Writing
PSY8711 Cappella University Unit 10 Work Life Balance & HR Management Essay

PSY87127

Question Description

I’m working on a Psychology question and need guidance to help me study.

Topic:

Improve Quality of Life for Employees and Employers/ Work life balance

Applying Theory to Practice

Your final project, the 8–10 page Applying Theory to Practice paper, is due in this unit. The purpose of this paper is to delve further into an evidence-based examination of the research and practices of the I/O subfield you have chosen to study. This paper should not be a survey of the subfield you have been studying. Instead, your goal should be to examine an I/O psychology topic in depth. If you find that your topic has become too broad to address within about 10 pages, focus on a particular trend or niche within the subfield.

You have already built a foundation for this paper through your prior project activities, including your research, your Annotated Bibliography discussion and Workshop Presentation assignment, and other project-related discussions and studies completed throughout the course. Based on your self-evaluation from Unit 9, finalize your paper.

Refer to the course project description for further information, including the submission requirements. Examine the Applying Theory to Practice scoring guide as a reference to ensure your paper meets the criteria on which it will be evaluated.

Submit the final draft of your paper as an attachment to this assignment.

Note: Your instructor may use the Writing Feedback Tool to provide additional feedback on your writing.

Final Paper Structure

Organize your final paper according to the following sections:

  • Title Page.
  • Introduction: Present an overview and brief assessment of the fundamental competencies needed to practice this subfield of I/O psychology. Explain the current major trends in the subfield, as applied in professional practice (up to 1 page).
  • Literature Review: Based on your research in the professional and scholarly literature of I/O psychology, present the historical and foundational theories that support current practices in your chosen subfield. Incorporate both theoretical works and empirical studies in your literature review (1 page).
  • Theory Evaluation: Evaluate two specific theories that support practices in your subfield, referencing the professional literature to support your statements. Present the key concepts of each theory. Compare and contrast the relevance of these two theories in relation to your topic (2–3 pages).
  • Applying Theory to Practice: Discuss how you could apply each of the two theories to practice in this subfield. Present a short synthesis of methods and ideas for practice that would integrate the key concepts of each theory (2–3 pages).
  • Ethical Standards: Briefly discuss one ethical challenge that could arise in practicing this subfield and provide some guidelines for strong ethical decision-making in resolving the challenge. Your guidelines should be based on your analysis of literature on ethical decision-making practices. Cite the standards from the APA code of ethics that are related to this specific ethical challenge. Propose an ethical decision-making practice or set of guidelines that would exceed the professional standards or might resolve an aspect of the ethical challenge that is not clearly defined in the current professional standards (1 page).
  • References Page.

