engl 1301 Research paper on Causes of underage drinking


Question Description

2 parts

Part 1

Steps for Using Research:

1. 1. Choose your topic

2. 2. Brainstorm Ideas (Causes or Effects—depending on which topic you choose) that you already know about your topic. Remember, if you chose a Cause focused topic, you can brainstorm by asking yourself: WHY? If you chose an Effect focused topic, you can brainstorm by asking yourself: WHAT HAPPENS?

3. 3. Of these ideas, which seem to be the strongest? What main point do you feel you might be making by focusing on these ideas? (Hint: answering these questions will direct you to a tentative purpose and thesis). Write these causes or effects on the left side of your paper. (See below)

4. 4. Read your research packet through two times

5. 5. Fold your paper in half; on the left side, you should have your brainstormed ideas (cause/effect), and on the other side, write pieces of information from your research packet that could support that cause/effect. Keep in mind, the information from your research packet is NOT organized as cause/effect, and you may not even agree with what is said in the research packet. It is YOUR job as the scholar/writer, to think critically and cipher through the information and utilize it to suit your point.

Topic: Causes of Underage Drinking Question I am answering: Why do teens drink?

Write down 4-5 causes here (these should be your own thoughts/opinions. Write these down BEFORE you read your research packets):

  1. To cope with problems
  1. Peer Pressure

Supporting Evidence (quotes, paraphrases from your sources that support the causes you wrote on the left side)

  1. You would look through the research packets and find statistics, surveys, testimony to support that teens drink to cope with problems, and you would write the quote or paraphrase here. You want to find at least two pieces of evidence. You also want to write down any personal examples that you have for supporting evidence too! (just make sure you write your personal examples in 3rd person:


Unacceptable: I remember watching Vampire Diaries and everyone was drinking underage.

Acceptable: Many teens remember the common occurrence of teen drinking in the popular television series Vampire Diaries.

Part 2

Length: Minimum: 4 full pages (5 pages with the Works Cited page)

Format: MLA One-inch margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font, double-spaced

  1. Research Paper Reminders:
    1. Research Writing is limited to 3rd person. When you use personal experience or examples to support your claim, make sure you use a 3rd person voice. For example:
    Incorrect: I remember watching Vampire Diaries, where underage drinking is portrayed as so normal, I did not even acknowledge it.Correct: Many adolescent viewers may remember watching Vampire Diaries, where underage drinking is portrayed as so normal that viewers do not even consciously acknowledge it.
    1. The thesis statement for Causal Analysis should state the cause effect relationship. Use the sample thesis statements in blackboard and in your textbook as guides.
    2. Understand that a body paragraph for research essays still have the same organization of any other body paragraph. It is just that for research essays, some of your major supporting details are pieces of evidence from articles. Scholars (which is what you now are) use evidence as supporting details to strengthen their opinions/claims.
    3. When using in-text citations make sure that you IQC
      1. This means body paragraphs should neither begin nor end with a quote. Body paragraphs should always begin with a topic sentence. For this essay, each topic sentence should state the cause or effect and its importance to your overall claim.
      2. This also means that you should never have quotes stacked.
      3. This also means that you can not use one introduction for multiple quotes/paraphrases
    4. IQC = Introduce: the author, credentials, and signal phrase
    Quote: provide the quote, paraphrase, or hybrid Comment: explain, elaborate, and/or connect the purpose of the evidence to your point/claim
    1. Titles of articles should use MLA capitalization and be in quotation marks
    2. Make sure that you use a citation guide (use your textbook) for your in-text citations and for your Works Cited page.

