English Essay Due Tonight (Prater)

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Question Description

Body of Research Paper

Follow the directions below for the completion of the body paragraphs draft assignment for Unit VI. If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance.

Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to continue drafting your academic argumentative research paper.

Description: In this assignment, you will write three to four body paragraphs according to the form that is explained in "Lesson 3: The Body Paragraphs." The following requirements must be included in the assignment:

  • Body Paragraphs: You will construct three to four paragraphs comprised of five to seven sentences each. Each paragraph should be between 150-200 words. At a minimum, this portion of the paper should be around 450-600 words (for three to four paragraphs); a body section of this length will meet the minimum requirements of the assignment. The following components must be included in each body paragraph (in the following order).
    • Sentence 1: Point/reason sentence: This topic sentence will contain one of your reasons.
    • Sentence 2: Explanation: In this sentence, you provide information that further develops or explains Sentence 1.
    • Sentence 3: Illustration: This sentence introduces evidence that supports the reason that is presented in Sentence 1.
    • Sentence 4: Explanation of the illustration: Because the evidence does not necessarily stand on its own, you need to provide explanation so that the reader will understand how you interpreted the evidence to come to your reason.
    • Sentences 5-6: Second illustration and explanation (optional): You may choose to include a second piece of evidence that is then followed by an explanation.
    • Last Sentence: Transition: In this sentence, you will signal to the reader that you will be moving on to another point in the next paragraph. You do this to ease the movement from one point to another.
  • Be sure to include the introduction and literature review you have already created and revised.
  • Use APA conventions to cite and reference all sources used to support your argument.

