RES/709 Phoenix Impacts of Information and Communication Technology Paper




University of Phoenix

Question Description

Assignment Content

  1. In Weeks 1-7 of this course, you developed the foundational research elements required for the initial steps in a research study. Note that these same foundational research elements will also be used as components for a dissertation study.
    In this two-part assignment, you will:
    1. Develop a research paper by adding background and contribution to knowledge sections to your existing foundational research elements document, and:
    2. Reflect on the SPL model discussions throughout the first four courses of your program to convey how the SPL model provides structure for your proposed research.
    Part A: Research Foundations Paper (150 points)

    Review and integrate the feedback received on your example research elements submitted as Week 3 through Week 7 assignments. Ensure each of your elements is aligned, and make revisions as necessary.
    Add a background section and a contribution to knowledge section to your culminating research paper. The background section should provide an overview of the topic, and the contribution to knowledge section should describe your study's potential contributions to the body of literature. Lay your document out using the following outline:
    • Background
    • Problem Statement
    • Purpose
    • Contribution to Knowledge
    • Research Questions
    • Theoretical or Conceptual Framework
    Part B: Reflecting on the SPL Model (50 points)

    Reflect on the SPL model discussions throughout the ACCESS sequence (DOC/700, LDR/711A, and DOC/705r).
    Develop a 500- to 700-word addendum to your a research foundations paper that conveys how the SPL model provides structure for your proposed study. Discuss specific moments of learning that occurred during DOC/700, LDR/711A, and DOC/705r that underlie your reflections.