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Unit 6 Cause-Effect Essays A toxic algal bloom from fertilizer runoff covers a third of Lake Erie in the United States. 132 94967_ch06_ptg01_hires_132-159.indd 132 5/22/14 5:41 PM Objectives T o learn how to write a cause-effect essay To use effective transitions in cause-effect writing To use verb tenses consistently To recognize and avoid sentence fragments What are the causes and effects of pollution? What Is a Cause-Effect Essay? We all understand cause-effect relationships; for example, lightning can cause fire. As a student you know that if you stay up late the night before a test to watch a movie and do not study, you may not perform well on the test the following day. A cause-effect essay tells how one event (the cause) leads to another event (the effect). A cause-effect essay can do one of two things: • I t can analyze the ways in which one or more effects result from a particular cause. (Focus-on-Effects Method) • It can analyze the ways in which one or more causes lead to a particular effect. (Focus-on-Causes Method) In other words, your essay may focus more on the effects of a cause or more on the causes of one effect. Either approach provides a useful means of discussing the possible relationship between the two events. It is not a good idea to mix several causes and several effects in an essay because your focus may become unclear. In cause-effect essays, it is easy to suggest that because one event preceded another event, the former event caused the latter. Simply because one event follows another one sequentially does not mean that the two actions are related. For example, people often complain that as soon as they finish washing their car, it starts to rain. Obviously, washing a car does not cause rain. Writers need to be sure that the causes and effects they describe are logically connected. 134 Unit 6 • Cause-Effect Essays How Is a Cause-Effect Essay Organized? There are two basic ways to organize a cause-effect essay: focus-on-effects or focus-on-causes. If your assignment is to write a cause-effect essay on the topic of global warming, you could write two kinds of essays: • I n a focus-on-effects essay, you would write about the threatened habitat of polar bears as a result of global warming and the melting of large parts of the Arctic Circle. Your essay might include five paragraphs and look like this: hook Introduction Paragraph 1 connecting information thesis Paragraph 2 Body Paragraph 3 Paragraph 4 Conclusion Paragraph 5 Effect 1: dangerous swimming conditions • sea ice platforms farther apart Effect 2: scarcity of food • fewer hunting opportunities Effect 3: reduced population • Females with less body weight have lower reproduction rates. restated thesis suggestion/opinion/prediction • I n a focus-on-causes essay, you would write about the causes of global warming, such as excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In this case, the organization for this essay could have five paragraphs and look like this: hook Introduction Paragraph 1 connecting information thesis Cause 1: human activities Paragraph 2 • carbon dioxide from vehicles • not recycling (requires creating more products from scratch) Body Paragraph 3 Cause 2: increased industrial activity • greater carbon dioxide from burning fuels to run factories Cause 3: deforestation Paragraph 4 Conclusion Paragraph 5 • Increased human population requires more space, so trees are cut down. • F ewer trees mean less oxygen, which causes a higher percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. restated thesis suggestion/opinion/prediction   135 Great Topics for Cause-Effect Essays What is a great topic for a cause-effect essay? This type of essay may focus more on the causes or more on the effects, but most writers answer this question by thinking of an effect or a final result. The brainstorming stage then requires thinking about one or more causes of that effect. When selecting topics for this type of essay, a good writer should consider relevant questions such as: • What is the end effect? • Is there one primary effect, or are there several effects? • Is there one primary cause, or are there several causes? As you read this list of some general topics that lend themselves well to a cause-effect essay, notice that the last two in each group do not use the obvious words cause or effect: Focus on Causes Focus on Effects the causes of the high divorce rate in some countries the effects of pollution in my country the causes of World War I the effects of high salaries for athletes the causes of low voter participation in elections the effects of the Internet on how businesses are run the reasons new teachers quit the impact of technology on education why only a small percentage of people read ­newspapers today what happens when a large percentage of adults ­cannot read well Activity 1  Identifying Topics for Cause-Effect Essays Read these eight topics. Put a check mark (✓) next to the four that could be good topics for cause-effect essays. 1. the reasons that the earth’s weather has changed so much in the last century 2. Bangkok versus Singapore as a vacation destination 3. a trip to visit my grandparents 4. the increasing use of computers in schools 5. explaining dietary guidelines for children 6. how to play the piano 7. why a student received a scholarship 8. why the birth rate is falling in many countries Can you think of two additional topics that would be excellent for a cause-effect essay? 