Health Medical
Florida International University Therapeutic Massage Therapy Paper

Florida International University

Question Description

I need help with a Health & Medical question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Assignment: Attached there will be an Assignment #4 (Finding Data) in which there is a rubric you must follow explaining the assignment.

*****There will also be attached three other documents that will help you understand the whole assignment. Assignment #3 explains the methods, Assignment #2 in a quick literature review and Pain Management document is the one that will help the most. *****

For each written assignment make sure you address all required instructions/criteria as noted within each assignment located within the assignment instructions/grading rubric.

There's no specific amount of pages and or word count for each assignment. Address all questions presented and if the instructions/criteria states a paragraph make sure your paragraphs consist of minimum of five complete sentences.

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Title Here Student Name (First and Last) Panther ID Florida International University Month Year Findings Briefly introduce your research topic. While this may seem redundant at each section, it is important to remind the reader at the beginning of each section. The following section will discuss the limitations, use and applications of findings, and recommendations of the research. This section requires one paragraph in length. Limitations Discuss the limitations of your study. Do not leave this paragraph empty; there are always limitations (e.g. time, funding, scope, etc.). This section requires one paragraph in length. Use and Application of Findings Summarize your findings from your research. (For example: The use and application of these findings may contribute to…by….). This section requires one paragraphs in length. There should be at least 3 recommendations (each a separate paragraph). Recommendation 1: Thinking outside the box, think of what recommendations you can make to improve the problem you have identified previously. Elaborate why your recommendation is appropriate. This section requires one paragraph in length. Recommendation 2: Thinking outside the box, think of what recommendations you can make to improve the problem you have identified previously. Elaborate why your recommendation is appropriate. . This section requires one paragraph in length. Recommendation 3: Thinking outside the box, think of what recommendations you can make to improve the problem you have identified previously. Elaborate why your recommendation is appropriate. . This section requires one paragraph in length. Conclusion Summarize your research study/topic here. Your conclusion may end up being a few pages, depending on the length of your research. This section requires a minimum of two paragraph in length. References Remember that any reference in your reference list must be present in your paper in the form of a citation (Author, year). Likewise, any citation in your paper must be present in your reference list. Refer to your APA Handbook 6th edition for more detailed information on developing a reference list. For your Assignment 4 you need a minimum of Four (4) scholarly references. Assignment 4 Grading Rubric: Findings Criteria Points Possible Title of Proposed Topic/Research 10 Findings 10 Limitations 10 Use and Application of Findings 10 Recommendation 1: 10 Recommendation 2: 10 Recommendation 3: 10 Conclusion 20 References (Four Required) 10 Deductions: APA formatting, Spelling/Grammar/Punctuation at the College Level, Originality etc. Total Points Possible - 100 Running head: PAIN MANAGEMENT The Effectiveness of Therapeutic Massage Therapy in Pain Management 1 PAIN MANAGEMENT 2 The Effectiveness of Therapeutic Massage Therapy in Pain Management Method Chronic pain has attracted substantial attention in the United States, with major attention given to methods that people can use to manage it effectively. Much of the attention arises given its adverse impacts on the health of people and the economy of the country. For instance, research indicates that chronic pain is one of the major causes of disability and high-rate of hospitalization (Neogi, 2013). As such, both the government and families spend significant resources in trying to manage the health issue. These factors, among other adverse outcomes, have called for research into effective methods of managing chronic pain. Therapeutic massage therapy is one such method that has attracted the attention of researchers currently. This method aims to restore the biomechanical and functional mechanisms of the body through the mobilization of soft body tissues such as muscles. Researchers have premised that therapeutic massage therapy can reduce body pain in tendons and muscles, joint pains, anxiety and stress, and brain-related pain among others (Gentile et al., 2018). Therefore, the present project aims to study the effectiveness of therapeutic massage therapy in pain management to improve clinical decisions regarding the management of such pain. Research Method and Design Appropriateness Various research methods exist that can be used to pursue the objective of this project. These methods are underpinned by two dominant designs, including quantitative and qualitative research designs. Whereas quantitative design aims to reveal facts about social phenomena, the qualitative design offers a context for understanding the behavior of people based on personal experiences (Eyisi, 