Running head: COMMUNICATION BETWEEN MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES
Kang, M., & Sung, M. (2017). How symmetrical employee communication leads to employee
engagement and positive employee communication behaviors: The mediation of
employee-organization relationships. Journal of Communication Management, 21(1), 82102.
Kanki, B. G. (2019). Communication and crew resource management. In Crew resource
management (pp. 103-137). Academic Press.
Karanges, E., Johnston, K., Beatson, A., & Lings, I. (2015). The influence of internal
communication on employee engagement: A pilot study. Public Relations Review, 41(1),
Leje, M. I., Kasimu, M. A., & Kolawole, A. F. (2019). Impacts of Effective Communication
towards Performance of Construction Organization. Traektoriâ Nauki= Path of Science,
Razmerita, L., Kirchner, K., & Nielsen, P. (2016). What factors influence knowledge sharing in
organizations? A social dilemma perspective of social media communication. Journal of
Knowledge Management, 20(6), 1225-1246.
Anton Vdovin (2017). The Causes of Poor Communication in the Workplace. Retrieved from
Lindsay Kramer (2019). Effective Communication between Management and Employees.
Retrieved from https://bizfluent.com/about-6679424-effective-communication-betweenmanagement-employees.html
COMMUNICATION BETWEEN MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES
Farquharson, B., Bell, C., Johnston, D., Jones, M., Schofield, P., Allen, J. …Johnston, M. (2012).
Nursing stress and patient care: Real-time investigation of the effect of nursing tasks and
demand on psychological stress, physiological stress and job performance: Study
protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(10), 2327-2335. doi: 10.1111/jan.12090
This study’s focus was on the effects of nurses’ daily tasks and assignments on their
physiological health and the tempering properties that a reward system and locus of
control realize. According to the study nurses in the acute care setting demonstrated high
levels of stress in their work environment. The stress associated with the occupation and
environment has been associated with increased level of nursing illness and staff turnover
and decreased job performance, physiological health, and job satisfaction. The main
research question was were poor outcomes related to a combination of low to no
environmental control/rewards and episodes of increased psychological and physical
work demand. They defined poor outcomes as “poorer mood, increased physiological
arousal, and lower self-ratings of the adequacy of nursing performance” (p. 2329). They
utilized human subjects in their study of 100 medical and surgical nurses. The nurses
completed questionnaires, underwent pulse monitoring during their shift, detailed their
specific activities, and offered acuities of stress in their work environment.
The study detailed the need for real-time observations on nurses in their work
environment. This is relevant to my research proposal because burnout is the end result of
increased periods of stress or perceived stress in the work setting. Studying these effects
will give insight to any precedents, indicators, and possible prevention strategies.
Garrett, C. (2008). The effect of nurse staffing patterns on medical errors and burnout. AORN,
87(6), 1191-1200. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2008.01.022
This research effort discusses the practice of overtime and working greater than 8 hour
shifts by the nursing profession and possible adverse outcomes on patients. It details an
account of a nurse that worked a 16 hour shift which resulted in a sentinel event, a patient
death due to administration of the wrong medication. The error can be attributed to
possible nurse fatigue related to working overtime hours. This study looks at nurse
fatigue as an influence and predecessor to burnout. It goes on to report that the job
dissatisfaction rating for nursing is higher than that of United States workers. In their
literature review, it was identified that certain patient infections, skin pressure injuries,
falls, and errors in medication can all be linked to low nursing staffing levels. This
correlates to my research because the increased shift work, due to mandatory or voluntary
overtime, is also a contributing factor to burnout.
