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Arkansas State The Impact of Diet on The Environment Persuasive Speech

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I need support with this Communications question so I can learn better.

i want from you to do persuasive outline for the COMM. my topic about diet (you will find in diet research) also, i uploaded the source.

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Title Persuasive Speech Outline Name Topic: General Purpose: To persuade. Specific Purpose: To persuade the class to/that…. Thesis: Subject/verb statement of your topic and angle… -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I. Introduction A. (Attention) B. Thesis C. Connect Audience & Self to Topic a. Personal Concern.. i. ii. b. Concerns audience because … i. ii. Transition: II. Body A. (Need) Current problem… (source) 1. a. b. 2. a. b. 3. a. b. c. Transition: B. (Satisfy Need) 1. a. b. 2. a. b. Transition: C. (Visualize- describe what the future will be like if things are changed or not changed) – add sub-points as needed. 1. If it is not changed… a. b. 2. If it is changed… a. b. c. Transition: III. Conclusion A. Summary- brief summary of the ideas in the body a. (Source #) b. c. d. Changing our behavior can … i. ii. B. Concluding Statement (Action-encourage your audience to implement your solution, adopt your attitude, change a behavior, etc.) Works Cited: 1. 2. 3. THE IMPACT OF DIET ON THE ENVIRONMENT. Karpouzis, Fay. “The Impact of Diet on the Environment.” Nutridate, vol. 30, no. 4, Aug. 2019, pp. 3– 8. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=138804125&site=ehostlive&scope=site High calories but not fat content of lardbased diet contribute to impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in C57BL/6J mice heart. Emelyanova, Larisa, et al. “High Calories but Not Fat Content of Lard-Based Diet Contribute to Impaired Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation in C57BL/6J Mice Heart.” PLoS ONE, vol. 14, no. 7, July 2019, pp. 1–17. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0217045 Increased eating frequency linked to decreased obesity and improved metabolic outcomes. House, B. T., et al. “Increased Eating Frequency Linked to Decreased Obesity and Improved Metabolic Outcomes.” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 39, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 136–141. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.81. How Many Calories Should You Eat on Average? https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/how-many-calories-per-day#section1 An average woman needs to eat about 2000 calories per day to maintain, and 1500 calories to lose one pound of weight per week. An average man needs 2500 calories to maintain, and 2000 to lose one pound of weight per week. However, this depends on numerous factors. These include age, height, current weight, activity levels, metabolic health and several others What Are Calories? A calorie is a unit that measures energy. Calories are usually used to measure the energy content of foods and beverages. To lose weight, you need to eat fewer calories than your body burns each day. Calculating how many calories are burned in a day https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/3 19731.php The total is the number of calories burned on an average day. This figure shows that a man of this age, height, weight, and activity level can consume 2,663 calories and maintain his current weight. • For men: 66 + (6.2 x weight) + (12.7 x height) - (6.76 x age) • For women: 655.1 + (4.35 x weight) + (4.7 x height) - (4.7 x age) For example, to calculate how many calories a 37-year-old, 6-foot-tall, and 170-pound man who is moderately active burns, the formula would look like: (66 + (6.2 x 170) + (12.7 x 72) - (6.76 x 37)) x 1.55 = 2,663 calories/day Weight-Loss Interventions for Hispanic Populations: The Role of Culture Lindberg, Nangel M., et al. “Weight-Loss Interventions for Hispanic Populations: The Role of Culture.” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2013, Jan. 2013, pp. 1–6. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1155/2013/542736. RESEARCH ARTICLE High calories but not fat content of lard-based diet contribute to impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in C57BL/6J mice heart Larisa Emelyanova ID1*, Anna Boukatina2, Cheryl Myers2, Janice Oyarzo2, Joseph Lustgarten2, Yang Shi1, Arshad Jahangir3 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 1 Center for Integrative Research on Cardiovascular Aging, Aurora St. Luke’s Medical Center, Aurora Health Care, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America, 2 Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, United States of America, 3 Aurora Cardiovascular Services, Aurora Health Care, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States of America * publishing75@aurora.org Abstract OPEN ACCESS Citation: Emelyanova L, Boukatina A, Myers C, Oyarzo J, Lustgarten J, Shi Y, et al. (2019) High calories but not fat content of lard-based diet contribute to impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in C57BL/6J mice heart. PLoS ONE 14(7): e0217045. https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0217045 Editor: Juan J. Loor, University of Illinois, UNITED STATES Received: September 25, 2018 Accepted: May 5, 2019 Purpose High calorie intake leads to obesity, a global socio-economic and health problem, reaching epidemic proportion in children and adolescents. