Writing
HLSS523 APUS Lone Wolf Terrorism Discussion Response

HLSS523

American Public University System

Question Description

I’m trying to learn for my Political Science class and I’m stuck. Can you help?

Fully utilize the materials that have been provided to you in order to support your response. Responses should be a minimum of 250 words and include direct questions. You may challenge, support or supplement another student’s answer using the terms, concepts and theories from the required readings. Also, do not be afraid to respectfully disagree where you feel appropriate; as this should be part of your analysis process at this academic level.

Forum posts are graded on timeliness, relevance, knowledge of the weekly readings, and the quality of original ideas. Sources utilized to support answers are to be cited in accordance with the APA writing style by providing a general parenthetical citation (reference the author, year and page number) within your post, as well as an adjoining reference list. Refer to grading rubric for additional details concerning grading criteria.

Respond to Troy:

This is a topic that is truly one of the scariest ones we have covered in this class. Unlike some of the other terror organizations that we have talked about the lone wolf category is by far the most difficult to understand and predict. Other groups such as the KKK, Isis, Neo Nazis, and so many others they tell what they want to have happen, the have marches and rallies and they make their presence know. This is not just a U.S. problem but a world one and the definition I found describing what the Lone Wolf is a term that was popularized in the late 1990s by white supremacists Tom Metzger and Alex Curtis as part of an encouragement to fellow racists to act alone for tactical security reasons when committing violent crimes. Other terms that have been used to describe similar or comparable forms of political violence include ‘leaderless resistance, individual terrorism and freelance terrorism (Bakker, 2001). On the world stage a massive attack took place that raised two very difficult questions which came about after the cold-blooded murder of 77 people in Oslo and Utoya Norway on 22 July 2011, the threat of lone wolf terrorism has quickly moved further up on the agenda of counter terrorism officials. Two questions were raised in the aftermath of the horrible killings by Anders Breivik, could it have been prevented? And, how to discover new plots, possibly by individuals who want to answer Breivik’s explicit call to follow his example (Bakker, 2011)?

Lone Wolfs are so difficult to detect because of their isolation from normal human contact. If they were an active member of an organization then they would be on the someone’s radar. But these individuals are not, which is why when they attack it is often when we least expect it and is devastating. This type of emerging terrorism is increasingly found among right-wing reactionaries and religiously radicalized jihadists. With increasingly effective security environments, leaderless resistance has emerged as a threat and tactic facilitated by the internet and other modern information outlets. The unabomber, Oklahoma City bomber, Fort Hood and Oslo assailants are examples of this new form of terrorist (Bates, 2012). All of these examples came out of know where because they were unexpected and there was no warning. Which is why it is so hard for law enforcement to track as well because there is no warning usually. After all is said a done and the curtain is pulled back it all makes since but before or in the immediate aftermath it doesn’t. There is usually a belief system that is found that the individual followed but wasn’t an active member of the group. Sometimes they leave behind a manifesto in hopes of inspiring followers after their actions. I truly don’t believe there is an answer to the lone wolf extremist because they are not known until they carry out their plan.

Bates, R. A. (2012). Dancing with wolves: Today's lone wolf terrorists. The Journal of Public and Professional Sociology, 4(1), 1.

Bakker, E., & de Graaf, B. A. (2011). Preventing lone wolf terrorism: Some CT approaches addressed. Perspectives, 5, 8.