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11/19/2019 Applying Theory to Practice Scoring Guide Applying Theory to Practice Scoring Guide Due Date: End of Unit 10 Percentage of Course Grade: 25%. CRITERIA NONPERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED Apply theory to practice in a subfield of the I/O specialization, through the integration of key concepts and methods. 25% Does not identify or apply theory to practice in a subfield of the I/O specialization, or does not integrate key concepts and methods. Identifies the theories that apply to practice in a subfield of the I/O specialization, but does not integrate the key concepts and methods that apply. Applies theory to practice in a subfield of the I/O specialization, through the integration of key concepts and methods. Synthesizes methods, concepts, and theories into a comprehensive framework for practice in a subfield of the I/O specialization. Reviews the literature on the historical and foundational theories that support current practices in chosen subfield. 25% Does not identify the competencies that are necessary to effectively practice I/O psychology, providing historical and theoretical evidence to support the significance of these competencies. Identifies the competencies that are necessary to effectively practice I/O psychology, providing historical and theoretical evidence to support the significance of these competencies. Assesses the competencies that are necessary to effectively practice I/O psychology, providing historical and theoretical evidence to support the significance of these competencies. Integrates the competencies that are necessary to effectively practice I/O psychology with historical and theoretical evidence to support their significance, demonstrating comprehensive knowledge. Demonstrate integration of ethical standards relevant to the practice of selected subtopic. 25% Does not identify ethical standards and respect for diversity or demonstrate integration of both into a decisionmaking process. Identifies ethical standards and respect for diversity, but does not demonstrate integration of both into a decision-making process. Demonstrates integration of ethical standards and respect for diversity into a decision-making process. Explicitly synthesizes ethical standards and respect for diversity into a decisionmaking process. Write in a manner that reflects graduate-level form and style, with correct use of APA citations and references. 25% Does not write in a manner that reflects graduatelevel form and style, with correct use of APA citations and references. Writes in a manner that inconsistently reflects graduate-level form and style, or incorrectly uses APA citations and references. Writes in a manner that reflects graduate-level form and style, with correct use of APA citations and references. Writes in a manner that reflects graduate-level form and style, with correct use of APA citations and references. Presents ideas with precision, balance, logical organization, and appropriate mechanics, and supports ideas with relevant examples and supporting evidence from the literature of the field. https://courseroomc.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/PSY/PSY8711/190400/Scoring_Guides/u10a1_scoring_guide.html 1/1 Running head: IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYERS Annotated Bibliography: Improve Quality of Life for Employees and Employers Cynthia A. Jones PSY8711 - Principles of Industrial/Organizational Psychology Dr. Lisa H. Cree 10/25/2019 IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYERS 1 Annotated Bibliography: Improve Quality of Life for Employees and Employers Having a proper balance of work and life in the workplace helps in empowering the employees to be engaged, increase productivity, and will have an impact on the overall retention of employees. Bhalla, J. (2016). Women Executives on Work-Life Balance: An Analytical Study. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 5(3), 43. This article discusses how women executives try to balance work-life in the workplace. Women leaders find it challenging to fulfill the demands of their family, social life while trying to advance their careers. It discusses ways to self-manage balance of work-life and the benefits of such to organizations and employees and also gives detailed results of a study conducted to show the benefits and productivity of employees who have work-life balance. The review referenced here was primarily collected through questionnaires. At the end of the article, the author gives recommendations that could help organizations improve on the subject. This article provides an insight into the significance of balancing work and life from an employee standpoint. Caligiuri, P. (2008). Harmonizing work, family, and personal life: from policy to practice. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.proxy-library.ashford.edu This book discusses the benefits of creating a work-life balance workplace as it will increase productivity, enrich employee engagement, and life satisfaction for the employees. It touches on several points relating to the topic, such as the different types of policies, and policy developments relating to work-life balance, Integrating career development and work-family strategies, a Case Study from 2005 on work-life flexibility and mobility, and Culture change within the organizations. The author really breaks down every single topic and goes into detail IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYERS 2 of what the policy is and how to create it, to case study results, and even gives recommendations on how to implement culture changes. This book has been the most in-depth related to my topic. This would be an excellent source for any HR Associate to read if they are looking to create a sufficient balance of life and work at their organization. It shows the importance and outcomes of creating such a workplace. Diane Newman (2008). Work-Life Balance Becoming a Key Tool for Retention https://www.workforce.com/2008/05/07/work-life-balance-becoming-a-key-tool-forretention/ This article discusses the significance of balancing work and life in an endeavor of retaining great employees. The author of this article used a survey to discover how the workforce was applying a flexible strategy. She found that there were six common vital elements that swayed organization to reconfigure their strategy or plans. There are many reasons for an organization to accommodate flexible work situations, common reasons being doctors’ appointments or school visits. Companies are also allowing more telecommunication work schedules and part-time work schedules. The author identifies nine factors for an organization to be successful when accommodating work/life balance. The elements are as follows, finding their fit, an alternative arrangement that meets their needs, focus on retention, clarify responsibilities, invest in communication, Secure C-suite buy-in (Management or Executive buy-in), Equip their employees, Employee self-management, Without valued judgments and Embrace the whole employee. The author brings to light some critical elements to the topic just like the other sources I have found on this topic. They all bring different parts to my research, yet all connect back to retaining employees within the organization. This article brought attention to some critical IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYERS 3 elements within my research question. While this article is ten years old, it still holds valuable information for the topic. Lockwood, N. (2013). Work/life balance: challenges and solutions. Retrieved from http://www.ispi.org/pdf/suggestedReading/11_Lockwood_WorkLifeBalance.pdf This article discusses how programs that balance work and life improve several factors in the employee experience by improving morale, reducing absenteeism. Organizations lose employee knowledge that is difficult to replace. HR strategies to retain employees is crucial in reducing costs to the organization by reducing the need to hire and retain new employees. It highlights some of the issues that may be encountered by employees in endeavoring to balance work and life. It goes ahead to evaluate the techniques that employers can use to retain their employees and remain focused on the business. The is responsible for identifying the issues that require attention and developing approaches that address the issue. McCarthy, A., Cleveland, J. N., Hunter, S., Darcy, C., & Grady, G. (2013). Employee work-life balance outcomes in Ireland: a multilevel investigation of supervisory support and perceived organizational support. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(6), 1257–1276. https://doi-org.proxylibrary.ashford.edu/10.1080/09585192.2012.709189 This article focuses on the employee view of how the managers can help in supporting work-life balance, the number of programs available, and also discusses the HR Management attitude towards work-life balance. The article touches on how supervisors show support based on operating levels. The report demonstrates a flow chart in which HR management beliefs about work-life balance impacts and the available programs available. It breaks down the necessity of work-life balance programs being available for one’s well-being and job performance. IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYERS 4 This article relates to my first article by both discussing the associate perception, but this article differs because it also breaks down the different levels in which work-life balance is viewed by associates, supervisors, and HR managers. Recruiting Daily Advisor Editorial Staff (2018). Corporate Culture, Employee Retention Offering a Better Work/Life Balance Is Crucial for Talent Retention https://recruitingdailyadvisor.blr.com/2018/09/offering-better-work-life-balance-crucialtalent-retention/ This article discusses the importance of showing potential candidates the organization's benefits package not only to attract them but to retain them and current employees as well. The evidence provided in this article is based on the current information from Randstad US. It highlights the factors why employees decide to stay or seek other employment. The data reveals two primary drivers for this. One of the items discussed is practical elements such as pay, PTO (paid time off), and commute, the other being personal experience, including relationships. Of the two-personal experience seemed to weigh more than practical elements. For instance, 58% of employees said they would work for a lower salary if it meant working for a great boss. A vital component of this article was that workers reported leaving for reasons such as poor workplace culture like relationships and respect. This article gave many surveyed results. The article touches more on the reasons why employees are leaving their place of work and shows how the organization can do better to retain their employees based on their feedback. It provided an avenue for an organization to learn what their employees are feeling and what they need to do to change. The article relates to my research topic on a different avenue. This touches on employee feedback and the reasons they IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR EMPLOYEES AND EMPLOYERS 5 leave an organization based on work/life balance. It expresses that if an organization would listen to their workers, they might have a higher retention rate based on surveyed results. Sharma, R. (2011). Achieving staff retention and work-life balance: tips for hr professionals. Retrieved from http://www.brighthub.com/office/human-resources/articles/105706.aspx The article addresses strategies for balancing work and life and ways in which these strategies affect the retention of employees. It discusses the changes in employees` priority over time and the need for recognizing the role that these needs play in employee retention. This article requires managers to see employees as a whole and not separate them into personal and professional categories. The article discusses the necessary strategies to consider based on the necessities of the employee. Presentation: Work/Life Balance Cynthia A. Jones PSY8711 - Principles of Industrial/Organizational Psychology Dr. Lisa H. Cree 11/3/2019 Introduction • Balancing of work is a vital component of a healthy work environment. • Proper work-life balance facilitates the reduction of stress as well as prevention of burnout (Bhalla, 2016). • Chronic stress is one of the primary health concerns in the workplace. • Development of a credible balance of work and life in a work environment saves money and creates a more productive workforce. Reasons for participating in work-life balance programs • • • • High return on investment. Recruitment and retention of employees (Caligiuri, 2008). Legislation Cost and union regulations. Importance of balancing work and life • • • • • • Fewer health problems. Improved engagement. Less burnouts. Decrease absenteeism. Employee satisfaction. Attraction/retention of employees (Diane-Newman, 2008) Consequences of work-life balance struggles • Diminishing the overall happiness and well-being of the employees. • Adverse health effects such as stress-related diseases. • High absenteeism rates of overworked and overstressed employees (DianeNewman, 2008). • Negative impacts on the employee`s attitude. • Low turnover rates because of burnout. Techniques of Improving Work-Life Balance • Encouraging time off. • Implementation of short breaks throughout the day (Lockwood, 2013). • Asking employees for guidance. Ways of Instilling work life balance effectively • • • • Educating the employees on the importance of lunch. Encouraging real holidays. Providing adequate and reliable resources (Lockwood, 2013). Provision of training in relation methods. Employee benefits of work-life balance • • • • • Decreased pressure. Improved achievement of work and personal commitments. Adequate time of performing other tasks. Helping with child and eldercare arrangements (McCarthy, 2013). Facilitates travel and education. Foundational theories of balancing life and work • • • • Segmentation theory Enrichment or enhancement theory Facilitation theory Spillover theory How employers help employees to manage workloads • Making sure that the work hold is kept realistic. • Ensuring that interruptions are removed (Sharma, 2011). • Developing and promoting programs for education. Factors affecting the balance of work and life • • • • • The amount of hours that an employee works. The amount of work load. The roles and tasks that an employee performs (Bhalla, 2016). Family requirements of an employee. Physical discomfort. Conclusion • • • • Having a proper balance of work and life in the workplace helps in: Empowering the employees to be engaged Increase productivity. Positive impact on the overall retention of employees. References • Bhalla, J. (2016). Women Executives on Work-Life Balance: An Analytical Study. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 5(3), 43. • Caligiuri, P. (2008). Harmonizing work, family, and personal life: from policy to practice. • Diane Newman (2008). Work-Life Balance Becoming a Key Tool for Retention https://www.workforce.com/2008/05/07/work-life-balance-becoming-a-key-toolfor-retention/ • Lockwood, N. (2013). Work/life balance: challenges and solutions. Retrieved from http://www.ispi.org/pdf/suggestedReading/11_Lockwood_WorkLifeBalance.pdf References Cont.. • McCarthy, A., Cleveland, J. N., Hunter, S., Darcy, C., & Grady, G. (2013). Employee work-life balance outcomes in Ireland: a multilevel investigation of supervisory support and perceived organizational support. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(6), 1257–1276 • Recruiting Daily Advisor Editorial Staff (2018). Corporate Culture, Employee Retention Offering a Better Work/Life Balance Is Crucial for Talent Retention https://recruitingdailyadvisor.blr.com/2018/09/offering-better-work-life-balancecrucial-talent-retention/ • Sharma, R. (2011). Achieving staff retention and work-life balance: tips for hr professionals. Retrieved from http://www.brighthub.com/office/humanresources/articles/105706.aspx ...
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Running head: WORK-LIFE BALANCE