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Running Head: FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION Field of study Sports and Education David Johnson 18 Nov. 2019 1 FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 2 Problem Statement The Larger Context of ICT integration in Sports and Education Technological integration in sports and education is becoming a new frontier of debate into education, sports, and the ICT sector. Stakeholders in these sectors are pointing at the possibility of giving the student access to more information, skills, and knowledge when these three components are combined with leveraging the quality of education the students get. Educators are thinking of how to exploit these windows of opportunity to ensure that ICT is integrated into the sports and education sector (Noor-Ul-Amin, 2013). Despite the widespread information and knowledge of the potential benefit of such integration, PE educators and ICT stakeholders have never agreed on the mechanism and framework of implementing ICT in sports education (Svystun, Trach, Shavel, et al., 2017). The primary concern, therefore, is that failure to bridge this gap would lead to disorientation of the efforts that have already been invested in the area. The Need for the Study of ICT integration in Sports and Education Education and sports stakeholders have held numerous consultative forums to try to figure out the most effective ways of implementing ICT integration in sports education. Pressure from multiple stake doers has led to more attention to the adaptation of ICT in both sports and education research. Today, teacher education programs on physical education, (PETE) programs, textbooks on PE curriculum, as well as journal papers provide an in-depth analysis of the benefits of ICT in education and sports (Legrain, Gillet, Gernigon, et al., 2015). Further, instructional technology has become part of the curriculum development and instructional standards that education policy-makers recommend for use in schools. FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 3 Despite all the efforts, knowledge, and opportunities, ICT has not been fully integrated into sports and education. Perhaps the PE educators’ lack of practice experience and ambiguous conceptual and theoretical framework of ICT integration in sports and education have worsened the situation. Therefore, the presence of ICT resources and evidence-based practice on the implementation of ICT instructional standards in sports and education has not guaranteed the effective implementation of such practice in schools. Some educations have also deliberately failed to implement ICT in sports and education. None the less, teachers remain the driving force that determines the success of ICT integration in education and sports (Kretschmann, 2015a). Previous studies have only examined the effectiveness of ICT on student's performance, but little research has been done to ICT integration to sports and education. Purpose Statement The desire to establish the missing empirical evidence on ICT integration in sports and education prompted the need to conduct a systematical review in this study. Therefore, this study purposes of ascertaining the relationship between the integration of ICT into education and sports to the students' performance (Kretschmann, 2015b). Among the significant issues that this paper seeks to study are how the ICT resources have been made accessible, reliable, and available for use in education and sports. This study is premised on the assumption that students have been unable to perform well in education and sports due to the insufficient ICT resources available in schools (Baek, Jones, Bulger & Taliaferro, 2018). Therefore, this study will seek to ascertain the perceived effect of ICT integration education and sports and give recommendations on how education and sports stakeholders can implement ICT in teaching and learning Research Questions FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 4 The discrepancies in ICT, sports, and education thus provides a research gap that necessitates the need to examine the implication of ICT sports and educational achievement of students in high school from the perspective of reliability, accessibility, and availability of ICT resources. Therefore, the research questions for this study would be; • What is the implication of ICT integration in education and sports on the attitude of PE educators? • How will accessibility, availability, and user-ability of ICT resources improve students’ performance in educational and sports? • Does the implementation of ICT in education and sports yields more benefit to the students • What is the effect of ICT on students’ performance in education and sports? Proposed Method and Rationalization The proposed study methodology for this field study is a two-phase research design focusing on the subjective theory framework the first phase of the study will entail the extraction and quantification of subjective theories on the integration of technology in PE from PE experts the second phase of the study entails modeling of survey questionnaire based on the subjective theories revealed in the first phase of the study to gather more information from the PE teachers on the effectiveness of technology integration in PE lessons (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). This Research Program on subjective theories has been effectively applied in both higher education and clinical setting to study sports pedagogy and PE curriculum. It is applicable when the study seeks to ascertain the reflective ability of the respondents to conduct and explain their actions. This study design relies on the implicit theories of intuition over the sports and education form the basis of the study. It combines both qualitative methods in the first phase and the FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 5 quantitative method in the second phase of the study (Dannels, 2018). The first phase of the study was the pre-study, where pre-service PE teachers will be gathered and brought together in a group comprising of two PE researchers and two in-service teachers at a higher education level. They were areas to read relevant literature and skim essential per review journals before taking part in the expert focus group discussion. They would then be asked to provide expert opinion on the integration of ICT in PE. The group discussion of the expert option will be recorded in MP3 voice tapes and then transcripts of the discussions extracted at a later date. Two PE researchers would then be requested to analyze the transcripts to extract the outcomes of the discussions to design the survey questionnaire. The model's statements obtained from the expert discussion will be grouped into survey instruments to form subjective theories on students, teachers, teaching, equipment, ICT, classroom management, social interaction, modern teaching, and innovation (Dannels, 2018). Socio-demographic theories will be added to complement these subjective theories to ensure the professional experience, age, and gender of the participants were also included in the study. The data collection method will entail the use of respondents from the secondary school setting. A total of 57 PE teachers from in-service secondary school will be subjected to a survey questionnaire using the developed instrument (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). The data will be analyzed using standardized statistical procedures with emphasizes on the subjective theories about socio-demographic theories such as gender, professional experience, computer literacy, and household computer ownership. FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 6 Study Design This step of the field study explains the study design, techniques, tools, and procedures that would be followed during the entire study process. It explains the various steps that this study will follow to ensure that the objectives of the study are met. In particular, the study designee proposed in this field study will be sued to gather the relevant information that would be used to answer all the study questions and facilitate the implementation of the recommendation made after that (Tetnowski, 2015). The study designed to be employed in this field study is a mixed study designed combining both qualitative in the first phase and quantitative in the second phase of the study. The gathering of opinions and views of the experts on the efficacy of ICT integration in sports and education will mark the first phase of this study where only qualitative data was extracted from participants (Yazan, 2015). The experts' opinions will pave the way for the use of semistructured interview questionnaires to gather data on the opinion of teachers on domains of ICT integration in sports and education. The study will be designed with a pretest measurement, physical practice sessions of the actual survey interview questionnaire, and then posttest measurements of the findings of the two phases of this study. However, the participants will be provided with full information concerning the study before signing the consent forms to take part in the study. This step will be necessary to ensure that the participants’ privacy and confidentiality, as well as other ethical codes of research and dilemma, are taken into account (Yazan, 2015b). The study will be subjected to an ethics approval by the IRB departments to ensure that it meets all the required ethical standards and procedures of doing research. FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 7 The interview questions will be crafted to take care of the narrative form of an interview to address the participants’ technology-related learning experience of various educations and stakeholders in education and sports. These experiences will be divided into seven formal domains of ICT experience with a focus on identifying their experience, opinions, and views on the efficacy of ICT in sports and education (Yazan, 2015b). The personal data of the demographics of these participants will be gathered alongside the data on their level of computer literacy and