Business Finance
UNI270 Arizona State Client Satisfaction in Web Development Presentation


Arizona State University

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I’m studying and need help with a Internet Marketing question to help me learn.

i need help creating a powerpoint on a journal for a 5 min presentation, my path would be majoring in computer information systems. all the details should be in the rubric, a sudden emergency has happened and the help would be much appreciated.

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The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: Determinants of client satisfaction in web development projects from freelance marketplaces Determinants of client satisfaction Naveed Ul Haq and Ammar Aftab Raja Received 12 February 2017 Revised 12 August 2017 Accepted 13 September 2017 University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan 583 Safia Nosheen Department of Finance, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, and Muhammad Faisal Sajjad University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the major factors of client satisfaction (CS) that are critical for web development projects in freelance marketplaces. This quantitative study is done from the point of view of the web development services clients. Five major dimensions were proposed as determinants of CS from the literature review: ease of use, user interface, information, security and privacy. Design/methodology/approach – A web-based survey methodology is used as the main data collection instrument. Statistical techniques such as confirmatory factor analysis and multiple linear regressions are used to analyze 162 responses of questionnaires. Findings – The findings suggest that all factors do influence CS. In terms of strength, security had the highest level of impact on CS, so it is the strongest determinant among all factors. After security, ease of use and information are considered as strong determinants. So, this study concludes that the five major determinates do affect CS in web development projects from freelance marketplaces. Research limitations/implications – This research is limited only to the top freelance marketplaces, such as Upwork, Freelancer, Fiverr, Guru, Envato Studio, etc. The sample size is relatively small and this study is focused on web development projects only. Moreover, this research is focused only on the characteristics or attributes of the projects final outcome, i.e. website. Practical implications – This study attempts to identify the important factors that have a relation with CS, thus giving freelancers an indication of what to look for when working on any web development project posted by any client in a freelance marketplace. Understanding the determinants of CS will also help Pakistani information technology freelancers involved in web development projects and services to increase their project performance, improve their CS rate and increment client following. Originality/value – This presents the first study on the determinants of CS in web development projects from freelance marketplaces. Keywords Client satisfaction, Freelance marketplaces, IT programming, Web development projects Paper type Research paper 1. Introduction Freelancers are self-employed individuals. Freelancers are a hybrid of employees and entrepreneurs. They are employees because they are hired by large companies to work on a specific project for a specific period of time. On the other hand, they also work as entrepreneurs for their own rewards without any organizational security or assistance (Born and Witteloostuijn, 2013). Due to the increased growth of the internet and the spread of globalization, people are now opting for self-employment or freelancing. Freelancing has become very popular among the people due to the independence, opportunities and businesses they provide including zero transport expense and easy to earn good money at home. Freelance marketplaces provide a colorful variety of freelancers and employers from International Journal of Managing Projects in Business Vol. 11 No. 3, 2018 pp. 583-607 © Emerald Publishing Limited 1753-8378 DOI 10.1108/IJMPB-02-2017-0017 IJMPB 11,3 584 different countries. The freelance industry is a fast-growing popular industry in Pakistan. According to a report from the International Data Group, about 40 percent of Pakistanis have joined freelancing because of the unemployment issues in Pakistan. Pakistan ranked third in the highest rate users in, while Pakistan ranked and fifth in oDesk. com with approximately 250,000 registered users on each site (Raza, 2014). In 2014, Pakistan ranked ninth in the top freelancer countries in Elance-oDesk with a growth rate of 10-25 percent (Elance-oDesk’s, 2014). Pakistani freelancers are offering different solutions to local and international clients for different businesses and services. In the freelance marketplaces, different types of projects are posted related to different fields, skills and professions. Such fields include journalism, publishing, photography, writing, computer programming, graphic designing, website design and development, etc. The “information technology (IT) and programming” section is one of the most important fields in the freelancing world. IT and programming involves the designing and developing of different IT systems and applications. It is one of the leading businesses in the world as it provides different software applications for high efficiency, high speed and ease in performing a range of different tasks. Different desktop-based and web-based applications and systems are designed and developed for specific client, organization or general public. In the Freelance world, freelancers work on different IT and programming projects for clients. The IT and programming sect is one of the popular categories in freelance marketplaces. In total, 37 percent of the jobs posted in Elance are of IT and programming, while 40 percent of the tech skills are in demand globally (Elance-oDesk’s, 2014). Freelancing have become very popular among software developers due to the independence, opportunities and business they provide to developers, zero transport expense and easy to earn good money at home. Software firms and IT agencies have also diverted their attention toward these freelance platforms because of the potential market and huge business scope over there. Freelance marketplaces provide a colorful variety of developers and employers from different countries. Developers and software firms can grab projects from different clients from the internet around the globe. Different types of IT and programming projects are posted by the clients on freelance marketplaces. One popular development area is the web development field. Web development projects focus on the design and development of websites and web-based applications. Websites