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Texas a & M University Kingsville Chapter 13 Leadership and Power Discussion

Texas A M University Kingsville

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I’m studying and need help with a Management question to help me learn.

In the Discussion Forum type a 600-word (minimum) paper about Chapter 13 Power and Politics (Page 207 to page 225). What is your understanding of the material covered? Also address in your own words:

  • Contrast leadership and power
  • Explain the three bases of formal power and the two bases of personal power.
  • Identify the causes and consequences of abuse of power
  • Describe how politics work in organizations.

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ALWAYS LEARNING A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 1 24/09/16 11:56 am This page intentionally left blank A01_HANL4898_08_SE_FM.indd 2 24/12/14 12:49 PM Fourteenth Edition Essentials of Organizational Behavior Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University Timothy A. Judge The Ohio State University New York, NY A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 3 24/09/16 11:56 am Vice President, Business Publishing: Donna Battista Director of Portfolio Management: Stephanie Wall Portfolio Manager: Kris Ellis-Levy Editorial Assistant: Hannah Lamarre Vice President, Product Marketing: Roxanne McCarley Director of Strategic Marketing: Brad Parkins Strategic Marketing Manager: Deborah Strickland Product Marketer: Becky Brown Field Marketing Manager: Lenny Ann Kucenski Product Marketing Assistant: Jessica Quazza Vice President, Production and Digital Studio, Arts and Business: Etain O’Dea Director of Production, Business: Jeff Holcomb Managing Producer, Business: Ashley Santora Content Producer: Claudia Fernandes Operations Specialist: Carol Melville Creative Director: Blair Brown Manager, Learning Tools: Brian Surette Content Developer, Learning Tools: Lindsey Sloan Managing Producer, Digital Studio, Arts and Business: Diane Lombardo Digital Studio Producer: Monique Lawrence Digital Studio Producer: Alana Coles Full-Service Project Management and Composition: Cenveo® Publisher Services Interior and Cover Designer: Cenveo® Publisher Services Cover Art: LeitnerR/Fotolia Printer/Binder: RR Donnelley/Crawfordsville Cover Printer: Phoenix Color/Hagerstown Copyright © 2018, 2016, 2014 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms, and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights and Permissions department, please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/ Acknowledgments of third-party content appear on the appropriate page within the text. PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and MYMANAGEMENTLAB® are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates in the U.S. and/or other countries. Unless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks, logos, or icons that may appear in this work are the property of their respective owners, and any references to third-party trademarks, logos, icons, or other trade dress are for demonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship, endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or any relationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, authors, licensees, or distributors. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Robbins, Stephen P., author. | Judge, Tim, author. Title: Essentials of organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, San Diego State University, Timothy A. Judge, University of Notre Dame. Description: Fourteen edition. | Boston : Pearson Education, [2016] | Includes index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016022886 (print) | LCCN 2016034760 (ebook) | ISBN 9780134523859 (pbk. : alk. paper) | ISBN 9780134527314 Subjects: LCSH: Organizational behavior. Classification: LCC HD58.7 .R6 2017 (print) | LCC HD58.7 (ebook) | DDC 658.3––dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016022886 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-452385-7 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-452385-9 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 4 30/09/16 11:59 AM This book is dedicated to our friends and colleagues in The Organizational Behavior Teaching Society who, through their teaching, research and commitment to the leading process, have significantly improved the ability of students to understand and apply OB concepts. A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 5 24/09/16 11:56 am BRIEF CONTENTS PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 1 What Is Organizational Behavior? 