fail. D. A behavior-based IDS can be labeled an expert system or a pseudo-artificial intelligence system because it can learn and make assumptions about events. In other words, the IDS can act like a human expert by evaluating current events against known events. A knowledge-based IDS uses a database of known attack methods to detect attacks. Both host-based and network-based systems can be either knowledge-based, behavior-based, or a combination of both. Chapter 1 Security Governance Through Principles and Policies THE CISSP EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER INCLUDE: ✓ Security and Risk Management (e.g., Security, Risk, Compliance, Law, Regulations, Business Continuity) A. Understand and apply concepts of confidentiality, integrity and availability B. Apply security governance principles through: B.1 Alignment of security function to strategy, goals, mission, and objectives (e.g., business case, budget and resources) B.2 Organizational processes (e.g., acquisitions, divestitures, governance committees) B.3 Security roles and responsibilities B.4 Control frameworks B.5 Due care B.6 Due diligence F. Develop and implement documented security policy, standards, procedures, and guidelines J. Understand and apply threat modeling J.1 Identifying threats (e.g., adversaries, contractors, employees, trusted partners) J.2 Determining and diagramming potential attacks (e.g., social engineering, spoofing) J.3 Performing reduction analysis J.4 Technologies and processes to remediate threats (e.g., software architecture and operations) K. Integrate security risk considerations into acquisition strategy and practice K.1 Hardware, software, and services K.2 Third-party assessment and monitoring (e.g., on-site assessment, document exchange and review, process/policy review) K.3 Minimum security requirements K.4 Service-level requirements The Security and Risk Management domain of the Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) for the CISSP certification exam deals with many of the foundational elements of security solutions. These include elements essential to the design, implementation, and administration of security mechanisms. Additional elements of this domain are discussed in various chapters: Chapter 2, “Personal Security and Risk Management Concepts”; Chapter 3, “Business Continuity Planning”; and Chapter 4, “Laws, Regulations, and Compliance.” Please be sure to review all of these chapters to have a complete perspective on the topics of this domain. Understand and Apply Concepts of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Security management concepts and principles are inherent elements in a security policy and solution deployment. They define the basic parameters needed for a secure environment. They also define the goals and objectives that both policy designers and system implementers must achieve to create a secure solution. It is important for real-world security professionals, as well as CISSP exam students, to understand these items thoroughly. The primary goals and objectives of security are contained within the CIA Triad (see Figure 1.1), which is the name given to the three primary security principles: Confidentiality Integrity Availability Figure 1.1 The CIA Triad Security controls are typically evaluated on how well they address these core information security tenets. Overall, a complete security solution should adequately address each of these tenets. Vulnerabilities and risks are also evaluated based on the threat they pose against one or more of the CIA Triad principles. Thus, it is a good idea to be familiar with these principles and use them as guidelines for judging all things related to security. These three principles are considered the most important within the realm of security. However important each specific principle is to a specific organization depends on the organization’s security goals and requirements and on the extent to which the organization’s security might be threatened. Confidentiality The first principle of the CIA Triad is confidentiality. If a security mechanism offers confidentiality, it offers a high level of assurance that data, objects, or resources are restricted from unauthorized subjects. If a threat exists against confidentiality, unauthorized disclosure could take place. In general, for confidentiality to be maintained on a network, data must be protected from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while in storage, in process, and in transit. Unique and specific security controls are required for each of these states of data, resources, and objects to maintain confidentiality. Numerous attacks focus on the violation of confidentiality. These include capturing network traffic and stealing password files as well as social engineering, port scanning, shoulder surfing, eavesdropping, sniffing, and so on. Violations of confidentiality are not limited to directed intentional attacks. Many instances of unauthorized disclosure of sensitive or confidential information are the result of human error, oversight, or ineptitude. Events that lead to confidentiality breaches include failing to properly encrypt a transmission, failing to fully authenticate a remote system before transferring data, leaving open otherwise secured access points, accessing malicious code that opens a back door, misrouted faxes, documents left on printers, or even walking away from an access terminal while data is displayed on the monitor. Confidentiality violations can result from the actions of an end user or a system administrator. They can also occur because of an oversight in a security policy or a misconfigured security control. Numerous countermeasures can help ensure confidentiality against possible threats. These include encryption, network traffic padding, strict access control, rigorous authentication procedures, data classification, and