9. 10. 136 Unit 6 • Cause-Effect Essays Supporting Details After you have selected a topic, your task is to determine whether you will focus more on the causes of the issue or the effects of it. This process will also help you to select and develop supporting details for your essay, which is an important step in constructing a solid essay. When you brainstorm your plan for this essay, a useful technique is to make two lists. One list has as many causes as you can think of. The second list has as many effects or results as you can think of. The list that is bigger—the causes or the effects—should determine the primary focus of your essay. Here is an example for an essay about the difficulty of learning English: Causes Effects 14 vowel sounds some people study it for years. unpredictable spelling system people spend millions of dollars to learn it. 12 verb tenses there are many jobs for teaching English. phrasal verbs Some people never learn it well. vocabulary from German and from Latin Some people have a weak vocabulary. Activity 2  Brainstorming for Two Methods One of the topics that we hear so much about in today’s society is stress. In this activity, you will use the space in the boxes on page 138 to brainstorm ideas for an essay on the topic of stress. In the first box, your organization will address the focus-on-effects method. In the second box, your organization will address the focus-on-causes method. After you complete these tasks, work with a partner or a small group to discuss your answers.   137 Focus-on-Effects Method Cause: Effects: Focus-on-Causes Method Causes: Effect: 138 Unit 6 • Cause-Effect Essays Activity 3  Studying an Example Cause-Effect Essay This essay discusses some effects that weather has had on events in history. Discuss the Preview Questions with a partner. Then read the essay and answer the questions that follow. Preview Questions 1. Can you name a time when the weather had an effect on an event that you attended? Was it a positive effect or a negative effect? 2. In the 1200s, the warrior Kubilai Khan tried to invade Japan by sailing from the Asian mainland to Japan. A certain kind of weather event prevented the invasion. Write three guesses in the diagram about what this weather was. Do not consult the Internet, a book, or a person. Cause 1: Cause 2: Effect: No invasion of Japan Cause 3: 3. Go back in time. Imagine you are a captain of a troop of 500 soldiers and you want to attack your enemy at night. However, it is raining heavily. What are three possible effects of the rain? Effect 1: Cause: Heavy rain at battle time at night Effect 2: Effect 3: Essay 13 How Weather Has Changed World History 1 It is tempting, and often comforting, to think that humans control their fates. The decisions that people make in their daily lives can affect many things, and the course of their lives cumulatively reflects these many small decisions. On the other hand, people cannot control every aspect of their environments, and forces beyond human control frequently intervene in human affairs. Notwithstanding many people’s opinion that the weather has little influence in their lives besides determining what clothes they wear on a particular day, the weather has in fact caused world history to radically shift in important ways that are still felt today. 2 Numerous examples from world history document the ­long-term effects of weather in the formation of cultures and nations. In the thirteenth century, Khubilai Khan ruled over the vast Mongol empire, which spanned from the Pacific Ocean in the east to the Black tempting: attractive; desirable fate: the plan for the future that has been decided and that you cannot control a course: a route or direction cumulatively: formed over time by many parts or additions to intervene: to become involved in something in order to influence the final result   139 Sea in the west, from present-day Siberia in the north to Afghanistan in the south. To expand his reign further, Khubilai Khan mounted two invasions of Japan. Two monsoons, however, caused him to end his attacks. Delgado (2008) describes legendary accounts of this event: “The legend, oft repeated in countless history books, speaks of gigantic ships, numbering into the thousands, crewed by indomitable Mongol warriors, and of casualties on a massive scale, with more than 100,000 lives lost in the final invasion attempt of 1281” (p. 4). Because of this unexpected defeat, Khubilai Khan decided to stage a third invasion of Japan, but he died before he could fulfill this ambition. Without these monsoons, Japan might have been defeated by the Mongols and thus lost its identity as a unique culture, with far-reaching consequences for Asian and world history. 