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1 Running head: ABORTION AND NEWS LAWS Abortion and News Laws Keandrea Prater English Composition October 22, 2019 2 ABORTION AND NEWS LAWS Abortion and News Laws The topic Abortion remains to be one of the significant issues in contemporary society. The society continues to be divided on whether to legalize or not legalize it. The main area of contention between pro and anti-abortion groups is on the value of the life of the mother and that of the child undergoing development. The pro-abortion people assert that the value of the life of the mother is essential and go-ahead to question whether an unborn baby has any experience at all (Scheidler, 2002). The anti-abortion group value both the life of the mother and the baby and assert that it is not in the mothers' plate to decide if the child lives or not as fundamental rights already cover it. It is the lack of a single perspective that has led to controversies in the enactment of abortion rules. The controversy The main controversy surrounding abortion and the new laws is whether the unborn child can be recognized as a human being or not. It is the lack of a common ground that has led to the development of issues to become a major controversy in contemporary society. The members of the society that are pro-abortion assert that it is the right of the mother to decide what happens to a child that is growing inside them (Scheidler, 2002). The fact that such a child lacks the features that can be used in identifying a human beings makes them not to be covered by fundamental rights. As such, committing abortion would not amount to murder. On the other hand, the members of the society that are against abortion assert that immediately after conception, the being that starts forming in the mother's womb can be categorized as human and therefore covered by the fundamental rights (Issues & Controversies, 3 ABORTION AND NEWS LAWS 2005). As such, if the mother goes ahead and does anything that contravenes such rights, including carrying out abortion means that they are breaking the law and are liable for punishment. However, one of the things that pro and anti-abortion groups agree on is the role of abortion when a pregnancy, no matter how old, puts the life of the mother at risk. Both groups agree that it is necessary to take measures that will increase the chance of survival for the mother (Lloyd, 2011). However, the anti-abortion group call for careful implementation of strategies that, despite preserving the life of the mother, should as well try to maximize the chances of survival for the fetus. As such, it is the differing perspectives towards abortion in the society that had led to the development of the issue to a controversy (Gale, 2010). The fact that most countries in the past were against abortion has seen an increase in new laws from people that feel abortion should be legalized. Tentative thesis statement The society should strive to have a common stand on abortion, facilitating the development of laws that help to safeguard the position adopted in an attempt to determine the application of fundamental rights on matters abortion. 4 ABORTION AND NEWS LAWS References Gale, (2010). Current Issues: Gale. Opposing Viewpoints in context. Macmillan Social Science Library. Detroit Web. 24 Sep. 2012. Issues & Controversies On File (2005). When Does Human Life Begin?": n. Pag. Issues & Controversies. Facts On File News Services. Lloyd, D. (2011) "Abortion Safer Than Childbirth, British Doctors' Group Wants Women to Know." Politics Daily. AOL Inc. Scheidler, A. ( 2002) "Special Interview: Ann Scheidler Speaks out Against Abortion." Issues & Controversies. Facts On File News Services. 1 Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review Keandrea Prater English Composition November 5, 2019 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Abortion Abortion is the leading human-related subjects that have been in discussion. Abortion is defined as the process of ending pregnancy that is done by removing a fetus before it can survive in the uterus. The individuals who believe that killing a guiltless fetus is not right and furthermore a confused thought, which ought to be disposed of at all, expense. On the other side, they contend that life starts at origination and in this manner; the experience of prematurely ending the embryo is confused and conflicts with the basic human standards (Pollitt, 2014). Ending the baby's life might be a disrespect to God and furthermore, the truth of the matter is that nobody can foresee what that kid will be later on. While this is a discussion regarding abortion, there are individuals who contend for fetus removal. Their thinking depends on the way that an individual has control of their body. The end of pregnancy in their issue depends on the temperance of morals. For instance, a pregnant mother has the obligation of settling on choices before the days over. With this, the mother is given the benefit of life, and in this way, she can decide if the embryo will live to turn into an individual or it won't live by the end (Pollitt, 2014). The inquiry has additionally been raised to the circumstance where the embryo puts the life of the mother in danger because of the complexities. For example, here have been developments and a few exercises have been grown with the end goal that a fetus can be evacuated through genuine action. The operation can be said to have originated in India. In any case, what must be recalled is access to a protected, abortion clinic is an essential right that each woman is qualified for paying little respect to where she lives. The thesis statement of this paper is to “create a draft on the literature review of abortion right.” In the ongoing years, different groups have been on the increase as they search for the instrument and the endeavors, which they can use to advocate for women’s rights. organizations, 3 LITERATURE REVIEW for example, premature birth rights development have been framed with the point of going a step higher where they contend for the authorization of the privilege to abort. Their contention depends on the way that ladies have the benefit to live. With these, they have the ability to control all that goes to their bodies. The contention depends on getting legitimate sponsorship where ladies can get the correct premature birth method without undermining their lives or putting any hazard to their prosperity (Gurtovnik, 2008). The gathering is contending that the choice to prematurely end ought to be left to the ladies to choose and isn't the capacity of the general public to pass judgment on whether the move is all around verbalized or the move isn't all around explained. In their contention, they are stating that the present standards and guidelines are lessening dependent on the way that life begins after the baby has been conceived. During the time spent getting the correct data about fetus removal specialists have discovered data associated with untimely births by the women in their state of residence and on the outskirts. For this situation, the information which was gathered was from Mississippi (Gurtovnik, 2008). In their examination, they took a gander at the information about youngsters. In this case, they were looking at the information which depends on the probability of a woman having the second-trimester embryo evacuation or having untimely birth out of the state and the mean of the gestational time of baby expulsion. They were likewise intrigued by information identifying with Controls for the race, marital status, past live births, past induced untimely births, also, partition to the nearest provider was consolidated in the model (BelaGanatra, and Singh, 2006). For this situation the analysts discovered that the probability of a youngster to get a premature birth out of the state required a ton of prompting They affirmed that the gestational age at embryo expulsion extended by the larger section seven days for youngsters whose nearest baby evacuation provider was out of state, and by almost seven days for youths whose nearest fetus 4 LITERATURE REVIEW expulsion provider was within the state. It shows the present circumstance which people participate in with regards to acquiring a premature birth before the day's over. In the national examination of the condition of the untimely birth rate, most cases focus on the real enormity of the coefficient of the parental inclusion law variable while concentrating on the expense of assessing the degree of the suggested effects. When taking a look at the historical backdrop of the fetus removal right, one can follow the circumstance back to the incomparable court managing working on it of Roe V. Swim which it was decided that a Texas resolution which was restricting premature birth with the exception of in the circumstance where it was sparing the life of the mother was by the day's end unlawful (BelaGanatra, and Singh, 2006). For this situation, the ruling was said that the issue of fetus removal and premature birth rights must be arranged under the rights to security. Finally, when taking a look at the issue of premature birth their numerous degrees which might be utilized during the time spent affirming or objecting to the circumstance. Considering this, the privilege to abort will keep on pulling in a colossal degree of contradicts, not in view of the laws which authorize it yet additionally as a result of the instances of morals in the process. When taking a look at the issue, it is pulling in numerous measurements (BelaGanatra, and Singh, 2006). Where for this situation the contention is just founded on the substance of what can be viewed as the battle for the rights, there are progressively basic parts that should be managed more than the current existing stage. The last position of this contention isn't clear, and nobody can foresee where it will go. What is by all accounts the way is that at one-point abortion will be legitimized and this will make a huge difference. What will be