Halbesleben, J.R., Wakefield, B.J., Wakefield, D.S., Cooper, L.B. (2008). Nurse burnout and
patient safety outcomes. Nurse safety perception versus reporting behavior. Western
Journal of Nursing Research, 30(5), 560-577. doi: 10.1177/0193945907311322
The authors of this study focus not only on the effects of burnout on the nurse but the
behaviors associated with reporting adverse outcomes/events. Their research proposes
that reduced incidences of adverse outcome reporting by nurses compromises the acute
care setting’s performance improvement and quality indicator reviews and strategies. One
such reporting measure is a medication error report. These are produced and provided by
nursing staff and other health care professionals on a voluntary basis to detail potential
and/or incurred harm to patients due to any medication error. These reports are reviewed
by hospital quality teams and voluntarily published nationally. Their research states that
burnout is possible indicator of potential to under-report medication or medical errors due
to their decreased ease of use and time consuming nature of reporting errors. It goes on to
say that a nurse experiencing burnout is prone to a negative outlook and may minimize
the perceived harmful outcome to the patient. The outcome of their research was
unanticipated by the researchers because they found no significant correlation between
burnout and event reporting. Burnout was however linked to a perceived decrease in the
sense of environmental safety and the incidences of reporting of potential (but avoided)
adverse patient outcomes. I find this study interesting as burnout did lead to a decrease in
the reporting of near misses it did not adversely affect the reporting of an actual incident.
I will utilize this in my research because while burnout was identified in their subjects
they ultimately did report appropriately. However, streamlining the adverse outcome
reporting system could lead to an increase in reporting of potential adverse outcomes as
Koppel, J., Virkstis, K., Strumwasser, S., Katz, M., Boston-Fleischhauer, C. (2015). Regulating
the flow of change to reduce frontline nurse stress and burnout. JONA, 45(11).
The authors of this research effort focus on the importance of nurse commitment and
engagement within their acute health care setting. They state that in order for an
organization to remain viable and deliver quality care its nurses must remain engaged and
support the organization (p. 534). The researchers also found that a deterrent to
engagement is burnout. Their research determined that health care organizations can have
a positive impact on nursing and engagement. The study was conducted via phone
interviews and found that nurses concluded that their organization was ineffective to
decrease burnout because they applied strategies to mitigate when nurses had already
experienced burnout and the strategies that were applied did not address the issue of the
rapid changes to the delivery of care that nurses experience. This study is relevant to my
research proposal because it demonstrates that organizations can play a pivotal role in the
nurse’s perception of support. Organizational support and identifying nurse burnout prior
to its occurrence may improve nurse retention in the acute care setting.
Leverence, K. (2015). Become a more resilient nurse. ONS Connect, 30(4), 24-28.
This study’s author focuses on resilience in the nurse as a way to flourish and thwart
burnout in the profession. She describes resilience as “a tree in a storm that bends but
doesn’t break under the stress, bouncing back to grow and thrive” (p. 25). She goes on to
say that nurses do not focus on their own needs as they are consumed by the need to
support and care for their patients. She recommends taking a risk assessment tool entitled
The Heathy Nurse Heath Risk Appraisal to nurses to gauge their burnout risk. She also
indicates that nurses today must display technological knowledge but not lose focus on
the human touch aspect of nursing. She provides that while lack of control in nursing is
inherent there are steps that nurses can take to embrace resilience and reduce burnout.
This is helpful to my research because it offers prevention measures and identification
tools that can be utilized by nurses that feel burnout. These tools and reflections can be
applied to assist the nurse in acute care to remember why he or she may have entered into
the field of nursing.
McHugh, M. D., Kutney-Lee, A., Cimiotti, J.P., Sloane, D.M., & Aiken, L.H. (2011). Nurses’
widespread job dissatisfaction, burnout, and frustration with health benefits signal
problems for patient care. Health Affairs, 30(2), 202-210.
