Writing
UCSD Gender Differences in Self Reported Competitiveness Discussion

University of California San Diego

Question Description

I’m working on a Psychology question and need guidance to help me study.

FORMAT AND INSTRUCTIONS ATTACHED BELOW. I have already completed the INTRODUCTION, METHODS, and RESULTS. Just need those remaining parts.

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Running head: GENDER DIFFERENCE IN COMPETITIVENESS A Replication of the Gender Difference in Self-Reported Competitiveness Eric T. Steiner University of California, San Diego 1 GENDER DIFFERENCE IN COMPETITIVENESS Abstract 2 GENDER DIFFERENCE IN COMPETITIVENESS Insert Introduction to begin on page 3. Don’t include the heading ‘Introduction’. Method Participants Yada yada yada Procedure Yada yada yada Result Yada yada yada Discussion Yada yada yada 3 GENDER DIFFERENCE IN COMPETITIVENESS References 4 1 APA Full Research Report Instructions Your full research report, due by 11pm on Nov. 27th should be a single Word/PDF document that includes the following in order: • • • • • • • Title page Abstract, on a separate page Introduction (It won’t be regraded but it needs to be included.) Method (It won’t be regraded but it needs to be included.) Results (It won’t be regraded but it needs to be included.) Discussion References, on a separate page It should have one-inch margins and be typed in Times New Roman 12-point font, double spaced. Title Page - Type ‘Running head:’ in the top left header followed by an abbreviated version of your title in all caps, no more than 50 characters long. - Insert page numbers in the header on the right side. - In the body of your title page, type the full title of your paper, and on the next line type your name, and on the next line type your affiliation: University of California, San Diego. - Center your title, name, and affiliation lengthwise and widthwise on your page. - You can use the title in my example or make up your own title. Abstract - Include the heading ‘Abstract’ in bold, centered at the top of the page. After you’ve completed the Discussion section, type a one paragraph summary of your entire paper. It should be at least four sentences and include: - What you did, i.e., you replicated a study examining gender differences in self-reported competitiveness. - How you did it, i.e., summarize your methods section in 1–3 sentences. - What you found, i.e., describe your results without any statistical notation. - A sentence about the overall implication, not the overall result. Think about the most important line or general conclusion from your discussion section. - Hint: Read a few research report abstracts to give you an idea of how these are worded. Introduction Copy and paste your Introduction section. It should begin on a new page after the abstract. 2 Methods Copy and paste your Methods section. It should begin immediately after the Introduction section; not on a new page. Results Copy and paste your Results section. It should begin immediately after the Methods section; not on a new page. Discussion - Write 1.5 pages that begins by interpreting the Results section. Discussion sections typically do not include statistical notation or details about the kinds of analyses used. They begin just by describing what you found. - Discuss if the results are consistent with previous research. If so, what does this mean? If not, why? And what does that mean? - Provide a paragraph on the limitations/weaknesses of the study. Suggestions: - The limitations of surveys and self-report - The limitation of our sample of participants, e.g., having used a narrow range of ages - The limitation of convenience sampling - Provide a paragraph suggesting future studies. The suggestions should be relevant to this study. Future direction suggestions are often in light of the limitations, e.g., instead of using self-report, consider using experimental or naturalistic observation designs. - The final paragraph of a research report often moves from specific results to general conclusions. That is, given our findings, can you provide any broader implications about gender differences? Perhaps you can draw a wider-reaching conclusion about the relevance of the study to the issue of gender differences in applied contexts or for theoretical purposes. - You may recite the sources you used earlier in the paper, e.g., to note that the findings were or were not consistent with other research, but you must also cite two sources in the Discussion section that were not previously cited in the paper. Options are provided in the ‘Article Repository’ folder on TritonEd, though you’re free to find your own peer-reviewed scientific articles. Further details about the discussion section: - Stick with facts, do not include your opinion, and do not refer to yourself, e.g., by using “I” or “my” and so forth. - Don’t use contractions like ‘don’t’. - Spelling, grammar, punctuation, etc. count. - When you’re finished, review it to make sure one sentence flows clearly and logically to the next; likewise with each paragraph. 3 APA Style Use the same style that you used in the Introduction regarding putting authors’ names in parentheses or not. See below. One author: Smith (2016) noted that… or One study noted that…(Smith, 2016). Two authors: Smith and Jones (2017) noted that… or One study noted that…(Smith & Jones, 2017). Three to five author cases use the following format. In this example there are three authors: First citation: Smith, Jones, and Barnes (2018) noted that… or First citation: One study noted that…(Smith, Jones, & Barnes, 2018). Subsequent citations: Smith et al. (2018) noted that… or One study noted that…(Smith et al., 2018) Six or more authors uses the same format for the first and all subsequent citations: Miller et al. (2019) noted that… or One study noted that…(Miller et al., 2019) References On a separate page, include the heading ‘References’ in bold, centered. Then list your sources alphabetized, in APA format. Everything should be double-spaced. Below is an example: Houston, J. M., Harris, P. B., Moore, R., Brummett, R., & Kametani, H. (2005). Competitiveness among Japanese, Chinese, and American Undergraduate Students. Psychological Reports, 97(1), 205–212. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.97.1.205-212 - Here is my favorite resource for APA format: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/ge neral_format.html Gender Differences in Self-Reported Competitiveness The contemporary world is characterized by significant developments with the most notable ones being in the technology sector, as illustrated by massive inventions and innovations, typically making life easier, and processes more efficient. However, behind these achievements are usually hardworking individuals focused on achieving goals that had otherwise been considered unachievable. Unlike in the olden days when roles were defined based on gender, thereby leaving women out of the professional sector, the current world is more diverse. It has exhibited women who perform equally as good as their male counterparts. Yet, there still exists questions regarding how competitive either gender is. This situation prompts the evaluation of whether or not there exists any difference in self-reported competitiveness among the different genders. According to Houston, Harris, Moore, and Brummett (2005), competitiveness refers to the desire that people have to win in interpersonal situations. It is this desire that drives every person to increase his/her efforts in every chore that he/she engages in with the primary objective of achieving some pre-set goals or reigning supreme above competitors, colleagues, or peers. Because most research on competitiveness had involved cultures within America, Houston et al. (2005) decided to study the same topic of competitiveness across different genders for cultures outside America, including China and Japan. Apart from discovering that American students had higher scores than their Chinese and Japanese counterparts regarding enjoyment of competition, Houston et al. (2005) also identified that men generally enjoy competition than women because the former scored higher than the latter in the same test. Therefore, they concluded that sex and culture influence only some aspects of competitiveness. Niederle and Vesterlund (2019) also voiced their opinions regarding the differences in competitiveness between the different genders. In their article “​Do women shy away from competition? Do men compete too much?” ​the authors presented results of an evaluation they did to test how much men value competition against their female counterparts. In the study, Niederle and Vesterlund (2019) gave two categories of tests; one “a noncompetitive piece and the other a competitive tournament” to both men and women. 73% of the men opted for the tournament while only 35% of the women selected the tournament, a result that Niederle and Vesterlund (2019) say is because of men’s nature of overconfidence and like to perform in competitions. As a result, they concluded that while women usually shy from competitions, men readily embrace it, thus illustrating the gender differences in competitiveness. In another study, Flory, Gneezy, Leonard, and List (2018) noted that older women were more competitive than their younger counterparts; however, the same study found that those older women exhibited an equally strong taste for competition as men. These authors, therefore, concluded that it beat logic and also misleading to compare competitiveness in a simple gender-based view because age also plays a critical role, as other factors also do. Finally, Apicella, Demiral, and Mollerstrom (2017) researched on the willingness to self-compete (the competition against oneself) and others-compete (competition between self and other individuals) across different genders and found that there existed no difference in the willingness to self-compete. However, they noted that the differences occur when competing against others, with males showing more desire to compete than females. This paper, therefore, seeks to determine whether or not the findings on gender differences in self-reported competitiveness will be replicated. Since most of the studies reviewed above have revealed more instances of existing gender differences when comparing competitiveness, this study will most likely replicate the findings from Houston et al. on the gender differences in self-reported competitiveness. Methods Participants The study engaged undergraduate students from a large Western U.S. University to accomplish to collect data for the research. In obtaining the sample, the researcher employed a convenience sampling technique. A total of 214 participants got sampled for this research, among them were 152 women, 58 men, two non-binary individuals, and two undisclosed individuals. The participants sampled had ages ranging from 18 to 47 years old. The standard deviation of the age sample was 2.81 while the mean was determined as 20.22. In addition, the sampled population consisted of 94 Asian/Asian American, 48 White/Caucasian, 41 Hispanic/Chicanx, 16 Mixed, eight Other, five Black/African American and two undisclosed. Procedure The participants were asked to complete an online version of the Revised Competitiveness Index (RCI) (Houston, Harris, McIntire, & Francis, 2002). RCI is a 14-item survey that measures the competitiveness in contentiousness and enjoyment of competition. A 5-point Likert-type scale was provided for response. This ranged from: Strongly Disagree to Agree Strongly. The RCI has demonstrated good test-retest reliability (​r​=.85) over an approximate 2.5-5-week period (Harris & Houston, 2010). Besides, the RCI has a greater construct validity (Houston et al.,2002). Results From the study, an independent-sample ​t-​ test revealed that the reporting rate of men was much higher than women. The overall competitiveness of women in the study was dismal compared to men. The ​t-​ test showed that the overall competitiveness of women was ​t(​ 208)=2.46, ​p​= .02. Besides, the enjoyment of competition was established as ​t​(208) = 2.93, ​p= ​ .004. There was an insignificant difference between the genders in contentiousness, ​t​(208)= .58, ​p​=.56 ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Gender Differences in Self-Reported Competitiveness - Outline
Thesis Statement: The study, therefore, concludes that there exist no significant differences in
self-reported competitiveness between male and female genders.
I. Introduction
II. Methods
III. Results
IV. Discussion


