Blinn College Factors that Caused American Philippine War Paper

Blinn College

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I need support with this History question so I can learn better.

All the instructions and sources can be found in the resources file however you will need to still find 3 outside sources. Must be written in Chicago style format. The easiest factors to explain are geoagriphical and econimical.

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TERM PAPER HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The Philippine-American War, 1899–1902 Teddy Roosevelt, the Rough Riders, and the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine are but a few of the images people have about the United States’ 123-day war with Spain, in 1898. What they may not remember is that this was the war that launched the United States as a world power. Victorious over Imperial Spain in both Cuba and the Philippines in the span of months, the United States became the “New Spain” by taking over Spanish territorial holdings in the Caribbean, the Pacific, and in Asia. At the same time that the U.S. acquired overseas possessions in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War, it began a century-long debate over its newly assumed role as empire builder. The Spanish-American War may have catalyzed the debate, but the ensuing Philippine-American War—a long, bloody, and costly affair—truly crystallized the argument over America’s new international role. Pro-imperialist arguments held sway until the high costs of war triggered an anti-imperialist backlash, caused an agonizing reappraisal of the assumed benefits of empire-building, and contributed to a long-term amnesia regarding America’s first overseas imperial war. The United States-Spanish peace talks began in Paris on October 1, 1898. No Filipinos or Cubans attended the deliberations, nor were any invited. McKinley clearly wanted Cuba from the Spanish, but he was not yet sure about the Philippines. Ultimately, he decided that he needed the port of Manila in the Philippines in order to have a naval base in the Western Pacific. After considerable debate and reflection, McKinley also recommended annexing the Philippines rather than giving the Filipinos outright independence. Undeterred by American actions in Paris and the White House, as well as the upcoming treaty debate in the United States Senate, the Filipinos approved a constitution in January 1899 based on the republican representative principles embodied in the United States Constitution. As a result of McKinley’s decision and the Senate’s ratification of annexation, the U.S. Army battled Filipino nationalist insurgents for four years, from 1898 to 1902. This was a timetable ten times longer than the war with Spain. In sum, the American-Philippine war was a drawn-out series of encounters that caused the deaths of over 4,000 Americans (compared to 385 in Cuba) and at least 50,000 Filipinos, many of whom were civilians dislocated by American policies. In April 1902, following more than three years of warfare, Filipino leaders conceded defeat to the United States. For their part, the exhausted Americans had lost most of the zeal that had led to late nineteenth-century imperialism. Even President Roosevelt, once a champion of U.S. empire-building, admitted that his nation was ill-suited for imperialism. On reflection, he opined that the Philippines had become America’s Achilles heel. Documents Related to the Causes of the Conflict NOTE: Filipino sources are noted with an asterisk (*) “The Filipino is the true child of the East. His moral fiber is as the web of the pineapple gauze of which the women make their dresses. He will cheat, steal, and lie beyond the orthodox limit of the Anglo-Saxon. His unreliability and the persistence with which he disobeys orders are irritating beyond description; besides this, his small stature and color invite abuse.” —John Bass (Soldier correspondent) Oct 1898 “I am reliably informed that the natives of these islands are no farther advanced in civilization than they were 300 years ago.” —A. J. Luther, Letter of July 27, 1898 “The natural resources of the Philippines are very good, and under a civilized administration, these islands would be rich and prosperous. But the mildew of Spanish administration is upon everything.” —Trumbull White 1898 (American author who wrote “Pictorial History of Our War With Spain for Cuba’s Freedom”) “In the West Indies and the Philippines alike we are confronted by most difficult problems. It is cowardly to shrink from solving them in a proper way; for solved they must be, if not by us, by some stronger and more manful race.” —Theodore Roosevelt, 1900. U.S. Vice President. “I want to get this country out of war and back to peace. . . . I want to enter upon a policy which shall enable us to give peace and self-government to the natives of these islands.” —Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. American historian, statesman and conservative political leader, best known as a U.S. Representative and Senator from Massachusetts. “Damn, damn the Filipinos! Cut-throat Khadiac ladrones! (thieves) Underneath the starry flag Civilize them with a Krag (rifle) And return us to our beloved home!” —[Popular U.S. Military Marching Song, 1898] “It is as a base for commercial operations that the islands seem to possess the greatest importance. They occupy a favored location, not with reference to one part of any particular country of the Orient, but to all part. . . . Together with the islands of the Japanese Empire, the Philippines are the pickets of the Pacific, standing guard at the entrances to trade with the millions of China and Korea, French IndoChina, the Malay Peninsula, and the Islands of Indonesia to the South.” —Frank A. Vanderlip, an American banker and journalist, 1898. “Our largest trade henceforth must be with Asia. The Pacific is our ocean. More and more, Europe will manufacture the most it needs, secure from its colonies and the most it consumes. Where shall we turn for consumer of our surplus? Geography