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Copyright 2018 by Khaled A. Beydoun Printed in U.S.A. Vol. 112, No. 5 Online Essays LONE WOLF TERRORISM: TYPES, STRIPES, AND DOUBLE STANDARDS† Khaled A. Beydoun ABSTRACT—The recent spike in mass shootings, topped by the October 1, 2017, Las Vegas massacre, dubbed the “deadliest mass shooting in modern U.S. history,” has brought newfound urgency and attention to lone wolf violence and terrorism. Although a topic of pressing concern, the phenomenon—which centers on mass violence inflicted by one individual— is underexamined and undertheorized within legal literature. This scholarly neglect facilitates flat understandings of the phenomenon and enables the racial and religious double standards arising from law enforcement investigations and prosecutions of white and Muslim lone wolves. This Essay contributes a timely reconceptualization of the phenomenon, coupled with a typology adopted from social science, for understanding the myriad forms of lone wolf terrorism. In addition to contributing the theoretical frameworks to further examine lone wolf terrorism within legal scholarship, this Essay examines how the assignment of the lone wolf designation by law enforcement functions as: (1) a presumptive exemption from terrorism for white culprits and (2) a presumptive connection to terrorism for Muslim culprits. This asymmetry is rooted in the distinct racialization of white and Muslim identity, and it is driven by War on Terror baselines that profile Muslim identity as presumptive of a terror threat. AUTHOR—Khaled A. Beydoun, Associate Professor of Law, University of Detroit Mercy School of Law; Senior Affiliated Faculty, University of California at Berkeley, Islamophobia Research & Documentation Project † This Essay was originally published in the Northwestern University Law Review Online on February 22, 2018. 112 NW. U. L. REV. ONLINE 177 (2018), https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?article=1257&context=nulr_online&preview_mode=1&z=1519320539 [https://perma.cc/VZ92-TSW8]. 1213 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW (IRDP); and author of American Islamophobia: Understanding the Roots and Rise of Fear (University of California Press, 2018). INTRODUCTION: A TALE OF TWO LONE WOLVES..................................................... 1214 A. Las Vegas Shooting—October 1, 2017................................................... 1214 B. The Orlando Nightclub Shooting—June 12, 2016 .................................. 1216 C. Two Lone Wolves, but Only One Terrorist ............................................. 1217 I. THEORIZING LONE WOLF TERRORISM ............................................................. 1219 A. Defining “Lone Wolf Terrorism” .......................................................... 1219 B. A Typology: Lone Wolves of Many Stripes ............................................. 1221 II. LONE WOLVES AND RADICALIZATION............................................................. 1226 A. Radicalization and Counter-Radicalization ........................................... 1227 B. Radicalization and Racialization........................................................... 1231 III. POLICING LONE WOLF TERRORISM ................................................................. 1236 A. Lone Wolf as a Terrorism Exemption .................................................... 1237 B. Lone Wolf as a Terrorism Connection ................................................... 1239 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................ 1242 [A]t this point, we believe it is a local individual [not a terrorist], he resides here locally. —Clark County Sherriff Joseph Lombardo‡ As far as we can tell right now, this is certainly an example of the kind of homegrown extremism that all of us have been so concerned about for a very long time. —President Barack Obama†† INTRODUCTION: A TALE OF TWO LONE WOLVES A. Las Vegas Shooting—October 1, 2017 Stephen Paddock peered onto the concert hall across the boulevard from the thirty-second floor of the Mandalay Bay Hotel.1 The illuminated Las ‡ Tom Batchelor, Nevada State Law Defines Law Vegas Mass Shooting as an Act of Terrorism, INDEPENDENT (Oct. 2, 2017, 10:27 AM), http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/las-vegasshooting-nevada-terrorism-state-law-act-police-stephen-paddock-a7978456.html [https://perma.cc/X3PH-TGMC] (characterizing Stephen Paddock, the culprit of the Las Vegas shooting). †† Julie Hirschfeld Davis, Obama Says Orlando Gunman Was Probably a Homegrown Extremist, N.Y. TIMES (June 13, 2016), https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/14/us/politics/obama-orlando-shooterisis.html [https://perma.cc/6MLL-PKPD] (characterizing Omar Mateen, the culprit of the Orlando nightclub shooting). 1 Jose A. Delreal & Jonah Engel Bromwich, Stephen Paddock, Las Vegas Suspect, Was a Gambler Who Drew Little Attention, N.Y. TIMES (Oct. 2, 2017), https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/02/us/stephenpaddock-vegas-shooter.html [https://perma.cc/R2DX-V5FT]. 