2016). As such, quantitative designs tend to perceive reality as fixed and measurable while qualitative designs project realities as negotiated constructs (Salvador, 2016). PAIN MANAGEMENT 3 Correspondingly, data collection in quantitative design occurs through the measurement of variables while interviews and observations are predominantly used in qualitative design to obtain information from participants. Based on the applications of these designs, therefore, the present research project will utilize quantitative research design given that the primary objective is to determine the effectiveness of therapeutic massage therapy and possibly advocate for its adoption over opioids. A qualitative design will offer a context where the researcher can determine whether therapeutic massage therapies can replace opioids in the management of pain objectively (Salvador, 2016). Unlike qualitative design, the quantitative design promotes objectivity by minimizing biases that can result from the researcher’s and respondent’s subjectivity (Eyisi, 2016). Besides, the quantitative design will be useful for validating existing theories regarding the use of therapeutic massage therapy to manage chronic pain. Lastly, quantitative data can be replicated by other researchers, given that the rate of ambiguity in interpretation is low. Population The present research focuses on validating the effectiveness of therapeutic massage therapy. Therefore, the appropriate population includes people who have ever managed chronic pain using therapeutic massage therapy. It also includes healthcare professionals who have ever used therapeutic massage therapy to manage the chronic pain of patients. The researcher will focus on a wide geographical area to achieve proper representation of participants from different groups. The wide geographic area will also enable the researcher to recruit as many respondents as possible to achieve reliable results. For this research, it is determined that focusing on the population from a wide geographical area will promote the reliability of data (Kelley, Clark, Brown, & Sitzia, 2013). The PAIN MANAGEMENT 4 argument is that therapeutic massage therapy may not be a trend in one section of the country. Therefore, focusing on that section alone may compromise the reliability of outcomes. Correspondingly, the method may not be implemented correctly in one region compared to others. It follows that focusing on that region alone may also compromise the reliability of outcomes (Faber & Fonseca, 2014). Therefore, the researcher will collect reliable data by focusing on a wide geographical area. Sampling Frame The objective of the sampling process is to promote the reliability of data given the sensitive nature of the objective of the research. The objective is to validate the effectiveness of therapeutic massage therapy as an effective method of managing chronic pain. As such, a realistic sample frame will be required to achieve this objective. The researcher proposes a broad sample frame picked from various parts of the country. The sample frame should include at least 50 participants picked from various sections of the country. The sample frame should also include both people who have used therapeutic massage therapy to manage their pain, as well as health professionals who have used the method to manage the conditions of their patients. Data Collection Questionnaires or surveys will be used to obtain quantitative data from participants. This data collection method is ideal to this study compared to interviews given that it will enable the researcher to engage a large sample conveniently. Surveys are easy and affordable to administer compared to interviews that require face-to-face meetings or media mediated communication. As such, the lower they minimize the cost of researching a large sample (Ponto, 2015). Correspondingly, surveys are convenient to participants because they can be answered at PAIN MANAGEMENT 5 convenient periods unlike interviews (Bird, 2009). Besides, surveys can contain a large amount of data whereas the amount of data obtained from interviews depend on the period of the activity. Additionally, and importantly, questionnaires can be sent to many people, whereas the number of people that can be engaged in interviews depends on resource availability (Bird, 2009). Comparatively, interviews will require participants to use their resources to access the venue of interviews. Alternatively, the researcher will spend substantial resources to access participants for interviews. Correspondingly, questionnaires promote free expression than interviews (Ponto, 2015). In interviews, some people may be too concerned about their political, social, and economic relevance, thus compromising the quality of the responses they provide. Data Analysis The analysis of quantitative data relies on numerical data to outline the relationships that exist among variables (Cibois, 2013). In this case, ordinal scales will be included in surveys to help participants rate the effectiveness of therapeutic massage therapy. This approach will enable the researcher to use a cross-tabulation method to identify existing relationships or lack of relationships between the variables in the research (White, 2004). In this case, the researcher will use software applications such as SPSS to draw inferences from different sets of data. Data will be grouped depending on their mutual exclusiveness or shared characteristics to form themes that describe the level of effectiveness of therapeutic massage therapy. PAIN MANAGEMENT 6 References Bird, D. K. (2009). The use of questionnaires for acquiring information on public perception of natural hazards and risk mitigation–a review of current knowledge and practice. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9(4), 1307-1325. https://www.nat-hazards-earthsyst-sci.net/9/1307/2009/nhess-9-1307-2009.pdf Cibois, P. (2013). An Order on Cross-Tabulations and Degrees of Association. Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 119(1), 24-43. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0759106313486403?journalCode=bmsa Eyisi, D. (2016). The Usefulness of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches and Methods in Researching Problem-Solving Ability in Science Education Curriculum. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(15), 91-100. Faber, J., & Fonseca, L. M. (2014). How sample size influences research outcomes. Dental press journal of orthodontics, 19(4), 27-29. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S217694512014000400027&script=sci_arttext Gentile, D., Boselli, D., O'Neill, G., Yaguda, S., Bailey-Dorton, C., & Eaton, T. A. (2018). Cancer pain relief after healing touch and massage. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 24(9-10), 968-973. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2018.0192 Kelley, K., Clark, B., Brown, V., & Sitzia, J. (2003). Good practice in the conduct and reporting of survey research. International Journal for Quality in health care, 15(3), 261-266. https://academic.oup.com/intqhc/article/15/3/261/1856193 Neogi, T. (2013). The epidemiology and impact of pain in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis and cartilage, 21(9), 1145-1153. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3753584/ PAIN MANAGEMENT Ponto, J. (2015). Understanding and evaluating survey research. Journal of the advanced practitioner in oncology, 6(2), 168-171. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4601897/pdf/jadp-06-168.pdf Salvador, J. T. (2016). Exploring quantitative and qualitative methodologies: A guide to novice nursing researchers. European Scientific Journal, 12(18), 107-122. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/efdb/0e850cbe6d3c22e8f6a3bf3246f75d972243.pdf White, D. R. (2004). A Student's Guide to Statistics for Analysis of Cross-Tabulations. World Cultures, 14(2), 179-193. http://eclectic.ss.uci.edu/~drwhite/pub/14-2white2.pdf 7 Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW Effectiveness of Therapeutic massage therapy in chronic pain management 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 2 Introduction A literature review is a comprehensive summary of research conducted on a particular topic of interest. A literature review provides a survey of various sources, scholarly articles, and books related to the topic of interests to give a theoretical base of conducting the research. A literature review thus enables a researcher to determine the conceptual and theoretical framework that would guide the current study topic. This literature review will provide an overview of three concepts that stood out in the various literature to be used in this study. The literature concepts reviewed are the outcome measurements and effectiveness of massage therapy, as well as the difficulty of choosing the comparators used to measure the effectiveness of massage therapy. The third concept reviewed is the relationship between massage vs active comparators. Literature Issue 1: Outcome Measurements and Effectiveness The research conducted by Boitor, Martorella, Laizner, et al. (2016) found that it is difficult to choose the comparators used to measure the efficacy of massage therapy when relieving chronic pain. In their study, the authors focused on the standard care of controlled groups to ascertain the efficacy of massage therapy in improving the outcomes of chronic pain management. The study involved the application of massage therapy by a qualified therapist as specified by Systematic Reviews of Cochrane. However, the review failed to illustrate the benefits of massage therapy. Therefore, outcome measures and the effectiveness of massage therapy remains uncertain. Boitor, Martorella, Laizner, et al. (2016) further suggested that a touch control group would be effective in verifying if the additional manipulation of massage therapy. This research points out the possibility of achieving an effective chronic pain management outcome through touch massage therapy. The propose touch massage therapy is a free intervention that is easily LITERATURE REVIEW 3 administered without the help of a trained therapist. Kumar, Beaton & Hughes (2013) noted that the effectiveness of massage therapy when used to treat subacute, mixed acute pain, and chronic nonspecific symptoms of lower back pain among adults remain scanty. The research concluded that there is a high probability that touch massage therapy could be effective than other placebo measures of pain management variables The research conducted by Kumar, Beaton & Hughes (2013) also established that spinal manipulative therapy could be more effective than massage therapy in reducing pain. However, this is a nonsignificant findings which cannot eliminate the effect of the placebo massage. Besides, the research established that spinal manipulative therapy causes fewer days of sick leave as compared to friction massage when administered as a single session. The findings imply that the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy could be more than massage therapy, at least going by the outcome measures of this