answers the question. China is our natural customer . . . the Philippines gives us a base at the door of all the East. . . . No land in America surpasses in fertility the plains and valleys of Luzon [major island in the Philippines].” —Albert Beveridge, imperialist U.S. senator from Indiana, 1900. “The closing years of the century seem to be, in all lands save our own, not of war, but of a strenuous making ready for it. Alsace and Lorraine, the Eastern Question in its many varied phases, and the jealous rivalry as to colonies and dependencies, make Continental Europe but a camp, with more than three million men under arms.” —Commodore G.W. Melville, 1898, naval engineer promoted to Engineer in Chief of the Navy in 1900 “Since it is their desire, may the responsibility of the war and its consequences fall on the great nation of the United States of America. We have done our duty as patriots and human beings, showing the great powers of the world that the present cabinet has the diplomacy necessary to protect our cause as well as the arms required to defend our rights.” —Pedro Paterno (1898) * Served as prime minister of the First Philippine Republic 1899, and captured by the U.S. in 1900 “True, we might have thought it hopeless to attempt the improvement of conditions in the Philippines, had not fate placed the power in our hands. Granted, if you will, that we cannot right the wrongs of all oppressed nations, yet we cannot refuse to accept the responsibility which logic of events has thrust upon us.” —Dean Worcester, 1898, a scientist who had traveled twice to the Philippines on zoological expeditions, established himself as one of America’s leading experts on the Philippines. “Wesley Merritt’s (first military governor of the Philippines) most difficult problem will be how to deal with insurgents under Aquinaldo (Philippine revolutionary leader), who has become aggressive and even threatening toward our army.” —Admiral George Dewey, cable to Secretary of Navy John Long, 1898 “In the war against Spain the United States forces came here to destroy the power of that nation, and to give the blessings of peace and individual freedom to the Philippine people, that we are here as friends of the Filipinos, to protect them in their homes, their employments, their individual and religious liberty; that all persons who either by active aid or honest endeavor cooperate with the government of the United States to give effect to these beneficent purposes, will receive the reward of its support and protection.” —Elwell S. Otis, 1899, replaced Merritt as military governor. “In my manifesto of January 8 [1899], first I published the grievances suffered by the Philippine forces at the hands of the army of occupation. The constant outrages and taunts, which have caused the misery of the people of Manila, and finally, the useless conferences and the contempt shown the Philippine government provide the premeditated transgression of justice and liberty.” —Emilio Aguinaldo *, 1899, Rebel leader of the Philippine Forces. “When I realized the Philippines had dropped into our laps I confess I did not know what to do with them. . . . And one night late it came to me this way-I don’t know how it was, but it came: (1) That we could not give them back to Spain-that would be cowardly and dishonorable; (2) That we could turn them over to France and Germany-our commercial rivals in the Orient— that would be bad business and discreditable; (3) That we could not leave them to themselves—they were unfit for self-government-and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain’s was; and (4) That there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God’s grace do the very best we could do by them.” —President William McKinley, 1899 Choose from two of the following factors: Geopolitical influence Economic Influence Racial Ideology Missionary Zeal Nationalism Militarism Q. Based on the primary documents above and at least three other resources, which two factors, in your view, were most important in causing the conflict, and why? Your response should be approximately 1200 words and have paragraphs. This exercise is worth 10% of your overall grade. Below is the rubric to be used to grade your paper. Remember, all good essays have an introduction, several paragraphs as the main body, and a conclusion. Your assignment is worth 10% of your overall grade. You will submit a 1200 word paper by 11:59pm on Friday November 22nd through E-Campus using a Microsoft Word document. ...
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Forces behind the Philippine-American War


The Philippine-American War (1899-1902) was an armed conflict that occurred between
the Americans and the First Philippine Republic. The war lasted for a period of about 3 years and
resulted in a number of causalities and destruction of properties.1 According to the Philippine
government, the war was still a continuation of the struggle for independence that had begun
some few years in 1896 together with Philippine revolution. History scholars believe that there
were a number of factors that triggered and continued to push the way. Research studies have
noted that out of all these factors, geopolitical and nationalism influence. As a result, this paper
will take the opportunity to explore how these factors caused the war and their possible effects in
the two nations.
The Geopolitical Influences
After Aguinaldo was elected to act as the resident of the Philippine revolutionary
movement, on 22nd March 1897 at the Tejeros Convention, his supporters had Benifacio
executed for treason on 10th March 1897. After a consecutive succession of defeats of the
revolutionary forces, Aguinaldo decided to make negotiations with Spanish government to pay
for the damages. Nevertheless, he failed to repay the value of the money that they had in
agreement. This move resulted in propelling him to go for an exile and instability in his nation.
On April 2, 1898 while still in exile, the Philippine president Anguinaldo decided to make a have
a pr...

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