and web applications are getting significant for all businesses because they are one of the most powerful marketing tools on the web and help any business to grow. Most people nowadays go online and search products, services and companies before they make an acquisition or even just can learn about your organization and business. Nowadays, the number of websites is increasing day by day rapidly due to the importance of the internet. That is why web development is well liked among the freelancers since besides developing a website, they also help their clients increasing product knowledge, maintaining communication with online customers, selling products or services, generating leads for the business, and increasing the popularity of your company. Client satisfaction (CS) is the outcome given by the client on the basis of a business performance, end product, final outcome or service. CS determines whether their expectations were achieved or not. Delivering high-quality service is the key in order to survive today’s competitive environment. CS has a positive impact on an organization’s profitability, loyalty of brand, repeat purchases and spread of positive word of mouth (Angelova and Zekiri, 2011). CS is considered the most important metric and measurement standard to measure the quality of your work. High CS shows that the project has met all objectives and achieved success. Even for a freelancer, it is necessary to satisfy his or her clients in order to increase client following. But, multiple factors or determinants can play important roles in CS measure. So, it is vital to recognize those factors in order to raise CS of freelance services. This study will find the factors or determinants affecting CS regarding web development projects in freelance marketplaces. This study will focus on freelance clients who hire freelancers for the development of web development projects. It will be interesting to find out the major factors influencing our freelance clients regarding their web development projects. Freelancing is a new trend in which self-employed individuals or freelancers get hired by clients for different projects. The freelance industry is a booming and aspiring field in the world because the industry is worth billions of dollars. Different projects are posted by clients on freelance marketplaces. One of the most popular IT projects posted is of web development projects in which different websites and web applications are developed for the clients. For any freelancer, it is necessary to work toward a successful project. CS reflects the quality of the project work and the performance of the freelancer. So, it is important to understand how CS is affected and what factors affect CS measure. Such factors can help a freelancer improve his project performance, customer loyalty and success rate. So, in this study, determinants of CS will be studied in web development projects from freelance marketplaces. To fulfill the objectives, the research question can be expressed as: RQ1. Which factors influence CS regarding web development projects in freelance marketplaces? To answer the research question, a web-based survey methodology will be used where a self-completion questionnaire will be used to gather data on each tested element. The main objectives of this study are to: • find and collect potential factors which affect CS from the literature; • conduct online survey to get feedback from respondents in freelance marketplaces; and • use statistical analysis to calculate the significance of each factor and its effect on CS. The next section contains the literature review of CS, its theories, importance, the freelance industry, its significance and freelance statistics in Pakistan. It also includes the existing studies conducted regarding customer satisfaction in website e-service quality studies in order to select those candidate factors that may have an influence on the satisfaction in freelance marketplaces projects. Satisfaction factors of web development projects on freelance marketplaces will also be identified and a framework of candidate factors will be established for further testing. Thereafter, it presents the research design, proposed research model, the web-based survey methodology, sample size and the target audience. And finally it presents the findings of this research which include the conclusion, contribution, limitations and future implications of this study. 2. Literature review A freelancer is a person who is self-employed and is not dedicated to any long-term company. Freelance workers normally work independently and use online freelance websites (E-marketplaces) and other online sources to grab client projects and work on them. Freelancers are considered employees because they are hired by large companies to work on a specific project for a specific period of time. They are also considered as entrepreneurs because they work without any organizational agreement or security. That is why freelancers are considered as a hybrid of employee and entrepreneur (Born and Witteloostuijn, 2013). Freelance employment offers many advantages including flexible time schedule, dynamic job planning, tax deductions and a sense of independence (Kazi et al., 2014). The word “Freelance” first appeared in a historical novel called “Ivanhoe” written by Sir Walter Scott. The novel was published in 1820 and was set in the twelfth century England. According to the novel, the word referred to a soldier (or hired lance) who offered his Determinants of client satisfaction 585 IJMPB 11,3 586 services and hit for the highest bidder. A freelancer was someone willing to propose their special and important skills to those people who were ready to pay for them. In the 1970s, the term “freelancer” was referred as a “Boundary less Worker” at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This term was given because of the freelancer having no boundaries in getting jobs (Kazi et al., 2014). In the early 1900s, freelancers were skilled professionals offering their services in order to strengthen the local businesses and organizations. Freelancers would use different methods such as referring classified advertisements, cold calling potential clients, sending out direct mail campaigns to clients and attending industrial exhibitions or events in order to increase their client base and following. Most freelancers worked solely in their local area. Freelancing was a business restricted to the freelancer’s local geographical location and community. This was the process of freelancing up until the beginning of the internet age (Postolovski, 2014). The modern word “freelancer” started to be used in the second part of the twentieth century for describing the self-employed journalists who provided on-demand services to numerous press organizations. The term started to be used for other services such as graphic