The focus on this research effort was to evaluate job satisfaction, patient satisfaction
rating, burnout, and its effects on nurses in different settings, i.e., hospitals, nursing
homes, pharmaceutical settings. The researchers conducted a survey of 95,000 registered
nurses to identify the way nurses perceive their job and if there was any link between
negative job perceptions and implications, if any, for patients. Of their 95,000 nurse
subjects, 51% were acute care setting employees (p. 204). The study showed that nurses
in the acute care setting that provided direct patient care “were statistically significantly
more likely than nurses in other settings to express dissatisfaction with their jobs and to
report feeling burned out” (p. 204). The study also found that the percentage of patients
that would endorse the hospital to family was reduced by 2 percent for every 10 percent
of nurses that reported job dissatisfaction (p. 205). This research is significant and
applicable to by research problem of nurse burnout in the acute care setting because it
demonstrates the correlation between high incidences of nurse burnout in the hospital and
the effect of this on patients.
Packell, K., & Narayan, A. (2013). Exploring the role of valence and regulation type on the
emotional antecedents of burnout. Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational
Culture, 4(1), 6-28.
The researchers in this study examined the relationship between nurse affect, positive or
negative, and the moderation of those emotions through behaviors. The positive or
negative emotions associated toward job satisfaction were describes as “faked,
suppressed, or expressed” (p. 6). Their methodology used a survey of 91 registered
nurses. The researchers found that the suppression of emotions that are positive were not
indications of variance in burnout. The research also supported that expressing genuinely
positive emotion in a situation was supported by those demonstrating efficiency in the
workplace (p. 22). Research also demonstrated that “emotional depletion…and
depersonalization…were the primary mechanisms through which burnout may affect
patient care” (p. 22).
This research is important to my research project because it shows that a nurse’s attitude
and outlook can have impacts on their predisposition for burnout. Maintaining a positive
attitude in difficult situations may assist to decrease the incidence of burnout.
Poncet, M.C., Toullic, P., Papazian, L., Kentish-Barnes, N., Timsit, J.F., Pochard, F. …Azoulay,
E. (2007). Burnout syndrome in critical care nursing staff. American Journal of
Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 175(7).
The aim of this research study was to study the effect of burnout on nurses in the critical
care nurses. While this study focuses on the subgroup specialty of critical care, it is
applicable to nurses that provide direct patient care in the hospital setting. The study
involved 2,497 research participants that answered questions of a three page
questionnaire by the researchers to investigate the welfare of nurses in critical care units.
The research demonstrated 32.8 percent of the participants demonstrated severe burnout.
It also found an increased incidence in the correlation between increased burnout and
This research is relevant and applicable to burnout research effort because it notes that
certain specialties within the field of nursing may have an increased incidence of burnout,
particularly those working in teaching hospitals.
Van Bogaert, P. (2013). Nurse practice environment, workload, burnout, job outcomes, and
quality of care in psychiatric hospitals: A Structural equation model approach. Journal of
Advanced Nursing, 69(7), 1515-1524.
Van Bogaert has studied nurse burnout extensively and this research entry adds to his
body of work. The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between nurse burnout,
work environment, and job outcomes through a cross-sectional research design. The
participants were given surveys to ascertain their level of engagement. The researcher
found that nurse relationships with physicians and their organization had an impact on
perceived job stress, workload, and satisfaction, and burnout. He also found that
favorable ratings of the nurse practice environment by participants was a good indicator
of positive job outcomes and an increased incidence of remaining in their hospital units
for greater than one year. This research is important because it demonstrates the relevance
of nurse/physician relationships and their impact on outlook of nursing staff.
Witkoski, A., Sloane, D.M., Aiken, L.H. (2012). The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the
higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction. Health Affairs, 31(11), 25012509.
This research topics investigates the role that longer shifts have on nurses. The allure of
working a twelve hour shift is appealing for many nurses as they are able to have more
days of throughout the week. This body of research takes a look at the effect of those
increased work hours. Their study was conducted with nurses across fours states during
the years of 2005 to 2008. Over 22,000 nurses participated in the study. The conclusion
was nurses that routinely work greater than thirteen hours per day experience higher
levels of burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave their current work area more
so than nurses that work a traditional eight hour shift. This study is interesting as many
nurses do obtain overtime in an effort to increase their salary. However, this study finds
that continuously working greater than twelve hours may be counterintuitive if burnout
and decreased job satisfaction ensues.
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