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids from animal (lard) fat are major components of the western-pattern diet and its regular consumption leads to obesity, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, no clear evidence exists whether consumption of diet rich in saturated (SFAs) and monounsaturated (MUFAs) fatty acids has detrimental effects on cardiac structure and energetics primarily due to excessive calories. We, therefore, sought to determine the impact of high calories versus fat content in diet on cardiac structure and mitochondrial energetics. Published: July 2, 2019 Copyright: © 2019 Emelyanova et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed with high calorie, high lard fat-based diet (60% fat, HFD), high-calorie and low lard fat-based diet (10% fat, LFD), and lower-calorie and fat diet (standard chow, 12% fat, SCD) for 10 weeks. Data Availability Statement: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Results Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health grants (NIH R01 HL101240 and R01 HL089542). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Methods The HFD- and LFD-fed mice had higher body weight, ventricular mass and thickness of posterior and septal wall with increased cardiomyocytes diameter compared to the SCD-fed mice. These changes were associated with a reduction in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes I and III activity compared to the SCD-fed mice without significant differences between the HFD- and LFD-fed animals. The HFD-fed animals had higher level of malondialdehyde (MDA) than LFD and SCD-fed mice. PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217045 July 2, 2019 1 / 17 Lard fat-based diet impairs mitochondria Conclusions We assume that changes in cardiac morphology and selective reduction of the OXPHOS complexes activity observed in the HFD- and LFD-fed mice might be related to excessive calories with additional effect of fat content on oxidative stress. Introduction High calorie intake leads to obesity, an emerging global socio-economic and health problem, reaching epidemic proportion in children and adolescents [1–6]. Animal (lard) fat is commonly used as a cooking fat or shortening in many cuisines and a major ingredient in sausages and various pastries consumed by children and adults. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids from animal (lard) fat are major components of the western pattern diet and its regular consumption leads to obesity that compromises cardiovascular health [7,8]. Studies of dietary fat composition still remain one of the most inscrutable and contradictory research fields in biology and nutrition due to complexity of structure and diversity of function of fatty acids in biological cell and tissue [9]. It has been shown that the type, source and composition of a diet strongly impact heart bioenergetics altering cardiac function [10–14] through changes in gene expression, metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of cell membranes that alter ion fluxes, mitochondrial energetics, oxidative stress and conformation and function of membrane receptors or membrane-bound enzymes and transporters [15–20]. Fatty acids are the main metabolic substrates for the heart; however, excessive fat consumption may induce mitochondrial failure and activates molecular mechanisms of cardiac remodeling [11, 21]. Studies on animals and cell culture have provided mechanistic insight into the detrimental cellular effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), particularly palmitate and stearate, supporting the concept that SFAs are toxic to normal cellular processes [22, 23]. Palmitate has been shown to induce apoptosis, activation of stress-associated protein kinases, and protein oxidative stress in ventricular cardiomyocytes [22]. An obesogenic diet based on milk fat rich with C14 induced cardiac dysfunction, both gross and cellular hypertrophy, and increased autophagy in hearts of C57BL/6J mice [24]. An elevated intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) alone such as linoleic acid has been shown to enhance negative pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic and pro-arrhythmogenic effect [25–27]. The combination of n-3 and n-6 PUFA, compared with n-6 PUFA alone, appears to have different cardiac effects. Replacement of SFAs with a diet of mixed n-3 and n-6 PUFAs reduces risk for coronary heart disease, while intake of only n-6 PUFA increases the risk [28, 29]. In contrast, other reports found no evidence of HFDs enriched with SFAs on cardiac dysfunction and energetic impairment [30, 31]. In addition, some studies demonstrated that high fat diet can be potentially cardioprotective [32, 33]. The discrepancies in the literature reports could be explained by different experimental models, strains of animals, types of diets used for the studies, age or sex of animals. In addition, many studies overlook calorie value of the diets and calorie intake by the animals. No clear evidence exists on the effect of excessive calorie intake on cardiac structure and energetics. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to compare the effect of the lard fat-based high calorie, high fat diet (HFD) vs. high calorie but low fat diet (LFD) and low calorie, low fat standard chow diet (SCD) on cardiac structure, functional activity of cardiac mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and oxidative stress. PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217045 July 2, 2019 2 / 17 Lard fat-based diet impairs mitochondria Materials and methods Animal care All animal protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Mayo Clinic (Scottsdale, AZ) All ethical and animal care issues were adequately addressed. One-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were purchased from Harlan Laboratories (Madison, WI). Animals were housed in a temperature-controlled room (22 ± 1˚C) and constant humidity conditions on a 12-h light/dark cycle and were fed ad libitum in Mayo Clinic Arizona Animal Facility. All mice were fed low calorie standard chow diet (SCD) post weaning until 5 weeks of age. After one week of acclimatization, the mice (6 weeks old) were randomly switched to high calorie, low lard fat-based diet (LFD, 4057 kcal/g, 10% kcal from fat, OpenSource Diet, D12450B; n = 7) and high calorie, high lard fat-based diet (HFD, 4057 kcal/g, 60% kcal% from fat, OpenSource Diet, D12492; n = 7) or continued on SCD (3040 kcal/g, 12% kcal from fat, PicoLab Rodent Diet 20, 5053, n = 7) for a further 10 weeks. After 5 weeks in the diets, mice were individually housed to monitor food intake. Terminal endpoint harvest of the heart was done in the fed-state in the morning. Heart isolation After carbon dioxide (CO2) euthanasia, animals were weighed, hearts were excised; atria and blood were carefully removed. Ventricles were weighed; a portion sectioned for histology and the remaining tissue was immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept at -80˚C until further experiments. Histology Coronal sections (1.5 mm thickness) were taken from the middle part of the hearts (at the level of the tip of the papillary muscle) using a mouse heart slicer (Zivic Instruments, model HSMS005-1). Slices were fixed in formalin solution (10% neutral buffered formalin and 0.12 M NaCl) in a refrigerator for at least 24 hours. Serial 5-micron paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or Masson’s trichrome. Slides stained with H&E were analyzed at 40x magnification to calculate cardiomyocytes diameter. Twenty-five longitudinally sectioned cells in nucleus region from each slide were evaluated (125 cells/per mouse). Septal, posterior wall thickness and left ventricular internal diameter were calculated at 10x magnification using Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe Photoshop CS6). For collagen detection, Masson’s trichrome stained slides were assessed at 10x magnification. Three images per slide from identical areas were assessed for percent (%) area that was positive for Masson’s staining, using NIH Image J software. Left ventricular mass estimation Left ventricular mass (LVM) was quantified according to the equation: LVM ¼ 1:05 � ½ðIVSD þ LVD þ LVPWDÞ 3 3 ðLVDÞ � where 1.05 is a factor of myocardium-specific density, IVSD and LVPWD are left ventricular wall dimensions (interventricular septum wall and posterior wall thickness, respectively), and LVD is a left ventricular chamber diameter [34, 35]. Preparation of homogenate. Frozen heart tissue was homogenized in a cold (2–4˚C) medium containing 100 mM KCl, 5 mM MgCl2, 2 mM EGTA, 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) with a glass/glass homogenizer (1:30 w/v). Homogenate was centrifuged at 650xg for 10 min and filtered through polypropylene mesh (mesh opening size 0.125 mm). Aliquots of the supernatant PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217045 July 2, 2019 3 / 17 Lard fat-based diet impairs mitochondria were then used for the biochemical analysis. The protein concentration was determined in the supernatant using Bio-Rad DC Protein Assay. Assessment of mitochondrial enzyme activities The measurement of the functional activity of OXPHOS complexes was performed spectrophotometrically at 30˚C as described by Barrientos with modifications [36, 37]. NADH—Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) activity was assayed as a decrease in absorbance at 340 nm by following the oxidation of NADH (0.2 mM). The incubation medium contained 10 mM Tris (pH 8.0), 1 mg/ml BSA, 0.5 mM azide Na, 4 μg/ml antimycin A, and 80 μM DB (2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol by 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-6-n-decyl-1,4-benzoquinone). The activity of complex I was determined using the rotenone (4 μM) sensitive rate and extinction coefficient of 6.22 mM-1cm-1 for NADH was applied for calculation of specific activity. NADH—Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase (Complex I-III) activity was performed at 340 nm following the increase in absorbance resulting from the reduction of cytochrome c. The reaction medium contained 10 mM Tris (pH 8.0), 1 mg/ml BSA, 80 μM oxidized cytochrome c, 0.5 mM azide Na. The reaction was initiated by addition of 0.8 mM NADH. The specific rotenone-sensitive rate was calculated with an extinction coefficient of 6.22 mM-1cm-1 for NADH. Succinate—Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex II) activity was determined by following the reduction of DCPIP (2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol) by DB at 600 nm. The reaction mixture contained 10 mM KH2PO4 (pH 7.8), 2 mM EDTA, and 1 mg/ml BSA, 80 μM DCPIP, 4 μM rotenone, 4 μg/ml antimycin A, 0.5 mM azide Na, 0.2 