Classical 2002 Greek Art and Architecture Research paper

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CLAS 2002: Greek Art and Archaeology Topics for Research Essay Papers should be about 10 pages in length (about 3000-3500 words). At least 10 secondary sources must be used. All sources must be scholarly books or articles (i.e., peer-reviewed). Although the internet may be used to find books and articles, do not use the internet as a source. All direct quotes and paraphrasing must be acknowledged in your footnotes or in-text citations. Failure to do so will be considered plagiarism. All citations, whether a direct quote or paraphrasing, must include page numbers. Students are not expected to make an original contribution to scholarship, but one of the purposes of the paper is to develop the ability to critically synthesize and evaluate scholarship written on your topic. Avoid extensive quotations from bibliographic sources. Please refer to the style, citation, and bibliography guide posted on Nexus – failure to adhere to this guide will result in a loss of marks. See me if you are uncertain about any of these guidelines. How are we to interpret the Parthenon frieze? Discuss the architectural evolution (i.e., development) through time of a characteristically Greek building/structure (e.g., fortifications, temple, stoa, theatre). How did Perikles use art and architecture as political propaganda? Discuss the evolution of Greek mosaics. Discuss Athenian Black figure and Red figure pottery of the 6th and 5th centuries and how it contributes to our knowledge of Athenian culture and society. Discuss the influence of Greek Art OR Architecture on the Romans. Discuss the transitional age of the 4th century regarding art and architecture of the Classical and Hellenistic world. In what ways are the themes of Minoan frescoes different from Mycenaean frescoes? How are they similar? Discuss the evolution of Greek freestanding sculpture from the Archaic through Hellenistic periods. ...
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EngDuke1993
School: Cornell University

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OUTLINE FOR GREEK ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY
The paper entails the following sections:


Parthenon Frieze

This part consists of:
❖ Interpretation of the Frieze


Temple of Apollo at Delphi

This sections comprises of:
❖ Architectural Evolution of the Temple


Use of architecture as political propaganda

This part consists of:
❖ How Perikles used art and architecture as political propaganda


Greek Mosaics

This section entails:
❖ The Evolution of Greek Mosaics


Black figure and Red figure pottery

This section consists of
❖ Athenian Black figure and Red figure pottery of the 6th and 5th centuries
❖ How it contributes to our knowledge of Athenian culture and society.


Influence of Greek Art OR Architecture on the Romans.



The transitional age of the 4th century regarding art and architecture of the Classical
and Hellenistic world



Comparing and contrasting themes of Minoan frescoes and Mycenaean Frescoes



Evolution of Greek freestanding sculpture from the Archaic through Hellenistic periods



Bibliography


1

GREEK ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY
Student Name
Institution affiliation:
Date:

2
Interpretation of the Parthenon Frieze
The Parthenon frieze is a high relief sculpture formed to embellish the upper region of the
Parthenon's naos. It runs on an unbroken line around the cella's exterior wall. The execution of the
sculptures occurs in low relief. It portrays the Athenians in two marches which start at the
southwest end and assemble in opposite directions to the point of convergence at the cella’s door
at the east corner of the Parthenon 1. With a significant degree of certainty, the Parthenon frieze
depicts the Panathenaic procession. The iconography of the Parthenon frieze qualifies this
interpretation with more probability. However, there is a minor controversy associated with
individual scholars regarding whether the frieze depicts a model or a particular Panathenaic
procession.
The sculpted marble represents the Olympian gods as they sat, as the people of Athens
carved in low relief pass carelessly as they proceed toward the principal point around a scene
illustrating the peplos’ folding. The peplos was a principle garment in the Panathenaea made by
virgins devoted to Athena, the goddess, used only during the procession. Many cavalries control
the west corner of the frieze, while a group of musicians, elders, and people providing escort for
sacrificial animals, occupy the areas toward the east corner. The frieze at the door settles the
"peplos scene" in the middle, as gods, women, and heroes surround it on the two sides2. The gods
sit and are twice as big as the other figures standing or riding, and they emerge in the typical
representative mortal form that people consider usual when they see in Classical art.

1

Clemente Marconi, "The Parthenon Frieze: Degrees of Visibility," Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics 55-56 (2009):
159.
2
Clemente Marconi, "The Parthenon Frieze: Degrees of Visibility," Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics 55-56 (2009):
157.

3
Architectural Evolution of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi
The Temple of Apollo is central among the many imposing ruins interposed on Mount
Parnassos’ Southern slopes. It is a magnificent temple of the Doric order owing its existence to the
site’s turbulent history3. It underwent several incarnations before it turned to today’s ruinous state.
Its establishment dates back to the fourth century B.C. Two architects named Agamedes and
Trophonios were the first to build the temple of Apollo about seventh century B.C. In the sixth
B.C., a furnace led to its rebuilding and naming as the "Temple of Alcmeonidae."4 This was a
tribute to the noble family from Athens that saw the temple through its reconstruction with money
from the whole of Greece as well as foreign emperors. This temple also belonged to the Doric
order. It had six and fifteen columns at the front and the flanks, respectively. The Doric order is
characteristic of an unadorned, plain column capital and a column resting directly on the temple’s
stylobate with no base. The Doric entablature has a frieze consisting of triglyphs (Three-division
vertical plaques) and metopes (square areas for either sculpted or painted adornment). The columns
are sturdy and fluted.
In 373 B.C., an earthquake destroyed this temple leading to its third reconstruction in 330
B.C. by Corinthian architects, including Agathon, Spitharos, and Xenodoros. Androsthene and
Praxias, sculptors from Athens, created the sculptures that adorned the temple’s pediment. The
temple was the same as the size of the version of the Temple of Alcmeonidae. It had a peristasis
of fifteen columns along the long ages and six columns along the short edges. The foundations of
the temple exist today, along with numerous Doric columns composed of limestone (a practically
soft material) and porous stone. These materials are responsible for the temple’s advanced decay.
There is, however, littl...

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