design, multimedia creation and editing, advertising, marketing, etc. (Gheorghe, 2015). Freelance marketplaces as means for conducting surveys and experiments have been documented in some research works (Kittur et al., 2008; Horton et al., 2011; Paolacci et al., 2010; Walter, 2013). The users on freelance marketplaces have been used as participants and subjects and the freelance websites are ways of finding participants easily and cheaply for scientific research. Freelancing is one of the booming and aspiring fields in the world because the freelance industry is worth billions of dollars worldwide. A freelancer can start an independent profitable business with a very low investment and flexibility to work almost anywhere and at any time (Puranik, 2005). Freelancing is a great way of working since you can work from anywhere, can choose the amount of work you desire and can select the time you want to work. As the freelance culture is growing prominent with the passage of time, hundreds of freelance websites have been launched offering different freelance services. There are more than 110 freelance websites online with each website having millions of users registered (Puranik, 2005). According to Johansson (2015), the top freelance website are Upwork, Freelancer, Topal, Guru, Fiverr, PeoplePerHour, Envato Studio, etc. These are discussed as follows. Upwork (or Elance-oDesk) is the world’s largest freelance marketplace which was founded after Elance and oDesk merged together into one platform in 2015. On Upwork, clients upload their projects, budget and time duration. Freelancers bid on those projects and clients interview freelancers and agencies through the Upwork platform. In the end, clients hire and work with the most favorable freelancers for their work. Upwork offers a real-time chat platform in order to reduce the time of finding and hiring freelancers. After the completion of a project, Upwork collects 10 percent of the payment but no fee is charged on posting projects. To ensure the fair billing on jobs, a time sheet application is available that records time and screenshots during the billing process. Upwork has approximately 9 million freelancers and 4 million clients worldwide. More than 3 million projects are posted yearly, with a total worth of $1 billion. According to the CEO of Elance-oDesk, Fabio Rosati, US businesses will expend around half a billion dollars in just hiring professional freelancers in 2014 (Kazi et al., 2014). In 2014, on Elance-oDesk (now Upwork), the total freelance earnings (cumulative) reached $3.2 billion with $486 million on technology. In 2014, 9.7 million freelancers and 3.8 million clients were registered serving more than 180 countries. Half of the freelancers have over six years of work experience (Elance-oDesk’s, 2014). Freelancer was founded in 2009 in Australia. The site allows employers (clients) to post project work to get done. Freelancers can then bid for the projects and employers select their desired freelancer. Employers have the freedom to employ freelancers to work on any project from more than 850 areas such as software development, graphic designing, engineering, sales and marketing, data entry, writing, accounting and different legal services. Freelancer takes a 10 percent fee from the professionals after the project is complete. Freelancer also offers around 25 regional marketplaces with local language, customer service and currency support such as USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Pakistan, Philippines, India and Latin America. With the passage of time, Freelancer has purchased numerous crowd sourcing marketplaces such as,, LimeExchange,, Booking Center,,, vWorker, Fantero and On Freelancer, the website claims that there are currently more than 17 million clients and freelancers from around 247 countries, states and territories and currently more than 9 million projects are posted (these users keep increasing in the website). India, USA, Pakistan, Indonesia and Philippines come under the category of top freelancer countries in Freelancer (Freelancer, 2015). Guru was founded in 1998 in Pittsburgh as It allows clients to find freelance workers for commissioned work. Clients can explore freelancers’ profile and browse their previous work so they can hire with confidence. Guru offers Work Rooms which help in creating agreements, defining milestones and tasks, communicating, and sharing documents with team members. Toptal was founded in 2010 at Silicon Valley. Toptal offers examined freelance software engineers and designers to clients in need of freelance talent. Toptal conducts a screening process in evaluating good quality freelancers from around the globe. Toptal engineers and designers conduct interviews and practical tests according to the applicant’s expertise and strictly accept only 3 percent of applicants. Toptal custom matches freelancers to projects according to their specializations and client requirements. This type of process totally contrasts with the normal bidding processes conducted in top freelance marketplaces such as Upwork and Freelancer. Fiverr is a global freelance marketplace offering different jobs, projects and services. The starting fee for performing one job is $5 per job. The website is mainly used by freelancers for offering different services to global customers. Presently, Fiverr offers more than three million services ranging from $5 to 500. Fiverr assists the buying and selling of “Gigs” or jobs online. PeoplePerHour was launched in the year 2008 and since then has gained a lot of popularity. PeoplePerHour is a recommendable platform for graphic designers, developers and content writers to get good paying projects. PeoplePerHour allows clients to post “hourlies” which help in promoting business between the client and freelancers. Normally, there are fewer jobs, but the jobs are of higher quality. Envato Studio is a part of Envato which was launched in 2013 as an online marketplace for digital services. It was previously named as Microlancer then later became Envato Studio in 2014. Services include logo designing, websites design and programming, e-commerce and CMS development, business and online marketing, graphics designing, video and animations, mobile and apps, etc. Freelancers can set upfront pricing, scope and turnaround time for the services the ...
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here is the ppt

❖ Student’s Name
❖ Instructor
❖ Course
❖ Date
Haq, N. U., Raja, A. A., Nosheen, S., & Sajjad, M. F. (2019). Determinants of client
satisfaction in web development projects from freelance

marketplaces. International Journal of

Managing Projects in Business

❖ This study was carried out to identify what determines client
satisfaction in Web development projects

❖ the authors use a w...

TabbyK (9530)
UT Austin

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