California Online Virtual Academy Physics and Newtons Law Questions

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California Online Virtual Academy

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Need to answer question #3 only. Will need to explain how motion changes in terms of velocity, distance, acceleration and force. Will need to calculate data and use that data using Newton's laws to calculate and show your work. Details instructions attached.

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Physics | Lab: Newtons Laws of Motion | Student Guide and Lab Instructions Lab: Newtons Laws of Motion Student Guide and Lab Instructions The everyday experience that a force is needed to start an object moving leads easily to confusion about what is needed to continue the motion. Galileo clarified the connection between force and motion by following an approach—new for its time—based on employing experimentation to test ideas. In this lesson, you will perform experiments to test how forces act to change motion, and you will test what forces are needed to keep objects in motion. Lesson Objectives • • Apply Newton's second law to bodies moving in various physical systems. Determine the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on a body. PREPARE Approximate lesson time is 60 minutes. Materials For the Student • • • Lab Report: Newton's Laws of Motion 1 Laboratory Guidelines Laboratory Instructions: Newton's Laws of Motion 1 LEARN Activity 1: Newton's Laws of Motion 1 (Online) Instructions As you read through the lesson online, use the space below to take notes. You will need your notes to study for tests. Using experimental methods to test an explanation can correct wrong assumptions. The effort to explain the cause of motion traces back thousands of years. The questions in this experiment are fundamental ones. Activity 2: Newton's Laws of Motion 1 (Online) Instructions Notes There is a written report for this laboratory, which you will submit on Day 2. Use the space below to take notes as you complete the experiment. Safety Review the Laboratory Guidelines before conducting the lab. © 2019 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 1 of 4 Physics | Lab: Newtons Laws of Motion | Student Guide and Lab Instructions ASSESS Lab: Newton's Laws of Motion 1 (Offline) Laboratory Instructions Galileo worked out the mathematical descriptions of how objects move, the types of motions, and the mathematical relations between factors such as displacement, distance, speed, velocity, and acceleration. However, Galileo could not explain why objects moved or changed their motion. These questions were answered by Isaac Newton about 100 years later. Newton worked out how forces acted on objects and described these actions in three laws of motion: 1. The law of inertia: An object at rest will remain at rest, while an object in motion will remain in motion at constant velocity in a straight line unless acted upon by an outside force ( Fnet = 0 , for objects at rest or moving at a constant velocity). 2. The acceleration a of an object is the ratio of net force on the object to the object’s mass ( a = Fnet / m or Fnet = ma ). 3. The law of action-reaction: For every action, there is an equal, but opposite, reaction ( Faction = – Freaction ) Overview • • • Define displacement, distance, velocity, speed, and acceleration. Describe the relationship between displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Describe how velocity and acceleration relate to displacement for an object moving with uniform velocity. Question Does an object moving at constant velocity experience any forces on it? What forces act on an object to get it from rest into a state of uniform motion? Observe Step into any elevator and press a button for a floor. When the elevator starts, what do you feel? Does your feeling change as the elevator is in motion? What do you feel when the elevator stops its motion upon reaching its destination? In this situation, you experience various forces and accelerations. But how does this work? Hypothesize Write a hypothesis in the form of an if-then statement regarding the possible relationship between precision and accuracy. Safety Review the Laboratory Guidelines before conducting the lab. Experiment: Overview In this lab, you will examine the forces on objects in various states of motion. You will apply Newton’s first and second laws to calculate forces and accelerations. Experiment: Part 1 – What forces act on an object at rest to make it start moving? Procedure 1. Make a drawing of the setup. © 2019 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 2 of 4 Physics | Lab: Newtons Laws of Motion | Student Guide and Lab Instructions • • What is the state of the block’s motion? What forces are acting upon the blocks in this state? Draw the forces on the blocks in this state and write a sentence describing how they relate to each other, recalling Newton’s third law. 2. Pull the bottom block out rapidly from under the stack of blocks and note what happens. Experiment: Part 2 – Model the forces acting on a passenger in an elevator. Procedure 1. Record the force on the spring scale while the object is hanging. 