extensive personnel training. Confidentiality and integrity depend on each other. Without object integrity, confidentiality cannot be maintained. Other concepts, conditions, and aspects of confidentiality include the following: Sensitivity Sensitivity refers to the quality of information, which could cause harm or damage if disclosed. Maintaining confidentiality of sensitive information helps to prevent harm or damage. Discretion Discretion is an act of decision where an operator can influence or control disclosure in order to minimize harm or damage. Criticality The level to which information is mission critical is its measure of criticality. The higher the level of criticality, the more likely the need to maintain the confidentiality of the information. High levels of criticality are essential to the operation or function of an organization. Concealment Concealment is the act of hiding or preventing disclosure. Often concealment is viewed as a means of cover, obfuscation, or distraction. Secrecy Secrecy is the act of keeping something a secret or preventing the disclosure of information. Privacy Privacy refers to keeping information confidential that is personally identifiable or that might cause harm, embarrassment, or disgrace to someone if revealed. Seclusion Seclusion involves storing something in an out-of-the-way location. This location can also provide strict access controls. Seclusion can help enforcement confidentiality protections. Isolation Isolation is the act of keeping something separated from others. Isolation can be used to prevent commingling of information or disclosure of information. Each organization needs to evaluate the nuances of confidentiality they wish to enforce. Tools and technology that implements one form of confidentiality might not support or allow other forms. Integrity The second principle of the CIA Triad is integrity. For integrity to be maintained, objects must retain their veracity and be intentionally modified by only authorized subjects. If a security mechanism offers integrity, it offers a high level of assurance that the data, objects, and resources are unaltered from their original protected state. Alterations should not occur while the object is in storage, in transit, or in process. Thus, maintaining integrity means the object itself is not altered and the operating system and programming entities that manage and manipulate the object are not compromised. Integrity can be examined from three perspectives: Preventing unauthorized subjects from making modifications Preventing authorized subjects from making unauthorized modifications, such as mistakes Maintaining the internal and external consistency of objects so that their data is a correct and true reflection of the real world and any relationship with any child, peer, or parent object is valid, consistent, and verifiable For integrity to be maintained on a system, controls must be in place to restrict access to data, objects, and resources. Additionally, activity logging should be employed to ensure that only authorized users are able to access their respective resources. Maintaining and validating object integrity across storage, transport, and processing requires numerous variations of controls and oversight. Numerous attacks focus on the violation of integrity. These include viruses, logic bombs, unauthorized access, errors in coding and applications, malicious modification, intentional replacement, and system back doors. As with confidentiality, integrity violations are not limited to intentional attacks. Human error, oversight, or ineptitude accounts for many instances of unauthorized alteration of sensitive information. Events that lead to integrity breaches include accidentally deleting files; entering invalid data; altering configurations, including errors in commands, codes, and scripts; introducing a virus; and executing malicious code such as a Trojan horse. Integrity violations can occur because of the actions of any user, including administrators. They can also occur because of an oversight in a security policy or a misconfigured security control. Numerous countermeasures can ensure integrity against possible threats. These include strict access control, rigorous authentication procedures, intrusion detection systems, object/data encryption, hash total verifications (see Chapter 6, “Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms”), interface restrictions, input/function checks, and extensive personnel training. Integrity is dependent on confidentiality. Without confidentiality, integrity cannot be maintained. Other concepts, conditions, and aspects of integrity include accuracy, truthfulness, authenticity, validity, nonrepudiation, accountability, responsibility, completeness, and comprehensiveness. Availability The third principle of the CIA Triad is availability, which means authorized subjects are granted timely and uninterrupted access to objects. If a security mechanism offers availability, it offers a high level of assurance that the data, objects, and resources are accessible to authorized subjects. Availability includes efficient uninterrupted access to objects and prevention of denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. Availability also implies that the supporting infrastructure—including network services, communications, and access control mechanisms—is functional and allows authorized users to gain authorized access. For availability to be maintained on a system, controls must be in place to ensure authorized access and an acceptable level of performance, to quickly handle interruptions, to provide for redundancy, to maintain reliable backups, and to prevent data loss or destruction. There are numerous threats to availability. These include device failure, software errors, and environmental issues (heat, static, flooding, power loss, and so on). There are also some