instructional technology. In total, ten items will be evaluated in the survey interview question and then pooled into a subscale. The 5-point Linkert-type scale where 5 denotes outstanding satisfaction with every domain of the survey and 1 denoting very poor satisfaction with every domain. The functionalities of the hardware or software will also be provided alongside these other issues facing the participants. For the instructional technology domain of the survey, a 5-point Likert-type scale was sued where five denotes very often, and one denotes never (Yazan, 2015). The outcome of the survey questionnaire will be subjected to correlation analysis, t-tests, MannWhitney U test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Another statistical analysis tools that will be sued in this study are Fisher's LSD post hoc test. In all these statistical procedures, the alpha will be set at .05 and then performed using the software IBM SPSS Statistics (Version 21) for windows (Tetnowski, 2015). The interpretation of the findings of these studies will be illustrated using visual presentation tools such as tale, graphs, and charts to provide a clear explanation of what each element of the study implies. FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 8 Theoretical Framework Situated Learning Theory The situated learning theory implies that students and instructors can apply technology in sports and education to think differently about the abstraction of the school learning environment. This theoretical framework provides a different perspective of understanding how subjects such as physical education can be incorporated into the transfer learning process during ICT skills transfer (Altomonte, Logan, Feisst, et al., 2016). Situational learning theory is a legitimate peripheral that can be sued to nurture and enhance the participation of students and teachers in learning through and established communities of practice. The situated learning theory explains how high school students acquire professional skills through legitimate peripheral participation, which leads to an established membership in the communities of practice. It, therefore, emphasizes the need to create a link between the social situations and the learning process so that a conducive learning environment that enhances effective teaching and learning is created (Altomonte, Logan, Feisst, et al., 2016). This theoretical framework emphasizes the need to establish social-participation to enhance the cognitive process. The theoretical framework will be helpful in this field study because it will provide an insight into how technology can be integrated into sports education to create an environment where the students have a social engagement with sports education. The situated learning theory will also provide an understanding of the proper context within which sports education can be integrated with technology to facilities an active learning process (Altomonte, Logan, Feisst, et al., 2016). Therefore, the context within which technology will be integrated into sports and FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 9 education will define the learning process and effectiveness of all instructions given to the students. Multilevel Theoretical Framework of Comparison for Sports Development The multilevel theoretical framework of comparisons of the history of sports development over the past years can also provide an insight into the changes and progress that has been achieved in sports education. Using the knowledge and data gained from the historical comparisons, this theoretical framework would give more information on the role of technology in sports and education (Nagel, Schlesinger, Bayle, et al., 2015). The historical roots of sports development over the past years would be linked to the essential elements and characteristics exhibited in sports education in high school to assess their temporal development. This theory perceives learning as an integral part of the social practice that makes the learners part of the community of practices to facilitate full participation that enables negotiation and renegotiation. It is from this theoretical realm that this field study will strive to ascertain the impact of integrating technology into sports and education to promote active learning and performance outcomes (Nagel, Schlesinger, Bayle, et al., 2015). Technological pedagogical content Knowledge theoretical framework TPACK is a theoretical framework that lays the basis for the effective integration of technology in sports and education. However, its practical implementation in any field study and research requires a clear understanding of all the representation concepts of technology dissemination. It enables a teacher to understand the effects of various pedagogical techniques of integrating technology to create a constructive environment that fosters sports education. Thus, the TPACK framework identifies the constructive approach of teaching technology content using an appropriate knowledge framework, which makes the sports and education concept easy and FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 10 fun to learn (Angeli, Valanides & Christodoulou, 2016). Thus, it is a perfect theoretical framework for this study because it will help to understand the impact of technology integration in sports and education on the performance of students. It also provides an idea of how the difficulties faced by students during sports education can be dressed with the integration of technology to achieve better performance and academic achievement. The research conducted by Rosenberg & Koehler (2015) noted that an effective and efficient integration of technology in sports and education require the physical educator to have a clear understanding of the practical theoretical and conceptual framework that would guide the implementation of such policies and strategies. None the less, the physical educator must familiarize themselves with the effect of the theoretical concepts in student learning and how they can be changed using technical, pedagogical content knowledge (TCK). This theoretical framework posits that there integration of technology into sports education will increase the active engagement of students with the task (Rosenberg & Koehler, 2015). The technological pedagogical content knowledge is a theoretical framework that emphasizes the need to understand their basic concepts of knowledge such as technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge to effectively integrate technology in sports education. The TPACK theoretical framework will thus provide an insight into this field study on how the intersection between these three primary knowledge bases with the education content can enhance the performance of students in sports education. Therefore, the application of this theoretical framework in this field study will bring into play the interplay of pedagogical content knowledge, technological pedagogical knowledge, technological content knowledge, and technological pedagogical content knowledge to promote the practical pedagogical application of technology to shape the content domain of knowledge dissemination in sports education. This FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 11 theoretical framework will thus provide an understanding of how knowledge on practical application of technology in sports education and how such knowledge can be used to build student understanding of sports to achieve a positive outcome (Angeli, Valanides & Christodoulou, 2016). Therefore, the theoretical framework will be useful in understanding how technologies can help to teach and learn sports concepts. FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 12 Conceptual Framework Sports Coaching Conceptual Framework Sports coaching conceptual framework posits that coaching enables an individual to reflect on the need to participate in any sports activities in their immediate environment actively. This conceptual framework is a retrospective account of the aspect of education and sports where physical educators are expected to train and monitor the performance of their students after every lesson (Lyle, 2018). This conceptual framework works through the application of an extensive set of constructs that link the performance of the students in sports and physical education to the input, strategies, and methods used to train them. Equally, the conceptual framework provides a comprehensive relationship between sports education models and the performance of the students in various sports disciplines. The sports coaching conceptual framework can thus be used as a basis of discourse in sports education, especially when trying to understand the effect of integrating technology in sports education. Using the coaching concepts to understand the nature of each field of study, this research will ascertain the impact of various education policies that attempt to integrate technology into sports education in high school. In particular, this conceptual framework provides a clear understanding of the construct of sports coaching as a primary model of instilling skills in students during sports education (Lyle, 2018). It will also help in the identification of the core functions that physical educators should explore. The Sports coaching conceptual framework will be used to contextualize the effect of various coaching practices and expertise used by physical educators to ensure that the students have a clear understanding of every concept taught in the classroom. It will also help in identifying how the integration of technology in sports education will have an impact on the FIELD OF STUDY SPORTS AND EDUCATION 13 policy documentation and debate in sports education over the role of technology in high school sports education (Lyle & Cushion, 2016). Thus, this conceptual framework remains a key reference point in this field research in technology, sports, and education. However, there i ...
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The impacts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Integration in Physical
Education on Students' Learning
David Johnson III
21 NOV. 2019