1214 112:1213 (2018) Lone Wolf Terrorism Vegas Strip was a familiar sight for the sixty-four-year-old, who for years walked on the very grounds he looked down upon minutes after 10:00 PM that Sunday evening, October 1, 2017.2 Thousands of people gathered for the country music festival across Las Vegas Boulevard, celebrating a musical genre that Paddock counted among his favorites.3 One can imagine the scene: inches from the suite’s panorama window, Paddock’s stare was fixed and his stance frozen, high atop the city where he satisfied his zeal for gambling huge sums of money within the Strip’s familiar string of hotels.4 However, that evening, Paddock would aim to gratify a different kind of zeal. He stood feet away from his stockpile of twenty-three guns,5 which he stealthily transported into his suite. Minutes later, he used those guns to kill fifty-eight people and injure over 500 more attending the Route 91 Harvest festival concert.6 Paddock opened fire on the crowd of 22,000 at 10:05 PM and continued shooting for the next ten minutes—a time span that probably seemed like an eternity for those below.7 The shooting was ultimately dubbed “the deadliest mass shooting in modern U.S. history” by a number of media outlets.8 Consequently, the City of Las Vegas and Paddock’s name will forever be associated with one of the darkest moments in America’s recent memory. However, hours after the attack, before an investigation commenced, the Clark County Sherriff disassociated Paddock from terrorism by calling him a “lone wolf,” and the media firestorm covering the tragedy followed suit.9 2 Id. Amy O’Neill and Bob Ortega, The Unknowable Stephen Paddock and the Ultimate Mystery: Why?, CNN (Oct. 7, 2017, 9:40 AM), http://www.cnn.com/2017/10/06/us/unknowable-stephen-paddock-andthe-mystery-motive/index.html [https://perma.cc/JP26-YGU4]. 4 Id. 5 Barbara Liston et al., Las Vegas Gunman Stephen Paddock Was a High-Stakes Gambler Who ‘Kept to Himself’ Before Massacre, WASH. POST (Oct. 2, 2017), https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/postnation/wp/2017/10/02/las-vegas-gunman-liked-to-gamble-listened-to-country-music-lived-quiet-retiredlife-before-massacre [https://perma.cc/DG4Y-8VSR]. 6 Id. 7 Matt Pearce, David Montero & Richard Winton, Las Vegas Gunman Shot Security Guard a Full Six Minutes Before Opening Fire on Concertgoers, Police Reveal, L.A. TIMES (Oct. 9, 2017, 6:10 PM), http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-vegas-shooting-20171009-story.html [https://perma.cc/AB4QB8KD]. 8 See, e.g., Bill Chappell & Doreen McCallister, Las Vegas Shooting Update: At Least 59 People Are Dead After Gunman Attacks Concert, NPR (Oct. 2, 2017, 3:15 AM), https://www.npr.org/sections/ thetwo-way/2017/10/02/554976369/section-of-las-vegas-strip-is-closed-after-music-festival-shooting [https://perma.cc/5MZA-KEJZ]. 9 Delreal & Bromwich, supra note 1. 3 1215 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW B. The Orlando Nightclub Shooting—June 12, 2016 Before the Las Vegas massacre, the horrific shooting in Orlando on June 12, 2016, held the designation of the “deadliest mass shooting” in U.S. history.10 Shortly after midnight that Sunday morning, Omar Mateen opened fire inside Pulse Nightclub, a nightlife hub and “safe space” for the metropolitan Orlando area’s diverse LGBTQ communities.11 He killed fortynine people and injured fifty more12 during a night when 90% of the clubgoers were Latino.13 Like Paddock, Mateen, a “deeply disturbed”14 twenty-nine-year-old American of Afghan heritage,15 took his own life shortly after opening fire. But unlike Paddock, Mateen was Afghan and Muslim, identities that are routinely conflated with—and inextricably tied to—terrorism.16 Because of his faith and ethnicity, Mateen fit within the embedded profile of the terrorist, and he was “raced” as such17—acting in a purely individual capacity would not change that racial and religious equation. Law enforcement and many voices within mainstream media labeled him a “lone wolf,” but the “radicalized” variety: connected—not exempted—from terrorism.18 However, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was well acquainted with Mateen and previously cleared him from terror affiliation or involvement on two occasions. FBI agents interviewed Mateen three times during 2013 and 2014, delving deep into his personal life and assigning an 10 Maia Davis, Orlando Nightclub Mass Shooting Is Deadliest in US History, ABC NEWS (June 12, 2016, 4:06 PM), abcnews.go.com/US/orlando-nightclub-mass-shooting-deadliest-us-history/story?id= 39797486 [https://perma.cc/3VYW-U6TH] (“The 50 deaths, so far, are 18 more than . . . the second mostfatal massacre . . . according to data from Mother Jones that goes back to 1982.”). 11 Daniel D’Addario, Orlando Shooting: The Gay Bar as Safe Space Has Been Shattered, TIME (June 12, 2016, 4:04 PM), http://time.com/4365403/orlando-shooting-gay-bar-pulse-nightclub/ [https://perma.cc/SX7S-Z5SX]. 12 Hirschfeld Davis, supra note ††. 13 Steven W. Thrasher, Latino Community Mourns Pulse Shooting Victims: “90% Were Hispanic”, GUARDIAN (June 14, 2016, 1:36 PM), https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/14/latinohispanic-orlando-shooting-victims [https://perma.cc/Q54J-DVP5]. 