left is the issue of morals in the process settling on basic choices by the end. 5 LITERATURE REVIEW References Amanda Dennis, S. K. (2009). The Impact of Laws Requiring Parental Involvement for Abortion: A Literature Review. Guttmacher institute, 31. Retrieved from BelaGanatra, & Singh, S. (2006). The Lancet. Science Direct, 368(9550), 1908-1919. Gurtovnik, R. (2008). A Study of the Effects of Abortion in the United States: The Reasoning Behind Abortions and Improving Access to Care. Universal-Publishers, 2008. Pollitt, K. (2014). Pro: Reclaiming abortion rights. Picador. Running head: SAVE THE BEES 1 [Unit VI and VII, Body Section: You will find the body paragraphs on pp. 7–9, located in the blue outlined section. The body section should be placed in the paper after the Introduction and Literature Review.] Save the Bees: The Negative Effects of Neonicotinoids on Bee Populations Tamika Diggs Columbia Southern University SAVE THE BEES 2 Save the Bees: The Negative Effects of Pesticides on Bee Populations The argument concerning whether a ban should be placed on pesticides has been a source of contention since the publishing of Rachel Carson’s groundbreaking book Silent Spring in 1962. In her book, Carson (1962) highlights the dangers of pesticide use by describing the effects of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) on birds of prey including peregrine falcons, osprey, and bald eagles. DDT has since been banned, but many pesticides are still being used today. Proponents for banning pesticides acknowledge that while they may present a short-term solution to issues such as insect infestations, the long-term effects of pesticide exposure cannot be ignored. On the other hand, those in favor of pesticide use argue that the benefits often outweigh the risks, as pesticides are responsible for maximizing crop yields while also reducing the risk of disease in humans and livestock. Within the last 20 years, beekeepers have begun to witness record losses in their bee populations. The phenomenon is known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), and beekeepers affected by CCD have reported losses as high as 50–90%, sometimes within a matter of weeks (Ellis, 2016). Research has pointed to pesticide usage, specifically neonicotinoids (neonics), as a potential cause of CCD. According to research, neonicotinoids are used in agriculture to kill pests such as aphids and grubs, but are indirectly impacting bees (“What are Neonicotinoids?” 2017). Bees are responsible for pollinating most of the world’s crops, therefore many are advocating for the ban of neonics. However, the opposing side argues that the research naming neonics as the culprit of sudden bee deaths is weak, and that neonics are safe for use. Also, government entities like The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are concerned about the negative impact a pesticide ban would have on disease control. In addition, the economic impact on farmers due to a loss in crop yields resulting from a pesticide ban would be costly. While there would be an initial cost to explore alternative methods, continuing to SAVE THE BEES 3 expose key pollinators to harmful pesticides should not continue. Therefore, neonicotinoids should not be used due to their harmful effects on bees. Instead, alternatives such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM), should be utilized. Review of Literature In order to better understand the controversy concerning neonicotinoid use and its effects on bee populations, it is necessary to review the origins of pesticide usage. In addition, this review will closely examine pollination and the role of the bee in that process. The review will continue by more closely examining the phenomenon known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CDD) and its potential impact on the environment. Finally, the literature review will explore the opposing sides of the controversy surrounding neonicotinoid use, beginning with arguments in favor of banning its use and favoring alternative methods such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Then, the position of those against the banning of neonicotinoids, or the con side. The Origins of Pesticides The concerns surrounding chemical pesticide use have been discussed for several decades. According to the article “Pesticides” (2007), it was the discovery of dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the 1930s that allowed modern agriculture to grow into what it is today. At that time, DDT was cheap to manufacture and known only to be toxic to insects. Therefore, DDT was used to eliminate insects from crops, to delouse prisoners and military personnel, and to control mosquitos (Zoltan, 2011). Within a few decades, scientists began to observe a decline in many species of carnivorous birds. Research lead them to the presence of concentrated DDT in the food chain, which indirectly impacted the reproductive cycles of birds of prey (“Pesticides,” 2007). Due to this discovery, various government entities have stepped in and imposed regulations to either ban them, in the case of DDT, or control their usage (“Assessing SAVE THE BEES 4 Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides,” 2013). In spite of the recognized hazardous effects of these chemicals, many pesticides are still being used today. Pollination and Colony Collapse Disorder Pollination is the process of sexual reproduction for all higher plant forms including flowers, herbs, bushes, grass, and most trees (“Pollination,” 2017). Specifically, pollination is the process of moving pollen (male sex cells) to the pistil (female reproductive organ) of a plant of the same species to form a seed in which a new plant will grow (“Pollination,” 2017). Pollination occurs by either abiotic means, such as by air or water, or through biotic means by being transferred with the assistance of another organism. Bees are considered to be the most effective biotic pollinator and, therefore, are critical to the process of pollination. This is due to the species social nature, large demand for food, and its ability to remember specific plants (“Pollination,” 2017). It has been estimated that “of the 100 crops responsible for producing the majority of the earth’s food, 71 of them are pollinated by bees” (Ellis, 2016). Therefore, the bee is considered a key pollinator and is integral to the process of pollination. Within the last 20 years, beekeepers have noticed a dramatic reduction in the population of bees in their hives. Scientists have named this phenomenon “Colony Collapse Disorder,” also known as CCD. Colony Collapse Disorder is when a colony of bees abandons their hive while leaving their brood, or larvae, behind (“What’s New with Honeybees?” 2009). The rapid decline of bee populations due to CCD places a threat on the process of pollination and the success of many of the world’s crops. The Argument in Favor of Pesticide Use Those against the banning of pesticides base their reasoning on economics and public health concerns. According to the EPA (n.d.-a), there are too many significant health problems that are caused by pests to completely discontinue use of pesticides. Some examples of these SAVE THE BEES 5 public health concerns include asthma and allergies, Avian Flu, and vector-borne illnesses such as West Nile Virus (EPA, n.d.-a). A paper published by Whitford et al. (2006)from Purdue also presents strong examples that support the argument for pesticide usage. Pesticides are utilized in many advantageous ways that often go unnoticed by the public. For example, pesticides are used to control vegetation along highways to allow for visibility and safe passage, and are also incorporated into many household products such as paints and caulks to prevent the growth of mold in our homes (Whitford et al., 2006). Concerning CCD, proponents of pesticide use say that there is not enough research currently available to determine that pesticides are the sole cause of CCD. Research concerning the sudden decline in bee populations have pointed at a combination of factors that result in CCD, including habitat loss, global warming, and parasites such as the Varroa mite (Kaplan, 2012). Ultimately, those who support the use of pesticides argue that the benefits outweigh the risks. There are concerns that a complete ban of pesticides would present a threat to public health. Without pesticides to protect our crops and livestock, there would be a reduction in crop yields which would lead to increased famine. In addition, humans would be exposed to more diseases transmitted by insects that would have otherwise been eradicated through the use of pesticides. The Case Against Pesticides When pesticides are used, many species that may not be the intended target are often affected (National Research Council, 2013). This was the case with DDT and birds of prey, and is also the case with neonicotinoids (neonics) and honey bees. Contrary to the studies backed by pesticide supporters, opposing research has linked the cause of CCD to the use of neonics. Neonics are toxic to bees and have the ability to alter their behavior, ultimately making it difficult for them to find food (Hopwood et al., 2016). In place of pesticides, parties including SAVE THE BEES 6 beekeepers and environmentalists are asking that alternative pest management systems be utilized. Integrated Pest Management or (IPM) is the idea of providing the best level of pest management without negatively impacting human health or the environment (“Integrated Pest Management,” 2011). It is believed that using environmentally-friendly alternatives to pesticides such as IPM will protect keystone species and pose less harm to the ecosystem. While the debate on the use of pesticides is ongoing, it is clear that both sides have concerns surrounding public health. Those for the continued use of neonicotinoids believe (a) that they are the most effective way to ...
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1
Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW

Keandrea Prater
English Composition
November 5, 2019

2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Introduction
Abortion and News Laws
The topic
Abortion remains to be one of the significant issues in contemporary society. The society
continues to be divided on whether to legalize or not legalize it. The main area of contention
between pro and anti-abortion groups is on the value of the life of the mother and that of the
child undergoing development. The pro-abortion people assert that the value of the life of the
mother is essential and go-ahead to question whether an unborn baby has any experience at all
(Scheidler, 2002). The anti-abortion group value both the life of the mother and the baby and
assert that it is not in the mothers' plate to decide if the child lives or not as fundamental rights
already cover it. It is the lack of a single perspective that has led to controversies in the
enactment of abortion rules.
The controversy
The main controversy surrounding abortion and the new laws is whether the unborn child
can be recognized as a human being or not. It is the lack of a common ground that has led to the
development of issues to become a major controversy in contemporary society.
The members of the society that are pro-abortion assert that it is the right of the mother to
decide what happens to a child that is growing inside them (Scheidler, 2002). The fact that such
a child lacks the features that can be used in identifying a human beings makes them not to be
covered by fundamental rights. As such, committing abortion would not amount to murder.
On the other hand, the members of the society that are against abortion assert that
immediately after conception, the being that starts forming in the mother's womb can be

3
LITERATURE REVIEW
categorized as human and therefore covered by the fundamental rights (Issues & Controversies,
2005). As such, if the mother goes ahead and does anything that contravenes such rights,
including carrying out abortion means that they are breaking the law and are liable for
punishment.
However, one of the things that pro and anti-abortion groups agree on is the role of
abortion when a pregnancy, no matter how old, puts the life of the mother at risk. Both groups
agree that it is necessary to take measures that will increase the chance of survival for the mother
(Lloyd, 2011). However, the anti-abortion group call for careful implementation of strategies
that, despite preserving the life of the mother, should as well try to maximize the chances of
survival for the fetus.
As such, it is the differing perspectives towards abortion in the society that had led to the
development of the issue to a controversy (Gale, 2010). The fact that most countries in the past
were against abor...

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