Chicago State University Hertzsprung Russell Diagram of Star Clusters Lab
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Question Description

this is the first page of the instructions, please read all the instructions. will pay more 15 dollars if i get A,

to read all the instructions. please check the attachment.

This lab has two parts:

I. H-R Diagram of Star Clusters (35 points)II.Binary Star Systems (25 points)

You need the software Stellarium to finish this lab. You can download it from https://stellarium.org/ to your laptop.

You need to study “The Magnitude System” in Chapter 12.1 of the textbook to finish this lab.

The due date of this lab is November 7th (Thursday), 2019. Submit your report:

(1) You don’t have to turn in this lab manual. You can keep it. 

(2) You can print out Figure 1, Table 1, and Table 2 to finish them by hand. However, note that illegible handwriting or sketches to me would be scored zero. 


(3) Attach the figure and tables to a TYPED report of answers of all other questions and tasks.


Unformatted Attachment Preview

PART I: HERTZSPRUNG-RUSSELL DIAGRAM OF STAR CLUSTERS (35 POINTS) Star clusters are groups of stars that formed at approximately the same time from the same large collapsing nebula and therefore are a similar distances from our solar system; they share a common history. Some clusters, called open clusters, are made up of only a few hundred stars. They are held together by their mutual gravity and move together through space. The Pleiades are an open star cluster, one of the closest to Earth, and visible to the naked eye. The M44, or Beehive star cluster is another open cluster, close enough to Earth that it was observed by Galileo. Task: 1.Find Pleiades in Stellarium. Zoom in until you are able to see its major stars. 2.Click on each star. Its information will be shown to the top left of Stellarium. 3.Use the information to finish an H-R diagram (Figure 1) as well as Table 1. 4.In the H-R diagram, use the ID (number) of each star to label it. 5.Answer the questions for Pleiades. 6.Now repeat Step 1 and 2 for M44. 7.Add stars of M44 to Figure 1 (use their letter IDs to label), and finish Table 2. 8.Answer the questions for M44. 9.Write a summary. Note: some columns of Table 1 and 2 cannot be read directly from Stellarium — they have to be inferred from the H-R diagram (so don’t ask me why there is no information of temperature in Stellarium). Page 2 of 8 Figure 1 Page 3 of 8 Table 1: Pleiades Star Evolutionary Stage Spectral Class Temp degrees K Abs. Mag App. Mag Luminosity Distance from Earth in ly 1. Alcyone 2. Atlas 3. Celaeno 4. Electra 5. Maia 6. Merope 7. Pleione 8. Sterope 9. Taygeta Table 2: M44 Star Evolutionary Stage Spectral Class Temp deg. K Abs. Mag App. Mag Luminosity Distance from Earth in ly A. 39 Cancri B. Epsilon Cancri C. HIP42485 D. HIP42523 E. HIP42600 Page 4 of 8 Questions for Pleiades: 1. Which information in Table 1 could you get from the H-R Diagram. 2. Which star is the brightest as viewed from Earth? Which star is the faintest? Which stars have the greatest and least luminosity? 3. Since the size of each star also tracks diagonally across the H-R diagram from the smallest objects in the lower left to the largest objects in the upper right, which star has the largest radius? Which star has the smallest radius? 4. What can you say about the spread of distance among the stars in this cluster compared to the distance of this cluster from our solar system? 5. Which, if any, stars are located off the main sequence? What does that say about the age of this cluster? 6. Since all of these stars formed at about the same time and from the same collapsing nebula, why might we expect them to be at different stages of evolution? What if this is a young cluster? 7. Which of these stars will move off the main sequence next? How do you know? Questions for M44: 8. Which star in this cluster is the largest in size? 9. Which star(s), if any, have moved off the main sequence? If so, what is their evolutionary stage? 10. In comparing the two clusters, the Pleiades and M44, can you determine which is the oldest cluster? How? 11. In what way did you have to consider their distances from our solar system in making this determination of relative age between these two clusters? 12. Which star is the most luminous? Which is the brightest when viewed from Earth? Summary: Discuss what you have learned about using the H-R Diagram to categorize stars, and summarize what you now know about these two open clusters. Discuss the characteristics of stars that influence their position and evolution on the H-R Diagram, and why is the H-R diagram so useful in categorizing stars. Page 5 of 8 PART II: BINARY STAR SYSTEMS (25 POINTS) “Almost half of all stars are in binary star systems.” Let’s test it! 1.Open Stellarium. Turn on “Constellation Lines” (shortcut key “C”). 2.Choose TEN constellations. 3.For each constellation, click on each of its major stars (i.e., those connected by lines). 4.Determine if each star is a binary star (double star). 5.Calculate the fraction of stars in binary systems (note: double stars count two, while single star counts one). 6.Make a table with four columns: (1) constellation; (2) total number of stars; (3) number of stars in binary systems (again, one binary system contains two stars); (4) fraction of stars in binary systems. Submit the table. 7.Calculate the average fraction of the ten constellations (i.e., average of above Column (4)). Report the value. 8.Calculate the fraction of the whole sample (i.e., add all stars from the ten constellations together). Report the value. 9.Answer the following questions. Page 6 of 8 Questions: (Note: Answers to “why” should not be “because the lab asks me to do so”. Think about the scientific reasons!) 1.What’s your reason of choosing your ten constellations? 2.Why do we choose ten constellations (i.e., why not two, and why not all 88)? 3.Why do we choose constellations rather than star clusters? 4.Why do we only use the major stars (i.e., why not other fainter stars) of the constellations? 5.Are your results (the two values of the fraction) from above Step 7 and 8 consistent? What could be the reason of that? 6.Find a classmate in Astron 1010 who is doing the same lab BUT choose some different constellations (it’s ok to have some constellations being the same — but should have some different). Compare your results of Step 7 and 8 with your classmate’s. Are they same? What’s the reason of being same or not? Write down the name of your classmate and his/her 10 constellations. (If you cannot find a classmate, talk to me.) 7.Is your result supporting or against the statement in the beginning of this part? If not, what’s the possible reasons? Page 7 of 8 APPENDIX: A FEW HELPFUL SHORTCUTS FOR STELLARIUM Key: Description A: Turn on/off Atmosphere G: Turn on/off Ground L: Increase time speed (cumulative) J: Decrease time speed (cumulative) K: Set speed back to normal Space: Center on selected object Mouse scroll: Change field of view F3: Search for object F6: Location F5: Set Date/Time Arrow Keys: Look Right/Left/Up/Down C: Constellation lines V: Constellation labels F4 then under Markings -> Constellations -> borders: Constellation borders Alt+tab: Return to desktop without closing program (this works only on Windows) Page 8 of 8 ...
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Final Answer