forms of attacks that focus on the violation of availability, including DoS attacks, object destruction, and communication interruptions. As with confidentiality and integrity, violations of availability are not limited to intentional attacks. Many instances of unauthorized alteration of sensitive information are caused by human error, oversight, or ineptitude. Some events that lead to availability breaches include accidentally deleting files, overutilizing a hardware or software component, underallocating resources, and mislabeling or incorrectly classifying objects. Availability violations can occur because of the actions of any user, including administrators. They can also occur because of an oversight in a security policy or a misconfigured security control. Numerous countermeasures can ensure availability against possible threats. These include designing intermediary delivery systems properly, using access controls effectively, monitoring performance and network traffic, using firewalls and routers to prevent DoS attacks, implementing redundancy for critical systems, and maintaining and testing backup systems. Most security policies, as well as business continuity planning (BCP), focus on the use of fault tolerance features at the various levels of access/storage/security (that is, disk, server, or site) with the goal of eliminating single points of failure to maintain availability of critical systems. Availability depends on both integrity and confidentiality. Without integrity and confidentiality, availability cannot be maintained. Other concepts, conditions, and aspects of availability include usability, accessibility, and timeliness. CIA Priority Every organization has unique security requirements. On the CISSP exam, most security concepts are discussed in general terms, but in the real world, general concepts and best practices don’t get the job done. The management team and security team must work together to prioritize an organization’s security needs. This includes establishing a budget and spending plan, allocating expertise and hours, and focusing the IT and security staff efforts. One key aspect of this effort is to prioritize the security requirements of the organization. Knowing which tenet or asset is more important than another guides the creation of a security stance and ultimately the deployment of a security solution. Often, getting started in establishing priorities is a challenge. A possible solution to this challenge is to start with prioritizing the three primary security tenets of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Defining which of these elements is most important to the organization is essential in crafting a sufficient security solution. This establishes a pattern that can be replicated from concept through design, architecture, deployment, and finally, maintenance. Do you know the priority your organization places on each of the components of the CIA Triad? If not, find out. An interesting generalization of this concept of CIA prioritization is that in many cases military and government organizations tend to prioritize confidentiality above integrity and availability, whereas private companies tend to prioritize availability above confidentiality and integrity. Although such prioritization focuses efforts on one aspect of security over another, it does not imply that the second or third prioritized items are ignored or improperly addressed. Other Security Concepts In addition to the CIA Triad, you need to consider a plethora of other security-related concepts and principles when designing a security policy and deploying a security solution. The following sections discuss identification, authentication, authorization, auditing, accountability (see Figure 1.2), and nonrepudiation. Figure 1.2 The five elements of AAA services Identification Identification is the process by which a subject professes an identity and accountability is initiated. A subject must provide an identity to a system to start the process of authentication, authorization, and accountability (AAA). Providing an identity can involve typing in a username; swiping a smart card; waving a proximity device; speaking a phrase; or positioning your face, hand, or finger for a camera or scanning device. Providing a process ID number also represents the identification process. Without an identity, a system has no way to correlate an authentication factor with the subject. Once a subject has been identified (that is, once the subject’s identity has been recognized and verified), the identity is accountable for any further actions by that subject. IT systems track activity by identities, not by the subjects themselves. A computer doesn’t know one human from another, but it does know that your user account is different from all other user accounts. A subject’s identity is typically labeled as, or considered to be, public information. However, simply claiming an identity does not imply access or authority. The identity must be proven or verified before access to controlled resources is allowed. That process is authentication. Authentication The process of verifying or testing that the claimed identity is valid is authentication. Authentication requires from the subject additional information that must exactly correspond to the identity indicated. The most common form of authentication is using a password (this includes the password variations of PINs and passphrases). Authentication verifies the identity of the subject by comparing one or more factors against the database of valid identities (that is, user accounts). The authentication factor used to verify identity is typically labeled as, or considered to be, private information. The capability of the subject and system to maintain the secrecy of the authentication factors for identities directly reflects the level of security of that system. If the process