1 Diversity in Organizations 17 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction 34 Emotions and Moods 47 Personality and Values 64 PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 82 Perception and Individual Decision Making Motivation Concepts 100 Motivation: From Concepts to Applications PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams 82 120 136 Chapter 9 Foundations of Group Behavior 136 Chapter 10 Understanding Work Teams 154 Chapter 11 Communication 170 PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics Chapter 12 Leadership 186 Chapter 13 Power and Politics 207 Chapter 14 Conflict and Negotiation 186 226 PART 5 Leading, Understanding, and Transforming the Organization System 245 Chapter 15 Foundations of Organization Structure 245 Chapter 16 Organizational Culture 265 Chapter 17 Organizational Change and Stress Management 285 vi A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 6 24/09/16 11:56 am CONTENTS Preface xxii Acknowledgments xxix About the Authors xxx PART 1 Understanding Yourself and Others 1 Chapter 1 WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR? 1 Chapter Warm-up 1 Management and Organizational Behavior 2 Organizational Behavior (OB) Defined 3 Effective versus Successful Managerial Activities 3 Watch It—Herman Miller: Organizational Behavior 4 Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study 4 Big Data 5 Disciplines That Contribute to the OB Field 6 Psychology 6 Social Psychology 6 Sociology 7 Anthropology 7 There Are Few Absolutes in OB 7 Challenges and Opportunities for OB 8 Continuing Globalization 8 Workforce Demographics 10 Workforce Diversity 10 Social Media 10 Employee Well-Being at Work 11 Positive Work Environment 11 Ethical Behavior 12 Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 12 Overview 12 Inputs 13 Processes 13 Outcomes 14 Summary 15 Implications for Managers 15 Personal Inventory Assessments: Multicultural Awareness Scale 16 vii A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 7 24/09/16 11:56 am viii Contents Chapter 2 DIVERSITY IN ORGANIZATIONS 17 Chapter Warm-up 17 Diversity 17 Demographic Characteristics 18 Levels of Diversity 18 Discrimination 19 Stereotype Threat 19 Discrimination in the Workplace 20 Biographical Characteristics 21 Age 21 Sex 22 Race and Ethnicity 23 Disabilities 23 Hidden Disabilities 24 Other Differentiating Characteristics 25 Religion 25 Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 25 Cultural Identity 27 Watch It—Verizon: Diversity 27 Ability 27 Intellectual Abilities 27 Physical Abilities 29 Implementing Diversity Management Strategies 29 Attracting, Selecting, Developing, and Retaining Diverse Employees 30 Diversity in Groups 31 Diversity Programs 32 Summary 32 Implications for Managers 33 Try It—Simulation: Human Resources 33 Personal Inventory Assessments: Intercultural Sensitivity Scale 33 Chapter 3 ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION 34 Chapter Warm-up 34 Attitudes 34 Watch It—Gawker Media: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Attitudes and Behavior 36 Job Attitudes 37 Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement 37 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 8 36 24/09/16 11:56 am Contents  ix Organizational Commitment 37 Perceived Organizational Support 37 Employee Engagement 38 Measuring Job Satisfaction 38 Approaches to Measurement 39 Measured Job Satisfaction Levels 39 What Causes Job Satisfaction? 39 Job Conditions 40 Personality 41 Pay 41 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 41 Outcomes of Job Satisfaction 42 Job Performance 42 Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) 42 Customer Satisfaction 42 Life Satisfaction 43 The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction 43 Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) 43 Understanding the Impact 45 Summary 46 Implications for Managers 46 Try It—Simulation: Attitudes & Job Satisfaction 46 Personal Inventory Assessments: Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) Scale 46 Chapter 4 EMOTIONS AND MOODS 47 Chapter Warm-up 47 What Are Emotions and Moods? 47 The Basic Emotions 48 Moral Emotions 49 The Basic Moods: Positive and Negative Affect Experiencing Moods and Emotions 50 The Function of Emotions 50 Sources of Emotions and Moods 51 Personality 52 Time of Day 52 Day of the Week 52 Weather 52 Stress 54 Sleep 54 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 9 49 24/09/16 11:56 am x Contents Exercise 54 Age 54 Sex 54 Emotional Labor 55 Controlling Emotional Displays 55 Emotional Dissonance and Mindfulness 56 Affective Events Theory 56 Emotional Intelligence 56 Emotion Regulation 58 Emotion Regulation Influences and Outcomes 58 Emotion Regulation Techniques 58 Ethics of Emotion Regulation 59 Watch It—East Haven Fire Department: Emotions and Moods OB Applications of Emotions and Moods 59 Selection 59 Decision Making 60 Creativity 60 Motivation 60 Leadership 60 Customer Service 61 Job Attitudes 61 Deviant Workplace Behaviors 61 Safety and Injury at Work 62 59 Summary 62 Implications for Managers 62 Try It—Simulation: Emotions & Moods 63 Personal Inventory Assessments: Emotional Intelligence Assessment 63 Chapter 5 PERSONALITY AND VALUES 64 Chapter Warm-up 64 Personality 64 What Is Personality? 