14 See Mark Mazzetti et al., Omar Mateen, Twice Scrutinized by F.B.I., Shows Threat of Lone Terrorists, N.Y. TIMES (June 13, 2016), https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/14/us/politics/orlandoshooting-omar-mateen.html [https://perma.cc/AGN3-44E3]. 15 Orlando Gay Nightclub Shooting: Who Was Omar Mateen?, BBC (June 14, 2016), http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-36513468 [https://perma.cc/5S49-JRT9]. 16 See Leti Volpp, The Citizen and the Terrorist, 49 UCLA L. REV. 1575, 1586 (2002) (stating that “[v]ery few persons who appear ‘Middle Eastern, Arab, or Muslim’ are terrorists,” however, “[m]any men who fall into this category, including law professors, have been subjected to questioning”). 17 See Natsu Taylor Saito, Symbolism Under Siege: Japanese American Redress and the “Racing” of Arab Americans as “Terrorists,” 8 A SIAN L.J. 1, 12 (2001). 18 David K. Li, FBI Chief: Orlando Gunman Was Self-Radicalized Lone Wolf, N.Y. POST (June 13, 2016, 1:00 PM), https://nypost.com/2016/06/13/fbi-chief-orlando-gunman-had-strong-indications-ofradicalization [https://perma.cc/5Z77-WVHP]. 1216 112:1213 (2018) Lone Wolf Terrorism undercover agent to make contact.19 Ultimately, the FBI closed Mateen’s case, finding that his “connections to terrorism were . . . insubstantial.”20 Despite these conclusions, and the lack of material evidence tying Mateen’s murders to a transnational terror network or terrorist ideology,21 law enforcement and mainstream media outlets swiftly turned to the presumption and narrative of terrorism.22 In a span of hours, law enforcement had branded Mateen a terrorist before an investigation into his motives and ties even commenced. C. Two Lone Wolves, but Only One Terrorist Two lone wolves, with no established or substantial ties to transnational terror networks, were at the center of the tragic tales of the Las Vegas massacre and the Orlando nightclub shooting. These two incidents, which rank among the deadliest mass shootings in contemporary American history, illustrate how terrorism is instantly presumed when the lone wolf killer is Muslim, and the prospect of terrorism is typically dismissed when the actor is white (and non-Muslim). Race and religion stand at the center of any tale involving a lone wolf. More often than not, race and religion are the most salient factors in determining whether law enforcement will conduct a terrorism investigation and prosecution. The recent list of shootings and mass killing involving white nonMuslim and Muslim culprits has revealed a pattern in which the former are generally designated lone wolf killers, and the latter are presumptive lone wolf terrorists—a critical distinction whereby killers are prosecuted criminally outside of the counterterror process,23 while terrorists are prosecuted on both grounds. While discursive understandings of lone wolf conceive of the concept exclusively as an exemption from terrorism applied to white culprits,24 the designation can be tied to terrorism, conventional criminal investigations and charges, or both. This Essay argues that these 19 Mazzetti et al., supra note 14. Spencer Ackerman, Orlando Gunman Known to FBI Shows Difficulty of “Lone Wolf” Cases, GUARDIAN (June 12, 2016, 6:22 PM), https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/12/floridagunman-omar-mateen-fbi-lone-wolf [https://perma.cc/7B4U-FPDD]. 21 Id. 22 Mazzetti et al., supra note 14. 23 JEFFREY CONNOR & CAROL ROLLIE FLYNN, REPORT: LONE WOLF TERRORISM, GEORGETOWN UNIV. SEC. STUDIES PROGRAM: NAT’L SEC. CRITICAL ISSUE TASK FORCE 9 (2015) (“Absent political motivation, an attack would more closely resemble traditional forms of crime, organized violence, or hate crimes.”). 24 See, e.g., Chuck Hobbs, “Lone Wolf” Characterization of Mass Murders Is the Epitome of White Privilege, HILL (Oct. 3, 2017, 12:40 PM), http://thehill.com/opinion/criminal-justice/353627-lone-wolfcharacterization-of-murderers-is-the-epitome-of-white [https://perma.cc/3VGU-Y6SG]. 20 1217 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW investigations and charges often depend on the racial and religious identity of the culprit. Although both Paddock and Mateen were lone wolves—culprits carrying out mass violence in an individual capacity—their distinct racial and religious identities altered the legal effect of that designation. Furthermore, race and religion steered whether their mass shootings were pursued as acts of terror or merely criminal acts. This Essay investigates the racial and religious dimensions of the lone wolf designation, beginning with a comparative racial analysis of white and Muslim identity, and how deeply rooted tropes assigned to both drive criminal and counterterror framing of lone wolf culprits. After an examination of the racial roots of this disparate framing, this Essay proceeds to examine how the lone wolf designation deployed by law enforcement functions as a presumption of terror exemption when the culprit is white (and non-Muslim), and as a presumption of terror connection when the culprit is Muslim. In addition to investigating the racial and religious double standards tied to law enforcement, this Essay theorizes the meaning and distinct types of lone wolf terrorism. Further, it contributes to legal