Teaching the Diabetic Patient
❖Explain diabetic neuropathy and its different types
❖Describe the effect of autonomic neuropathy on the GI tract,
patients awareness of hypoglycemia, and sexual function.
❖Explain peripheral neuropathy in diabetes patients.
❖Describe the effects of growth hormones, cortisol, stress, and
illness on blood sugar.
❖Explain the Somogyl effect and Dawn Phenomenon.
What is Diabetic Neuropathy
❖ Nerve damage in type 1 and type 2 diabetes
patient that is caused by high blood glucose
❖ It occurs in the legs and feet of the patient.
❖ Symptoms include burning sensation and
pain in the feet, numbness in the legs and feet,
and problems with the proper functioning of the
digestive, urinary tract, and circulatory systems.
❖ The injury to the nerves in these parts of the body increases the pain
threshold in the patent and restricts movement.
Risk Factors for Diabetic Neuropathy in
Type 1 and Type 2 Patients
❖ Poor management of hyperglycemia for extended periods.
❖ Obesity with a body mass index over 24.
❖ Untreated high blood pressure.
❖ Coronary heart disease.
❖ Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption.
❖ Consistently high triglyceride levels.
❖ Old age.
❖ Genetic conditions.
Potential Complications of Diabetic
❖ Reduced pain sensitivity in the legs and feet
❖ Progression of pain insensitivity to the hands and arm when midcalves are affected (Lewis et al., 2017).
❖ Poor balance and coordination during movement, especially in the
❖ Progress of small wounds into leg and foot ulcers due to numbness
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