3 In the early years of America’s Revolutionary War, which began in 1775, it appeared likely that the British would crush the armies of her colonial territory and incorporate it back into the empire. The British troops were a well-trained and disciplined army that was feared worldwide. In contrast, the American troops were newly trained, sometimes poorly organized, and lacked sufficient resources to fight effectively. General George Washington could have easily been defeated in the Battle of Long Island on August 22, 1776. Historical records show that Sir William Howe, the British commander, was clearly defeating Washington on Long Island and was actually winning handily (Seymour, 1995). Nonetheless, the weather intervened when a heavy fog rolled in, so the American forces were able to retreat, regroup, and survive to fight 140 Unit 6 • Cause-Effect Essays to document: to maintain a written record of; to write about to span: to extend from one point to another a reign: a time of political control, especially for kings, queens, or unelected officials to mount: to prepare something so that it takes place a monsoon: a strong rain storm that happens at a certain time of the year a casualty: an injury or death in a severe event such as an accident or a war to stage: to plan, organize, and make something happen ambition: a strong desire for power, wealth, or fame another day. Because of this fog, the United States was not defeated in its struggle for freedom. Consequently, today’s United Kingdom of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland does not include the United States. The United States is not a commonwealth of a mother country, as Canada and Australia are, though the United States still has strong ties to its colonial past. 4 When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Russia in the early nineteenth century, he met with early successes that appeared to guarantee that he might eventually rule the world as his personal domain. His soldiers captured Moscow and destroyed the city, which encouraged him to push farther in his military campaigns. However, because of his dreams of glory, Napoleon overlooked the simple fact that Russian winters are extremely cold. When the temperatures fell below freezing, many of his soldiers and their horses died in the brutal weather. As Belloc (1926) writes in his classic study of the Napoleonic wars, “The cold was the abominable thing: The dreadful enemy against which men could not fight and which destroyed them” (p. 217). As a result of the failure of Napoleon’s Russian campaigns, his own rule ended relatively soon after. His defeat led to a reorganization of power throughout the European nations, as well as to the rise of Russia as a major world power. 5 As these three examples unambiguously demonstrate, the weather has caused numerous huge shifts in world history as well as in power balances among cultures and nations. Without the rainy storms of the monsoon season, Japan might be the eastern outpost of Mongolia; without the appearance of dense fog, the United States might still be a territory of the United Kingdom; and without winter snow, Muscovites might speak French. Today weather forecasters can usually predict with a high degree of accuracy when thunderstorms, hurricanes, tsunamis, and tornadoes will strike, but the course of history cannot be fully isolated from the effects of the weather. to crush: to destroy handily: easily fog: a type of weather similar to a cloud very near the ground to retreat: to go back a tie: a connection domain: land that a ruler or government controls to capture: to catch; to trap to overlook: to fail to notice or know about brutal: severe abominable: disgusting; causing hateful feelings dreadful: extremely bad; causing fear unambiguously: not ambiguously; clearly and definitely dense: thick a forecaster: a person who predicts something, often the weather References Belloc, H. (1926). Napoleon’s campaign of 1812 and the retreat from Moscow. New York: Harper. Delgado, J. (2008). Khubilai Khan’s lost fleet: In search of a legendary armada. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Seymour, W. (1995). The price of folly: British blunders in the War of American Independence. London: Brassey’s. Post-Reading 1. What is the topic of the essay?  2. What is the writer’s thesis?   3. What is the cause that the writer describes in the essay?     141 4. What are some of the effects that the writer describes?   5. Write one detail that strongly supports the thesis statement.   6. How is this essay organized?   ☐ focus-on-causes method ☐ focus-on-effects method 7. Can you think of any information that the author should have included to make the message of the essay stronger?    Building Better Sentences: For further practice, go to Practice 3 on pages 239–240 in the Appendix. Building Better Vocabulary Activity 4 Practicing Three Kinds of Vocabulary from Context Read each important vocabulary word or phrase. Locate it in the essay if you need help remembering the word. Then circle the best synonym, antonym, or collocation from column A, B, or C. Type of Vocabulary Important Vocabulary Synonyms Antonyms Collocations 142 Unit 6 • Cause-Effect Essays A B C 1. capture catch fulfill prosper 2. tempting attractive inherent precise 3. forecast dread predict reign 4. on account of due to prior to regardless of 5. handily by vehicle on foot with difficulty 6. dense thin superior reluctant 7. eventually beyond cumulatively immediately 8. expand differentiate proceed shrink 9. span ___ Greece from England to near England and with England or 10. ___ in a dispute duplicate intervene merge 11. a brutal ___ friendship lunch storm 12. defeat ___ an attack an enemy a reptile Activity 5 Analyzing the Organization Use the words from the box to complete the outline of “How Weather Has Changed World History.” Reread the essay on pages 139–141 if you need help. • t he Battle of Long Island in the American Revolutionary War, during which fog helped the American forces to retreat • the course of history cannot be fully isolated from the effects of weather. • H. Belloc, who documents the effect of the Russian winter • the weather has