Part A: Research Foundations Paper
There have been significant advances in technology over the years. The education sector
has experienced substantial changes because we are in a digital era. These changes are
experienced from delivering instruction techniques and the attitude of the various methods of
learning. When appropriately used, ICT is a beneficial technique in enhancing the curriculum
(Baek, Jones, Bulger, & Taliaferro, 2018). Several studies have revealed that when technology is
used to teach as well as to learn, the students are usually positively impacted to a more
significant extent compared to traditional tools.
In the coming years, P.E will need to experience significant changes. That is because,
since technology impacts education as a whole, it could lead to an improvement of P.E. Recent
advancements in the technological field will most likely have positive impacts on the P.E
curriculum. For instance, by utilizing such advances, physical educators will be in a better
position of meeting the needs of society. Besides, when students are performing exercises and
skills in their PE lessons, PE instructors can make use of technological tools that enable students
to understand better regarding the functioning of their bodies (Baek, Jones, Bulger, & Taliaferro,
2018). However, before making use of ICT tools to teach in schools, it is crucial to address these
questions such as; what is the implication of ICT integration in education and sports on the
attitude of PE educators?
Problem Statement
The Larger Context of ICT integration in PE Education
The influence of technology in education and sport is becoming a significant issue in the
education sector. There is an increasing concern over the possible effect of technological



integration in games and education on students’ access to information. Whether in education or
sports, the learning process among students must capture both curriculum and co-curriculum
activities. Besides, the academic and co-curriculum development of students largely depends on
the efficacy of the learning methods and techniques applied. It is this window of opportunity that
educators exploit through the integration of technology in physical education to provide technical
support and complete the learning and teaching process (Kretschmann, 2016). Unfortunately, the
widespread advocacy for the need to incorporate technology in teaching and learning has
influenced educators, education institutions, and government agencies to emphasize ICT
integration in the education curriculum.
Conversely, physical educators, education institutions, and government agencies still face
the challenge of integrating ICT into physical education programs. These education stakeholders
have failed to see the need for using ICT to transform teaching and learning PE. However, more
educations stakeholders are beginning to see the obligation that the students are provided with
the ICT skills to achieve productive functioning in a setting that is information-rich and dynamic
(Khan, Khan, U-Din, et al., 2015). Presumably, these stakeholders are concerned that unless the
ICT gap in physical education is affectively addressed in time, the investments that have already
been put in ICT infrastructure may go to waste. Worse is the fear that the effort pu...

Cebs_Ubyyrl (10885)
Carnegie Mellon University

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