Running head: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPETITIVENESS

Gender Differences in Self-Reported Competitiveness
Name
Institution

1

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPETITIVENESS

2

Abstract
This study was informed by the need to replicate findings that the male gender is more
competitive than the female gender. The study utilized a reliable survey tool to test for
competitiveness among students in a Western U.S university. This self-reported study was
completed online and mailed to the researcher. Overall, the study shows that there are no
significant differences between men and women in terms of competitiveness and hence previous
studies affirming such differences could not be replicated.

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPETITIVENESS

3

Gender Differences in Self-Reported Competitiveness
The contemporary world is characterized by significant developments with the most
notable ones being in the technology sector, as illustrated by massive inventions and innovations,
typically making life easier, and processes more efficient. However, behind these achievements
are usually hardworking individuals focused on achieving goals that had otherwise been
considered unachievable. Unlike in the olden days when roles were defined based on gender,
thereby leaving women out of the professional sector, the current world is more diverse. It has
exhibited women who perform equally as good as their male counterparts. Yet, there still exists
questions regarding how competitive either gender is. This situation prompts the evaluation of
whether or not there exists any difference in self-reported competitiveness among the different
genders.
According to Houston et al. (2005), competitiveness refers to the desire that people have
to win in interpersonal situations. It is this desire that drives every person to increase his/her
efforts in every chore that he/she engages in with the primary objective of achieving some preset goals or reigning supreme above competitors, colleagues, or peers.
Because most research on competitiveness had involved cultures within America, Houston et al.
(2005) decided to study the same topic of competitiveness across different genders for cultures
outside America, including China and Japan. Apart from discovering that American students had
higher scores than their Chinese and Japanese counterparts regarding enjoyment of competit...

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