changed world history in important ways still felt today. • Japan’s cultural identity would have changed if Khan had succeeded in his invasion. Title: How Weather Has Changed World History I. Introduction A. Describe how people think they control their fates. B. Suggest, however, that people cannot control every aspect of their environments. C. Thesis statement:  . II. Body Paragraph 1 A. Provide the example of Khubilai Khan and his invasion of Japan. B. Cite the study of J. Delgado, who describes Khubilai Khan’s failed invasion. C. Discuss how   . III. Body Paragraph 2 A. Provide the example of   . . B. Cite the study of W. Seymour, who documents the circumstances of the battle. C. D  iscuss how the United States might have remained a member of the British Commonwealth, if not for a heavy fog. IV. Body Paragraph 3 A. Provide the example of Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion of Russia. B. Cite the study of  . C. Discuss the consequences of Napoleon’s defeat in relation to Russia’s rise as a world power. V. Conclusion A. Summarize the three examples from the body paragraphs. B. S uggest that, although weather forecasters can predict the weather with more accuracy than in the past,  .   143 Strong Thesis Statements for Cause-Effect Essays A strong thesis statement for a cause-effect essay indicates whether the essay focuses on causes or on effects. Sometimes the thesis statement uses the words cause(s) or effects(s), but this is not necessary if either the cause or the effect is implied in the statement. In addition, a thesis statement sometimes includes a number, such as three causes or two effects, but this is also optional. Focus Example thesis statement on causes Many customers prefer to shop online for three important reasons. T he increase in obesity in our country is due to food commercials, cheap fast food, and video games. on effects T his essay will discuss the effects of watching too much TV on children’s family life, interpersonal skills, and school life. Most people are not aware of the positive effects of simply walking for 20 to 30 minutes per day. Activity 6 Writing Strong Thesis Statements for Cause-Effect Essays Write a thesis statement for each topic. When you finish, compare your answers with a partner’s. 1. the causes of bullying   2. the effects of being an only child   3. the causes of choosing a vegan diet   4. the effects of society’s love for computers   Transitions and Connectors in Cause-Effect Essays Transitions and connectors are important in cause-effect essays because they help indicate causation or effect regarding the topic. Perhaps the most familiar cause-effect transition word is because: “X happened because Y happened.” Precise use of transitions helps the reader to follow the writer’s reasoning about cause-effect relationships. 144 Unit 6 • Cause-Effect Essays The transitions for both a focus-on-causes essay and a focus-on-effects essay are the same because both kinds of essays discuss one or more causes or one or more effects. Transitions and Connectors Commonly Used in Cause-Effect Essays as a consequence due to on account of as a result (the) effect (of X) owing to (for this) reason (X can be) attributed to (Y) (a key) fa ...
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Part 2: Causes Of Underage Drinking
Each year, thousands of young people drink and suffer consequences of drinking because
alcohol is a choice of many young people in many countries today. In the US, for example, about
5000 people aged below 21 years die from alcohol-related complications and injuries. This issue
represents a major public health issue that needs to be understood from a more profound point of
view to solve it. One key area of understanding the problem is to understand the root causes of
underage drinking by highlighting and discussing the causes of underage drinking. Main factors
that cause underage drinking are parent and family behaviours, childhood abusive experiences,
alcohol advertising, peer pressure, biological causes, and psychiatrist disorders.
One of the vital causes of alcoholism in young people is the parent behaviour. Parents
play a critical role in the development of a child. Young people are said to learn by copying and
imitating environmental factors such as parents. Parents influence the social development and
physical growth of a child. Parents teach, guide, counsel, and correct children . If a parent is a
drunkard, the child will imitate and copy the parent’s behaviours. Other than copying, parent’s
policies and ideas about specific life issues determine the direction a child will take about the
issue . For example, Moñino-García argues that children feel obliged to please their parents and
so, if a parent opposes drinking, then the child will also oppose drinking and in the process, keep
away from underage drinking( 4). Thus, if the parent’s views about alcoholism and drinking are

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lenient, and if their rules are less strict, a child may develop positive expectations about drinking
and then become an alcoholic.
Another cause of underage drinking is biological factors. Biological factors causing
underage alcoholism are the genetic characteristics that may make an individual more or less
susceptible to alcoholism. Genetic factors mean that alcoholism can be viewed as a hereditary
condition that young ones inherit by being des...

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