of illegitimately obtaining and using the authentication factor of a target user is relatively easy, then the authentication system is insecure. If that process is relatively difficult, then the authentication system is reasonably secure. Identification and authentication are always used together as a single two-step process. Providing an identity is the first step, and providing the authentication factor(s) is the second step. Without both, a subject cannot gain access to a system—neither element alone is useful in terms of security. A subject can provide several types of authentication (for example, something you know, something you have, and so on). Each authentication technique or factor has its unique benefits and drawbacks. Thus, it is important to evaluate each mechanism in light of the environment in which it will be deployed to determine viability. (We discuss authentication at length in Chapter 13, “Managing Identity and Authentication.”) Authorization Once a subject is authenticated, access must be authorized. The process of authorization ensures that the requested activity or access to an object is possible given the rights and privileges assigned to the authenticated identity. In most cases, the system evaluates an access control matrix that compares the subject, the object, and the intended activity. If the specific action is allowed, the subject is authorized. If the specific action is not allowed, the subject is not authorized. Keep in mind that just because a subject has been identified and authenticated does not mean they have been authorized to perform any function or access all resources within the controlled environment. It is possible for a subject to be logged onto a network (that is, identified and authenticated) but to be blocked from accessing a file or printing to a printer (that is, by not being authorized to perform that activity). Most network users are authorized to perform only a limited number of activities on a specific collection of resources. Identification and authentication are all-or-nothing aspects of access control. Authorization has a wide range of variations between all or nothing for each object within the environment. A user may be able to read a file but not delete it, print a document but not alter the print queue, or log on to a system but not access any resources. Authorization is usually defined using one of the concepts of access control, such as discretionary access control (DAC), mandatory access control (MAC), or role-based access control (RBAC); see Chapter 14, “Controlling and Monitoring Access.” AAA Services You may have heard of the concept of AAA services. The three As in this acronym refer to authentication, authorization, and accounting (or sometimes auditing). However, what is not as clear is that although there are three letters in the acronym, it actually refers to five elements: identification, authentication, authorization, auditing, and accounting. Thus, the first and the third/last A actually represent two concepts instead of just one. These five elements represent the following processes of security: Identification claiming an identity when attempting to access a secured area or system Authentication proving that you are that identity Authorization defining the allows and denials of resource and object access for a specific identity Auditing recording a log of the events and activities related to the system and subjects Accounting (aka accountability) reviewing log files to check for compliance and violations in order to hold subjects accountable for their actions Although AAA is often referenced in relation to authentication systems, it is in fact a foundational concept of all forms of security. As without any one of these five elements, a security mechanism would be incomplete. Auditing Auditing, or monitoring, is the programmatic means by which a subject’s actions are tracked and recorded for the purpose of holding the subject accountable for their actions while authenticated on a system. It is also the process by which unauthorized or abnormal activities are detected on a system. Auditing is recording activities of a subject and its objects as well as recording the activities of core system functions that maintain the operating environment and the security mechanisms. The audit trails created by recording system events to logs can be used to evaluate the health and performance of a system. System crashes may indicate faulty programs, corrupt drivers, or intrusion attempts. The event logs leading up to a crash can often be used to discover the reason a system failed. Log files provide an audit trail for re-creating the history of an event, intrusion, or system failure. Auditing is needed to detect malicious actions by subjects, attempted intrusions, and system failures and to reconstruct events, provide evidence for prosecution, and produce problem reports and analysis. Auditing is usually a native feature of operating systems and most applications and services. Thus, configuring the system to record information about specific types of events is fairly straightforward. Accountability An organization’s security policy can be properly enforced only if accountability is maintained. In other words, you can maintain security only if subjects are held accountable for their actions. Effective accountability relies on the capability to prove a subject’s identity and track their activities. Accountability is established by linking a human to the activities of an online identity through the security services and mechanisms of auditing, authorization, authentication, and identification. Thus, human accountability is ultimately dependent on the strength of the authentication process. Without a strong authentication process, there is doubt that the human associated with a specific user account was the actual entity controlling that user account when