65 Personality Frameworks 66 The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 66 The Big Five Personality Model 67 How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior at Work? The Dark Triad 69 Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB 71 Core Self-Evaluation (CSE) 71 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 10 68 24/09/16 11:56 am Contents  xi Self-Monitoring 72 Proactive Personality 72 Personality and Situations 72 Situation Strength Theory 73 Trait Activation Theory 74 Values 75 Watch It—Honest Tea: Ethics–Company Mission and Values 75 Terminal versus Instrumental Values 75 Generational Values 76 Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the Workplace 76 Person–Job Fit 76 Person–Organization Fit 77 Other Dimensions of Fit 77 Cultural Values 78 Hofstede’s Framework 78 The GLOBE Framework 79 Comparison of Hofstede’s Framework and the Globe Framework 79 Summary 81 Implications for Managers 81 Personal Inventory Assessments: Personality Style Indicator 81 PART 2 Making and Implementing Decisions 82 Chapter 6 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING 82 Chapter Warm-up 82 What Is Perception? 82 Factors That Influence Perception 83 Watch It—Orpheus Group Casting: Social Perception and Attribution 84 Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others 84 Attribution Theory 84 Common Shortcuts in Judging Others 86 The Link between Perception and Individual Decision Making 87 Decision Making in Organizations 87 The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition 87 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 11 24/09/16 11:56 am xii Contents Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making 89 Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints 91 Individual Differences 92 Organizational Constraints 93 What about Ethics in Decision Making? 93 Three Ethical Decision Criteria 94 Choosing between Criteria 94 Behavioral Ethics 95 Lying 95 Creativity, Creative Decision Making, and Innovation in Organizations 95 Creative Behavior 96 Causes of Creative Behavior 96 Creative Outcomes (Innovation) 98 Summary 98 Implications for Managers 98 Try It—Simulation: Perception & Individual Decision Making 99 Personal Inventory Assessments: How Creative Are You? Chapter 7 Motivation Concepts 99 100 Chapter Warm-up 100 Motivation 100 Watch It—Motivation (TWZ Role Play) 101 Early Theories of Motivation 101 Hierarchy of Needs Theory 101 Two-Factor Theory 102 McClelland’s Theory of Needs 102 Contemporary Theories of Motivation 104 Self-Determination Theory 104 Goal-Setting Theory 105 Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation 108 Self-Efficacy Theory 108 Reinforcement Theory 110 Equity Theory/Organizational Justice 111 Expectancy Theory 115 Job Engagement 116 Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 116 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 12 30/09/16 11:42 AM Contents  xiii Summary 118 Implications for Managers 118 Try It—Simulation: Motivation 118 Personal Inventory Assessments: Work Motivation Indicator 119 Chapter 8 MOTIVATION: FROM CONCEPTS TO APPLICATIONS 120 Chapter Warm-up 120 Motivating by Job Design: The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) 121 Elements of the JCM 121 Efficacy of the JCM 121 Motivating Potential Score (MPS) 122 Cultural Generalizability of the JCM 123 Using Job Redesign to Motivate Employees 123 Job Rotation 123 Relational Job Design 124 Using Alternative Work Arrangements to Motivate Employees 124 Flextime 125 Job Sharing 126 Telecommuting 127 Using Employee Involvement and Participation (EIP) to Motivate Employees 127 Cultural EIP 128 Forms of Employee Involvement Programs 128 Using Extrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 129 What to Pay: Establishing a Pay Structure 129 How to Pay: Rewarding Individual Employees through Variable-Pay Programs 129 Using Benefits to Motivate Employees 133 Using Intrinsic Rewards to Motivate Employees 133 Watch It—ZAPPOS: Motivating Employees through Company Culture 134 Summary 134 Implications for Managers 135 Try It—Simulation: Extrinsic & Intrinsic Motivation 135 Personal Inventory Assessments: Diagnosing the Need for Team Building 135 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 13 24/09/16 11:56 am xiv Contents PART 3 Communicating in Groups and Teams Chapter 9 FOUNDATIONS OF GROUP BEHAVIOR 136 136 Chapter Warm-up 136 Groups and Group Identity 137 Social Identity 137 Ingroups and Outgroups 