Work-Life Balance
Name
Course Title
Instructor
Date

1

WORK-LIFE BALANCE
Work-Life Balance
Introduction
Balancing of work and life describes a situation whereby an employee in a position of
attaining career goals as well as the fulfillment of personal experience. Having a proper balance
of work and life in the workplace helps in empowering the employees to be engaged, increase
productivity, and will have an impact on the overall retention of employees. Finding balance in
anything is a difficult thing to accomplish; whenever it comes to work/life balance, it can be
extra challenging. However, most companies have realized that such stability is crucial to
employees because, nowadays, there has been a conflict between personal responsibility and
work duties. One of the ways of encouraging a balance between work and life is through
providing flexible working options to employees which help them in designing their work
pattern to fit their commitments (Boitnott, 2015). Such a move helps to reduce the conflict that
exists between work and personal responsibilities. Some of the flexible working options include

making it possible for employees to work from home, utilizing remote working, job sharing, and
adjusting their working hours.
Several competencies are required to practice work-life balance. That is, the enhancement
of stability between work and life has to be adequately established for practical effects to be
realized. For instance, through the establishment of a workplace that promotes communication
and balance, the productivity of the employees can be increased and enhance job satisfaction as
well (McCarthy, Cleveland, Hunter, Darcy, & Grady, 2013). As such, some of the competencies
include clear communication, effective conflict resolution, proper time management, desire to
achieve self-improvement, and employ stress management strategies in the workplace.