the undesired action took place. To have viable accountability, you must be able to support your security in a court of law. If you are unable to legally support your security efforts, then you will be unlikely to be able to hold a human accountable for actions linked to a user account. With only a password as authentication, there is significant room for doubt. Passwords are the least secure form of authentication, with dozens of different methods available to compromise them. However, with the use of multifactor authentication, such as a password, smartcard, and fingerprint scan in combination, there is very little possibility that any other human could have compromised the authentication process in order to impersonate the human responsible for the user account. Legally Defensible Security The point of security is to keep bad things from happening while supporting the occurrence of good things. When bad things do happen, organizations often desire assistance from law enforcement and the legal system for compensation. To obtain legal restitution, you must demonstrate that a crime was committed, that the suspect committed that crime, and that you took reasonable efforts to prevent the crime. This means your organization’s security needs to be legally defensible. If you are unable to convince a court that your log files are accurate and that no other person other than the subject could have committed the crime, you will not obtain restitution. Ultimately, this requires a complete security solution that has strong multifactor authentication techniques, solid authorization mechanisms, and impeccable auditing systems. Additionally, you must show that the organization complied with all applicable laws and regulations, that proper warnings and notifications were posted, that both logical and physical security were not otherwise compromised, and that there are no other possible reasonable interpretations of the electronic evidence. This is a fairly challenging standard to meet. If you are not going to make the effort to design and implement legally defensible security, what is the point in attempting subpar security? Nonrepudiation Nonrepudiation ensures that the subject of an activity or event cannot deny that the event occurred. Nonrepudiation prevents a subject from claiming not to have sent a message, not to have performed an action, or not to have been the cause of an event. It is made possible through identification, authentication, authorization, accountability, and auditing. Nonrepudiation can be established using digital certificates, session identifiers, transaction logs, and numerous other transactional and access control mechanisms. If nonrepudiation is not built into a system and properly enforced, you will not be able to verify that a specific entity performed a certain action. Nonrepudiation is an essential part of accountability. A suspect cannot be held accountable if they can repudiate the claim against them. Protection Mechanisms Another aspect of understanding and apply concepts of confidentiality, integrity, and availability is the concept of protection mechanisms. Protection mechanisms are common characteristics of security controls. Not all security controls must have them, but many controls offer their protection for confidentiality, integrity, and availability through the use of these mechanisms. These mechanisms include using multiple layers or levels of access, employing abstraction, hiding data, and using encryption. Layering Layering, also known as defense in depth, is simply the use of multiple controls in a series. No one control can protect against all possible threats. Using a multilayered solution allows for numerous, different controls to guard against whatever threats come to pass. When security solutions are designed in layers, most threats are eliminated, mitigated, or thwarted. Using layers in a series rather than in parallel is important. Performing security restrictions in a series means to perform one after the other in a linear fashion. Only through a series configuration will each attack be scanned, evaluated, or mitigated by every security control. In a series configuration, failure of a single security control does not render the entire solution ineffective. If security controls were implemented in parallel, a threat could pass through a single checkpoint that did not address its particular malicious activity. Serial configurations are very narrow but very deep, whereas parallel configurations are very wide but very shallow. Parallel systems are useful in distributed computing applications, but parallelism is not often a useful concept in the realm of security. Think of physical entrances to buildings. A parallel configuration is used for shopping malls. There are many doors in many locations around the entire perimeter of the mall. A series configuration would most likely be used in a bank or an airport. A single entrance is provided, and that entrance is actually several gateways or checkpoints that must be passed in sequential order to gain entry into active areas of the building. Layering also includes the concept that networks comprise numerous separate entities, each with its own unique security controls and vulnerabilities. In an effective security solution, there is a synergy between all networked systems that creates a single security front. Using separate security systems creates a layered security solution. Abstraction Abstraction is used for efficiency. Similar elements are put into groups, classes, or roles that are assigned security controls, restrictions, or permissions as a collective. Thus, the concept of abstraction is used when classifying objects or assigning roles to subjects. The concept of abstraction also includes the definition of object and subject types or of objects themselves (that is, a data structure used to define a template for a class