137 Stages of Group Development 138 Watch It—Witness.org: Managing Groups & Teams 138 Group Property 1: Roles 139 Role Perception 140 Role Expectations 140 Role Conflict 140 Group Property 2: Norms 140 Norms and Emotions 141 Norms and Conformity 141 Norms and Behavior 142 Positive Norms and Group Outcomes 142 Negative Norms and Group Outcomes 143 Norms and Culture 144 Group Property 3: Status, and Group Property 4: Size 144 Group Property 3: Status 144 Group Property 4: Size 146 Group Property 5: Cohesiveness, and Group Property 6: Diversity 146 Group Property 5: Cohesiveness 147 Group Property 6: Diversity 147 Group Decision Making 149 Groups versus the Individual 149 Groupthink 150 Groupshift or Group Polarization 151 Group Decision-Making Techniques 151 Summary 152 Implications for Managers 153 Try It—Simulation: Group Behavior 153 Personal Inventory Assessments: Communicating Supportively 153 Chapter 10 UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAMS Chapter Warm-up 154 Why Have Teams Become so Popular? A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 14 154 154 24/09/16 11:56 am Contents  xv Differences between Groups and Teams 155 Types of Teams 156 Problem-Solving Teams 156 Self-Managed Work Teams 156 Cross-Functional Teams 157 Virtual Teams 158 Multiteam Systems 158 Watch It—Teams (TWZ Role Play) 159 Creating Effective Teams 159 Team Context: What Factors Determine Whether Teams Are Successful? 160 Team Composition 161 Team Processes 164 Turning Individuals into Team Players 166 Selecting: Hiring Team Players 167 Training: Creating Team Players 167 Rewarding: Providing Incentives to Be a Good Team Player 167 Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer 168 Summary 168 Implications for Managers 168 Try It—Simulation: Teams 169 Personal Inventory Assessments: Team Development Behaviors 169 Chapter 11 COMMUNICATION 170 Chapter Warm-up 170 Communication 171 Functions of Communication 171 The Communication Process 172 Direction of Communication 172 Downward Communication 173 Upward Communication 173 Lateral Communication 173 Formal Small-Group Networks 174 The Grapevine 174 Modes of Communication 175 Oral Communication 175 Written Communication 176 Nonverbal Communication 176 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 15 24/09/16 11:56 am xvi Contents Choice of Communication Channel 176 Channel Richness 176 Choosing Communication Methods 177 Information Security 178 Persuasive Communication 178 Automatic and Controlled Processing 178 Tailoring the Message 179 Barriers to Effective Communication 180 Filtering 180 Selective Perception 180 Information Overload 180 Emotions 181 Language 181 Silence 181 Communication Apprehension 181 Lying 182 Cultural Factors 182 Cultural Barriers 182 Cultural Context 183 A Cultural Guide 183 Watch It—Communication (TWZ Role Play) 184 Summary 184 Implications for Managers 185 Try It—Simulation: Communication 185 Personal Inventory Assessments: Communication Styles PART 4 Negotiating Power and Politics Chapter 12 LEADERSHIP 186 186 Chapter Warm-up 186 Watch It—Leadership (TWZ Role Play) 186 Trait Theories of Leadership 187 Personality Traits and Leadership 187 Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Leadership Behavioral Theories 188 Initiating Structure 188 Consideration 189 Cultural Differences 189 Contingency Theories 189 The Fiedler Model 189 A01_ROBB3859_14_SE_FM.indd 16 185 188 24/09/16 11:56 am Contents  xvii Situational Leadership Theory 191 Path–Goal Theory 191 Leader–Participation Model 192 Contemporary Theories of Leadership 192 Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 192 Charismatic Leadership 194 Transactional and Transformational Leadership 196 Responsible Leadership 199 Authentic Leadership 199 Ethical Leadership 200 Servant Leadership 200 Positive Leadership 201 Trust 201 Mentoring 203 Challenges to Our Understanding of Leadership Leadership as an Attribution 203 Substitutes for an ...
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Chapter 13 Discussion

As explained by Robbins and Judge, power is an individuals’ ability to control the
activities of other individuals. Leadership, on the other hand, is a person’s ability to inspire other
individuals to follow instructions willingly and complete tasks without having to exercise any
form of force (Robbins & Judge, 208). Leadership focuses on goals achievement, focuses
influence downward, and requires goals to be compatible with followers. Contrarily, power is
used as a means for goal achievement, power is used to gain upward and lateral influence, and
power requires dependency from followers.
Robbins and Judge divide the bases of power into two groups: Personal and Formal.
Formal Power is the result of a person’s hierarch...

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