WORK-LIFE BALANCE

2

One of the primary trends in this field is technological usage. In recent years, there has
been increasing technological usage attributed to the greater effectiveness and accessibility that
technological devices provide to individuals. Due to this, heightened connectivity is derived
outside of working hours and hence, giving rise to greater flexibility in work arrangements,
which is the leading cause of an increase in the balance between work and life.
Literature Review
A considerable number of theories have been developed, showing the connection
between work and life. However, there is still no integration of these theories into a single
compressive approach that can help in giving detailed information regarding work-life issues.
The academic body of knowledge relies on various theoretical strategies concerning the
relationship between work and life (Bhalla, 2016). These theories include spillover theory,
conflict theory, compensation theory, and enrichment theory.
Researchers argue that conflict theory arises because of inter-role conflict whereby
pressures from work and family sectors are relatively incompatible to some extent (McCarthy et
al. 2013). That is because such a conflict is caused by the fact that the needs of work-life act as a
hindrance in fulfilling the demands of family life. The enrichment theory is based on the claim
that enrichment in one sector can result in enhancement of the experiences in other areas rather
than causing energy depletion to other domains. As such, the theory examines the positive side
of the combination of responsibilities involving work and life.
Spill-over and cross over theory are also used in explaining the relationship between
work and family/personal life. Spill-over occurs when the impacts of more than one domain are
the same regardless of establishing the boundaries between the family life of an individual and
work. As such, the theory helps in explaining the influence of work and family on each other,

WORK-LIFE BALANCE

3

which consequently leads to the generation of similar attributes between the two domains
(Pradhan, 2016). Cross-over, on the other hand, is concerned with how individuals respond to
stress-causing issues arising from the interaction with their colleagues. This theory is used in
explaining the high-stress levels in some organizations since the stress of one worker can
adversely affect the behavior of another employee.
Other theories are congruence, integration, and ecology theories. The Congruence theory
is concerned with how the balance of several roles can be influenced by adding other variables
that are not linked to work and life. It thus claims that the balance between work and life can be
affected by other factors such as the level of education and personality traits (Bhalla, 2016). The
integration theory seeks to achieve a balance between work and life by making sure that all
stakeholders are active and with equal opportunities in building a platform that can boost such a
balance. The ecology theory evaluates the diverse relationship between individuals and groups
with their physical, social, and natural environments (Pradhan, 2016).
Theory Evaluation
The two theories that I selected are conflict theory and enrichment theory. Conflict theory
states that the conflict between work and life arises when the demands at work hinder the
fulfillment of family demands. That is because the pressures experienced at work sometimes
causes problems to the satisfaction of family duties. As such, a proper balance of work and life is
essential in helping an employee maintain a credible relationship between work and personal
issues. Most companies have realized that such stability is crucial to employees because,
nowadays, there has been a conflict between personal responsibility and work duties. As such,
most organizations have developed techniques to foster work-life balance in their organizations.
One of the ways through that is achieved is through the implementation of wellness programs.

WORK-LIFE BALANCE

4

Such may involve the provision of workshops that help to reduce stress and facilitate proper
management of time as well as connecting employees to mental health counselors (Boitnott,
2015). Besides, managers encourage work-life balance by advising employees to use their annual
leave well by not engaging in work-related matters during such times.
Enrichment theory claims that the experiences obtained in undertaking either work or life
roles can help in enhancing the quality of life in the other role. As such, the model endeavors to
explain the positive connection between work and family. It thus evaluates the extent to which
specific factors, such as skills, abilities, and values, or other elements such as mood and
satisfaction, helps in improving the quality of the different domains (Pradhan, 2016). However,
the variation of these is dependent on the type of benefits received, experiences, as well as the
enhancement of role performance. For example, the facilitation of work and family describes the
kind of synergy whereby various resources, including skills and self-esteem, from one role, eases
the participation in another role. Besides, the positive spill-over describes the transferring of
experiences such as skills, moods, values, and behaviors from one task to another....

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