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Running Head: HERTZSPRUNG-RUSSEL DIAGRAM OF STAR CLUSTERS

PART I: HERTZSPRUNG-RUSSEL DIAGRAM OF STAR CLUSTERS.
Student
Professor
Course
Date

1

HERTZSPRUNG-RUSSEL DIAGRAM OF STAR CLUSTERS.

2

Table 1: Pleiades

Star

1. Alcyone
2. Atlas
3. Celaeno
4. Electra
5. Maia
6. Merope
7. Pleione
8. Sterope
9. Taygeta

Temp
Evolutionary Spectral
degrees
Stage
Class
K
Main
sequence
Main
sequence
Main
sequence
Main
sequence
Main
sequence
Main
sequence
Main
sequence
Main
sequence
Main
sequence

Abs.
Mag

App.
Mag

Distance
from
Luminosity
Earth in
ly

B7III

16000

-2.61

2.85

8

403.16

B8III

14500

-1.75

3.6

6

382.36

B7IV

16000

0.14

5.45

-1

377.06

B6III

17500

-1.77

3.7

6

404.66

B8III

14500

-1.5

3.85

5

383.26

B6IV

17500

-1.23

4.10

3

380.14

B7P

16000

-0.29

5.05

1.5

381.92

B8V

14500

0.46

5.75

-2

409.23

B6V

17500

-1.19

4.3

5

371.9

Table 2: M44

Star
A. 39
Cancri
B. Epsilon
Cancri
C.
HIP42485
D.
HIP42523
E.
HIP42600

Evolutionary
Stage

Temp
Spectral
deg.
Class
K

Abs.
Mag

App.
Mag

Distance
from
Luminosity
Earth
in ly

Giant

K0III

4500

0.000

6.35

1

608.5

Main
sequence

Am

9800

-0.02

6.25

1

586.61

Giant

F0III

8000

0.41

6.65

-2

577.27

A1V

9800

0.32

6.6

-2

587.67

A6Vn

8800

0.59

6.75

-4

556.58

Main
sequence
Main
sequence

HERTZSPRUNG-RUSSEL DIAGRAM OF STAR CLUSTERS.

3

Pleiades

1. The H-R diagram provided evolution stage, Temperature and luminosity
2. Alcyone is the brightest star from earth, Asterope being the faintest. Alcyone has the
highest luminosity while Celaneo has the lowest luminosity.
3. Alcyone has the largest radius while Celaeno has the smallest radius.
4. The distance between the stars is relatively small compared to the distance from our
solar system.
5. From the plotted graph, all of the stars are in the main sequence stage except for
Celaneo which is in the white dwarf stage. I...

ProfAlston (7783)
University of Maryland

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