literature a useful typology that highlights lone wolf terrorism’s myriad forms. In addition to illustrating that lone wolf terrorism is not a strategic or structural monolith, this typology enables critical analysis of the phenomenon beyond the myopic racial and religious frames that stifle the discourse. While there is robust legal and interdisciplinary literature examining modern terrorism, generally fixating on Muslim actors and networks,25 scarce attention has been specifically paid to lone wolf terrorism,26 a pressing area of scholarly and practical concern. By theorizing lone wolf terrorism in relation to prevailing counterterror programs, and introducing social science frameworks that outline the various types of lone wolf actors, this Essay fills this void. In addition, this Essay sheds light on the origins of a double standard whereby law enforcement presumptively exempts white culprits from terrorism, but connects Muslim culprits to terrorism, as evidenced by an analysis of the two deadliest mass shootings in recent history. Part I conceptualizes the meaning of lone wolf terrorism and offers a theoretical framework that highlights its four distinct types. Part II situates 25 See, e.g., MARC SAGEMAN, UNDERSTANDING TERROR NETWORKS (2004) (examining terrorism and exclusively concerned with Muslim terror networks, although the title and phrase “terror networks” is religiously neutral; a highly influential book cited widely within legal scholarship). 26 One of the few law review articles that specifically examines lone wolf terrorism conflates the phenomenon with Muslims, illustrating the scholarly fixation on Muslim terrorists and, relatedly, the failure to theorize lone wolf terrorism as a phenomenon beyond a stereotypical frame. See Kendall Coffey, The Lone Wolf—Solo Terrorism and the Challenge of Preventative Prosecution, 7 FLA. INT’L U. L. REV. 1 (2011). 1218 112:1213 (2018) Lone Wolf Terrorism law enforcement investigation and prosecution of lone wolves within the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) primary counterterror program, counter-radicalization policing, that practically frames radicalization as a Muslim phenomenon. Part III analyzes the investigative and prosecutorial presumptions assigned to lone wolf actors, which regularly impute radicalization as the motive if the culprit is Muslim and dismiss the possibility if the culprit is white. I. THEORIZING LONE WOLF TERRORISM Despite becoming an emerging staple of counterterror policing and parlance, “lone wolf terrorism” has no consensus definition. This is due in part to the competing and conflicting definitions of terrorism, which is defined broadly by U.S. law enforcement and the military, and is theorized even more broadly by scholars.27 The term’s application drives its multivalence, often giving terrorism distinct legal meanings when assigned to white, minority, or Muslim actors. Moreover, lone wolf terror attacks are a relatively new phenomenon, “increasing from thirty attacks in the 1970s to seventy-three in the 2000s, a growth of 143 percent.”28 Therefore, popular and political uses of the term have outpaced scholarly framing of lone wolf terrorism, and indeed, those uses have preceded formal conceptualization that can guide lawmakers and law enforcement. Assessing the meaning and types of lone wolf terrorism is the focus of this Part. Section A offers several definitions, while Section B outlines a typology for understanding lone wolf terrorism, an essential first step before examining the presumptive double standards tied to the racial and religious identity of the culprit. A. Defining “Lone Wolf Terrorism” Lone Wolf Terrorism, a 2015 report by the Georgetown University Security Studies Program, provides a useful definition and framework for understanding the phenomenon.29 It defines lone wolf terrorism as “the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear through violence or threat of violence committed by a single actor who pursues political change linked to a formulated ideology, whether his own or that of a larger organization, and who does not receive orders, direction, or material support from outside 27 See generally Cyrille Begorre-Bret, The Definition of Terrorism and the Challenge of Relativism, 27 CARDOZO L. REV. 1987 (2006) (providing a th ...
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Final Answer

Hello, I have just completed the assignment. Please find attached. It has been nice working with u. Goodbye.

Lone Wolf Terrorism
Thesis statement: Leaderless resistance has indeed been on the rise as a result of internet-based
recruitment from other like-minded individuals.


Response to Roy’s Post


Running head: LONE WOLF TERRORISM

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Lone Wolf Terrorism
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LONE WOLF TERRORISM

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Response to Roy’s Post
Hello Roy, your post on the Lone Wolf Terrorism is quite insightful, and well thought.
This one kind of terrorist execution is highly undetecta...

ProfJamesmiller (20488)
Carnegie Mellon University

Anonymous
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