mM ATP, 10 mM succinate. The reaction was initiated by the addition of 80 μM DB. The activity was expressed by using 1 mM TTFA (2 –thenoyltrifluoroacetone), an inhibitor of complex II. Succinate—Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase (Complex II-III) activity was assessed at 550 nm following the increase in absorbance resulting from the reduction of cytochrome c. The reaction medium contained 10 mM KH2PO4 (pH 7.8), 2 mM EDTA, and 1 mg/ml BSA, 4 μM rotenone, 4 mM azide Na, 0.2 mM ATP, 10 mM succinate. The reaction was started by addition of 80 μM oxidized cytochrome c. The activity of complex II was measured by using 1 mM TTFA sensitive rate. Ubiquinol–Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase (Complex III) activity was assessed at 550 nm by monitoring the rate of reduction of cytochrome c by DBH2 (reduced DB). The reaction was initiated with the addition of oxidized cytochrome c in the buffer containing 10 mM KH2PO4 (pH 7.8), 2 mM EDTA, 1 mg/ml BSA, 80 μM DBH2, 4 μM rotenone, 0.5 mM azide Na, 0.2 mM ATP. The specific activity of complex III was calculated by subtracting the rate in the presence of 4 μg/ml antimycin A. Cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV) activity was measured by following the oxidation of reduced cytochrome c (40 μM) as a decrease in absorbance at 550 nm. The reaction buffer contained 10 mM KH2PO4 (pH 6.5), 250 mM sucrose, 1 mg/ml BSA, 2.5 mM n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside. The activities of complex II, III, I-III, II-III, and IV were calculated by using 19.1 mM-1cm-1 extinction coefficient. F1F0-ATP synthase (Complex V) was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase as coupling enzymes at 340 nm following decrease of absorbance as a result of the reduction of NADH. The medium contained 50 mM HEPES (pH 8.0), 5 mM MgSO4, 4 μM rotenone, 4 μg/ml antimycin A, 0.35 mM NADH, 5 mM phosphoenolpyruvate, 50 μg/ml pyruvate kinase, 50 μg/ml lactate dehydrogenase, 1 mM ATP. The specific oligomycin A-sensitive rate was calculated with an extinction coefficient of 6.22 mM-1cm-1 for NADH. PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217045 July 2, 2019 4 / 17 Lard fat-based diet impairs mitochondria Citrate Synthase (CS) activity was measured in media containing 100 mM KCl, 5 mM MgCl2, 2 mM EGTA and 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5). Reaction media was supplemented with 10 mM 5,5’-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, 30 mM acetyl-CoA, and 10 mM oxaloacetic acid. The extinction coefficient for 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB) was 13.6 mM-1cm-1 at 412 nm. The CS functional activity was expressed as nmol TNB/min/mg protein and used for normalization of OXPHOS complex activity. The functional activities of the OXPHOS complexes were normalized to CS activity as described previously [36]. Lipid peroxidation assay Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) in supernatant as described by Buego and Aust [38]. MDA reacting with thiobarbituric acid results in the formation of a red substance with maximum absorption at 535 nm. MDA concentration of the sample was calculated using an extinction coefficient of 1.56×10 M -1cm-1. Chemicals Chemicals for biochemical and histological assessment were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA) and Thermo Fisher Scientific (Waltham, MA, USA). Statistical analysis The sample size (n = 7) was calculated using the size of the effect and the estimate of the population standard deviation of the estimated parameter (http://www.biomath.info). Results were presented as a mean ± standard deviation (SD). The analyses were carried out using SigmaPlot 13.0 software. Grouped data were first analyzed for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test. If the data failed normal distribution assumption, the Kruskal Wallis test was applied to compare the difference between the groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Holm-Sidak method) was used to assess the significance of differences between normally distributed groups. Differences at p<0.05 were considered t ...
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Running head: PERSUASIVE OUTLINE

1
Healthy Diet

Persuasive Speech Outline
Name
Topic: Observing a Clean Diet
General Purpose: To persuade the reader to observe a good diet regiment to maintain good
health or to lose weight and achieve good health.
Specific Purpose: To persuade the class that a good and clean diet is a guarantee for
maintaining good health and getting rid of excess fat stored in the body.
Thesis: maintaining healthy eating habits is important to observe overall good health and avoid
lifestyle diseases like obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I.

Introduction
A. Has a health practitioner ever asked you about your diet and/or advise you to overhaul
your diet to maintain certain standards for your health? How did it make you feel?
B. Thesis - maintaining healthy eating habits is important to observe overall good health
and avoid lifestyle diseases like obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes.
C. Observing a good eating habit by utilizing a healthy diet is important to keep the weight
off and avoid lifestyle diseases.
a. High calories intake leads to obesity
i.

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UC Berkeley

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