placebo. Therefore, this study established that spinal manipulation therapy has a nonsignificant advantage over myofascial therapy for when used as a therapy to manage pain and reduce disability reduction. Literature Issue 2: Difficult To Choose the Comparators Used To Measure the Efficacy of Massage Therapy The findings of Boitor, Martorella, Laizner, et al. (2016) established that active comparators are pain management intervention with high potential relieving chronic pain. The authors recommend and should, therefore, be used as a dynamic future RCT design control group to examine further the relative efficacy of massage therapy in relieving chronic pain. This recommendation is premised on the assumption that the touch control group would help the study to mask patients from their respectively assigned groups. In essence, Boitor, Martorella, Laizner, et al. (2016) argue that the patients should be masked the make them perceive the LITERATURE REVIEW 4 intervention as an actual massage. It is believed that masking the intervention would help in placing the placebo effect under control. The findings on active comparator were affirmed by Sheidaei, Abadi, Zayeri, Nahidi, Gazerani, & Mansouri (2016), who observed that the efficacy of massage therapy when managing chronic pain is unclear. According to these authors, the ambiguous information on whether most outcome measures were more responsive to massage or sham laser acupuncture is to blame for the difficulty in selecting a comparator. None the less it is clear that the authors failed to provide a comparison between sham lasers and massage conditions. The implication of this gap is that it is impossible to determine whether massage therapy is more effective than a placebo condition. Therefore, outcome measurement of the efficacy of massage therapy is an estimate, rather than a scale of variables based on specific outcomes. Sheidaei et al. (2016), further affirmed that it is not possible to determine the effectiveness of using massage therapy when treating symptoms of infantile colic. The comparison of massage therapy and rocking intervention revealed that rocking was more effective when regression analysis was used. However, this finding was later contradicted with the outcome of a more accurate exploration which notes that massaging was more effective than rocking. The subsequent findings were premised on the significant improvement recorded in all colic symptoms when massage therapy was used. The study further pointed out to the possibility that placebo that the potential of improving colic cries among colicky infants. Literature Issue 3: Massage vs. Active Comparator(s) The research conducted by Ramesh, Pai, Patil, Nayak, George, George, & Devi (2015) (2015) established that the effectiveness of outcome measures depends on the variables used in the comparators. Therefore, the comparator variables that were proposed for measuring massage LITERATURE REVIEW 5 therapy are the level of the length of hospital stay, anxiety, and blood pressure. Other comparator variables proposed by this study are pain, patient satisfaction, muscular tension, relaxation, respiration rate, heart rate, sleep, and the use of sedatives. These are the key outcome measure for ascertaining the efficacy of massage therapy as a chronic pain management intervention. Future studies should examine variables used to compare the efficacy of other comparator variables and massage therapy. The above findings were affirmed by Crawford, Boyd, Paat, et al., (2016) who compared the efficacy of therapy through massage and active Comparator(s) in chronic pain management. Their study revealed that the efficacy of massage therapy from an active comparator scale of for pain intensity vs severity is 95%. The authors argued that this efficacy in the reduction in pain intensity has a large heterogeneity with other types of active comparators. Compared to massage therapy, the authors note that comparator variables could yield a more accurate measure of the level of efficacy of any pain management therapy. Therefore, the appropriateness of either massage therapy or comparator variables remains a big challenge for researchers. Based on the research gap in the study by Crawford, Boyd, Paat, et al., (2016), future literature should explore the variation in the level of efficacy of comparato ...
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Running head: THERAPEUTIC MASSAGE THERAPY

Therapeutic Massage Therapy

Student‘s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date

1

THERAPEUTIC MASSAGE THERAPY

2

Findings
Therapeutic massage therapy covers a range of mechanisms.

The mechanisms are

primarily inclusive of closing the source of pain and relaxing the pain. The relaxation can be done
on muscles, joints, among others. The closing of the pain gate is achieved through impending
messages of pain in and out of the brain. It can also be achieved through the stimulation of
competition by nerve fibres. However, following the findings that have been reached through
research into the topic, there is a need to put more effort into increasing the effectiveness of the
therapy (Gentile, 2018). The parts below cover limitations needed for findings, recommendations,
and conclusions drawn from the study on therapeutic massage therapy.
Limitations
The primary limitation regarding the current study is its reliance on quantitative data
collection methods. The use of questionnaires and surveys is always subject to the understanding
level of the...

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