2. Raise the spring scale and mass. Note the changes in the reading of the scale as you move the object upward. Note the readings on the scale when you stop raising the object. 3. Repeat Steps 1–2 as often as you need to get an accurate description. Write down the data you obtain from the scale. 4. Repeat Steps 1–3, but start the object in a high position and lower it. Write down the data you obtain from the scale. 5. Make drawings of the setup for each phase of its motion and draw arrows representing the forces on the setup. How do those forces relate to each other at each phase? Experiment: Part 3 – Calculate force from mass and acceleration. Procedure 1. Determine the velocity of the ball at the end of the ramp using the photogates. 2. Repeat Step 2 three more times. 3. Average the times and calculate the velocity of the ball in meters per second as it leaves the apparatus. Use your measurements and calculations to complete the table. Data to Determine Initial Velocity of the Ball Trial Time (s) Distance (m) 1 0.23 1.0 2 0.25 1.0 3 0.22 1.0 4 0.23 1.0 Velocity (m/s) Average velocity (m/s) = ______ 4. Place a block at the base of the ramp to slow the ball. 5. Release the ball from the top of the apparatus and let it roll into the block. 6. Note where the block stops and measure the distance that the block moved. Remember to make the measurement at where the front of the block stops. 7. Repeat steps 6–7 three more times. Convert the measurements to meters, average the distance ( d ) that the block moves, and use the information gathered to fill out the table. Data to Determine Displacement as the Ball Was Constantly Decelerated © 2019 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 3 of 4 Physics | Lab: Newtons Laws of Motion | Student Guide and Lab Instructions Trial d ( cm) d (m) 1 2 3 4 Average d (m) = ________ When the ball collides with the cup, the ball undergoes acceleration (in this case, deceleration) where its velocity changes from the initial value that you measured (v i ) to a final value (v f ) of zero. You can calculate the ( acceleration according to this equation: v f 2 = v i 2 ) + 2ad . At impact, a net force stopped the ball. Use Newton’s second law to calculate the net force ( Fnet = ma ) . Analyze Answer the questions in the Lab Report thoroughly. © 2019 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 4 of 4 Physics | Graded Assignment | Lab Report: Newtons Laws of Motion Name: Madi Miranda Date: October 30, 2019 Graded Assignment Lab Report: Newton’s Laws of Motion Answer the questions, using complete sentences. When you have finished, submit this assignment to your teacher by the due date for full credit. Total score: ____ of 25 points (Score for Question 1: ___ of 8 points) 1. Write a brief explanation of what happened to the stack of blocks before and after you removed the bottom block in Part 1, in terms of forces and Newton’s laws. Answer: Type your answer here. (Score for Question 2: ___ of 8 points) 2. Based on your observations of the spring scale in Part 2, describe all the forces acting on an elevator as it moves from rest upward and stops at its floor. Answer: Type your answer here. (Score for Question 4: ___ of 9 points) 3. For Part 3, describe the motion of the ball as it moves from the top of the ramp and comes to rest against the block. Explain how the motion changes in terms of the velocity, distance, acceleration, and force that you measured. Use your data and Newton’s laws to calculate these values and explain the situation. Include the tables you used to calculate average initial velocity and average displacement. Also show your work for your calculations of acceleration and net force. Here are the kinematic equations: v f = v i + a t v f = v i + g t d = 1 (v f + v i ) t 2 d = v i t + 1 at 2 2 2 2 v f = v i + 2ad  d = 1 ( v f + v i ) t 2  d = v i  t + 1 g t 2 2 2 2 v f = v i + 2g d Also useful: v + vi v = f 2 Also useful: v + vi v = f 2 Answer: Type your answer here. © 2019 K12 Inc. All rights reserved. Copying or distributing without K12’s written consent is prohibited. Page 1 of 1
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Physics | Graded Assignment | Lab Report: Newtons Laws of Motion

Name:

Madi Miranda

Date: October 30, 2019

Graded Assignment
Lab Report: Newton’s Laws of Motion
Answer the questions, using complete sentences. When you have finished, submit this assignment to your
teacher by the due date for full credit.
Total score: ____ of 25 points
(Score for Question 1: ___ of 8 points)

1. Write a brief explanation of what happened to the stack of blocks before and after you removed the bottom
block in Part 1, in terms of forces and Newton’s laws.
Answer:

Type your answer here.
(Score for Question 2: ___ of 8 points)

2. Based on your observations of the spring scale in Part 2, des...


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