of entities). Abstraction is used to define what types of data an object can contain, what types of functions can be performed on or by that object, and what capabilities that object has. Abstraction simplifies security by enabling you to assign security controls to a group of objects collected by type or function. Data Hiding Data hiding is exactly what it sounds like: preventing data from being discovered or accessed by a subject by positioning the data in a logical storage compartment that is not accessible or seen by the subject. Forms of data hiding include keeping a database from being accessed by unauthorized visitors and restricting a subject at a lower classification level from accessing data at a higher classification level. Preventing an application from accessing hardware directly is also a form of data hiding. Data hiding is often a key element in security controls as well as in programming. Encryption Encryption is the art and science of hiding the meaning or intent of a communication from unintended recipients. Encryption can take many forms and be applied to every type of electronic communication, including text, audio, and video files as well as applications themselves. Encryption is an important element in security controls, especially in regard to the transmission of data between systems. There are various strengths of encryption, each of which is designed and/or appropriate for a specific use or purpose. Encryption is discussed at length in Chapter 6, “Cryptography and Symmetric Key Algorithms,” and Chapter 7, “PKI and Cryptographic Applications.” Apply Security Governance Principles Security governance is the collection of practices related to supporting, defining, and directing the security efforts of an organization. Security governance is closely related to and often intertwined with corporate and IT governance. The goals of these three governance agendas are often the same or interrelated. For example, a common goal of organizational governance is to ensure that the organization will continue to exist and will grow or expand over time. Thus, the common goal of governance is to maintain business processes while striving toward growth and resiliency. Some aspects of governance are imposed on organizations due to legislative and regulatory compliance needs, whereas others are imposed by industry guidelines or license requirements. All forms of governance, including security governance, must be assessed and verified from time to time. Various requirements for auditing and validation may be present due to government regulations or industry best practices. Governance compliance issues often vary from industry to industry and from country to country. As many organizations expand and adapt to deal with a global market, governance issues become more complex. This is especially problematic when laws in different countries differ or in fact conflict. The organization as a whole should be given the direction, guidance, and tools to provide sufficient oversight and management to address threats and risks with a focus on eliminating downtime and keeping potential loss or damage to a minimum. As you can tell, the definitions of security governance are often rather stilted and high level. Ultimately, security governance is the implementation of a security solution and a management method that are tightly interconnected. Security governance directly oversees and gets involved in all levels of security. Security is not and should not be treated as an IT issue only. Instead, security affects every aspect of an organization. It is no longer just something the IT staff can handle on their own. Security is a business operations issue. Security is an organizational process, not just something the IT geeks do behind the scenes. Using the term security governance is an attempt to emphasize this point by indicating that security needs to be managed and governed throughout the organization, not just in the IT department. Alignment of Security Function to Strategy, Goals, Mission, and Objectives Security management planning ensures proper creation, implementation, and enforcement of a security policy. Security management planning aligns the security functions to the strategy, goals, mission, and objectives of the organization. This includes designing and implementing security based on a business case, budget restrictions, or scarcity of resources. A business case is usually a documented argument or stated position in order to define a need to make a decision or take some form of action. To make a business case is to demonstrate a business-specific need to alter an existing process or choose an approach to a business task. A business case is often made to justify the start of a new project, especially a project related to security. It is also important to consider the budget that can be allocated to a business need–based security project. Security can be expensive, but it is often an essential element of reliable and long-term business operation. In most organizations, money and resources, such as people, technology, and space, are limited. Due to resource limitations like these, the maximum benefit needs to be obtained from any endeavor. One of the most effective ways to tackle security management planning is to use a top-down approach. Upper, or senior, management is responsible for initiating and defining policies for the organization. Security policies provide direction for all levels of the organization’s hierarchy. It is the responsibility of middle management to flesh out the security policy into standards, baselines, guidelines, and procedures. The operational managers or security professionals must then implement the configurations prescribed in the security management documentation. Finally, the end users must comply with all the security policies of the organization. The opposite of the top-down approach is the bottom-up approach. In a bottom-up approach environment, the IT staff makes security decisions directly without input from senior management. The bottom-up approach is rarely used in organizations and is considered problematic in the IT industry. Security management is a responsibility of upper management, not of the IT staff, and is considered a business operations issue rather than an IT administration issue. The team or department responsible for security within an organization should be autonomous. The information security (InfoSec) team should be led by a designated chief security officer (CSO) who must report directly to senior management. Placing the autonomy of the CSO and the CSO’s team outside the typical hierarchical structure in an organization can improve security management across the entire organization. It also helps to avoid cross-department and internal political issues. Elements of security management planning include defining security roles; prescribing how security will be managed, who will be responsible for security, and how security will be tested for effectiveness; developing security policies; performing risk analysis; and requiring security education for employees. These efforts are guided through the development of management plans. The best security plan is useless without one key factor: approval by senior management. Without senior management’s approval of and commitment to the security policy, the policy will not succeed. It is the responsibility of the policy development team to educate senior management sufficiently so it understands the risks, liabilities, and exposures that remain even after security measures prescribed in the policy are deployed. Developing and implementing a security policy is evidence of due care and due diligence on the part of senior management. If a company does not practice due care and due diligence, managers can be held liable for negligence and held accountable for both asset and financial losses. A security management planning team should develop three types of plans, as shown in Figure 1.3. Figure 1.3 Strategic, tactical, and operational plan timeline comparison Strategic Plan A strategic plan is a long-term plan that is fairly stable. It defines the organization’s security purpose. It also helps to understand security function and align it to goals, mission, and objectives of the organization. It’s useful for about five years if it is maintained and updated annually. The strategic plan also serves as the planning horizon. Long-term goals and visions for the future are discussed in a strategic plan. A strategic plan should include a risk assessment. Tactical plan The tactical plan is a midterm plan developed to provide more details on accomplishing the goals set forth in the strategic plan or can be crafted ad-hoc based upon unpredicted events. A tactical plan is typically useful for about a year and often prescribes and schedules the tasks necessary to accomplish organizational goals. Some examples of tactical plans are project plans, acquisition plans, hiring plans, budget plans, maintenance plans...
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Explanation & Answer



The Safe Harbor Program
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The Safe Harbor Program
In the recent past, there has been an increase in the need to have the unencumbered flow
of data around the world. In fact, the twenty-first-century business largely depends on this flow
of data across the globe. Nevertheless, most people are clamoring for states to do more to protect
their data. An eminent outgrowth of the world's harshness has been strengthened the supervisory
emphasis on data transfers across the borders. In particular, E.U. and the U.S. have enacted a law
that facilitates the flow of data across borders while ensuring that data from these two states are
well protected. They provide these through the Safe Harbor program, the EU-US Privacy Shield,
and the U.S. privacy laws. Therefore, this paper seeks to compare and contrast the EU-US
Privacy Shield Program to U.S. privacy laws.
Comparing and contrasting the EU-US Privacy Shield and the U.S. Privacy Laws
Over two quintillion bytes of data are created daily. Much of this data has information
that can be used to identify a person regardless of where he or she is. Today, there are over 1
billion active users of social media platforms such as Facebook. On the same note, there are
billions of people who share their photos and tweets through other social media platforms.
Hence, the amount of individual data being exchanged through these platforms daily is
increasing. Therefore, there is a growing concern on how the information shared through these
platforms is being collected, stored, used, and shared at scale. Primarily due to the role of data
build-up and mismanagement in the human rights violence committed in various parts of the
world, most countries have taken a justifiably hard-line approach to the protection of data. The
processing of individual data in multiple states is strictly regulated by different data regulation
Whereas many authorities like E.U. have privacy laws that date back to the 1990s,
amendments to information practices in the recent past have encouraged nations to re-evaluate or
to appraise the already existing privacy laws in such a way that they can also meet today’s
realities. As Chapple, Stewart, & Gibson (2018) assert, several privacy laws have been
introduced to create impediments to the free flow of data while ensuring that personal data across
borders are well protected. An example of privacy law is the EU-US Privacy Shield Program,
which is a privacy program between E.U. and U.S. and the U.S. privacy laws. Both the EU-US
Privacy Shield Program and the U.S. privacy laws aimed at protecting individual data from being

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