Business Finance
MBA502 Bethel College Organizational Behavior & Cross Functional Team Essay


Question Description

I need help with a Business question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

The discussion requires a minimum of 300 words, 3 scholarly sources, including the textbook. Make sure that you use APA style with your references. Under no circumstances use any direct quotes. Any directly quoted or copied material will result in a zero for the assignment. Let’s be sure to write it in own work 100% and give appropriately when using someone’s else work.

Reference for textbook attached:

Kreitner, R., & Kinicki, A. (2013). Organizational behavior (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

  • What is the difference between a group and a team?

1,500 word count and there is a total of 5 questions each (not including in-text citation and references as the word count), a minimum of 4 scholarly sources are required in APA format. For the 4 scholarly sources, one from the textbook that’s posted below and the other two from an outside source . Let’s be sure to write it in own work 100% and give appropriately when using someone’s else work. Under no circumstances use any direct quotes. Any directly quoted or copied material will result in a zero for the assignment.

Reference for textbook attached:

Kreitner, R., & Kinicki, A. (2013). Organizational behavior (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Google's "Three-Thirds" HR Team (p. 326)

  • 1. Using Table 11-1 as a guide, what needs to be done to turn Google's HR Group into a true team?
  • 2. Should Google's HR team members have been instructed ahead of time in the teamwork competencies in Table 11-3? Explain how it should have been done.
  • 3. How important is trust with this sort of cross-functional team? Explain how to quickly build trust among cross-functional team members who bring a diverse array of backgrounds and perspectives to the table?
  • 4. Which type of cohesiveness, socio-emotional or instrumental, is more important in this type of cross-functional team? Explain.
  • 5. What advice should be given to Google's Laszio Bock about managing a cross-functional team, team building, and team leadership?

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par t three R I C A R D , Group and Social Processes 10 Group Dynamics A 11 Developing and D Leading Effective Teams R 12 Individual and Group Decision Making I 13 Managing Confl Eict and Negotiating N N E 1 9 0 2 T S kre29368_ch10_265-297.indd 265 12/6/11 5:09 PM chapter 10 Group Dynamics R I C A Learning Objectives R D When you finish studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to: , LO.1 Identify the four sociological criteria of a group, and discuss the impact of social networking on group dynamics. LO.5 A D of group development, and discuss the Describe the five stages in Tuckman’s theory threat of group decay. R I ambiguity. Distinguish between role conflict and role E Contrast roles and norms, and specify four reasons norms are enforced in N organizations. N Distinguish between task and maintenance E roles in groups. LO.6 Summarize the practical contingency management implications for group size. LO.7 Discuss why managers need to carefully handle mixed-gender task groups. LO.2 LO.3 LO.4 LO.8 LO.9 kre29368_ch10_265-297.indd 266 1 9 0 four of its symptoms. Describe groupthink, and identify at least 2 Define social loafing, and explain how managers can prevent it. T S 12/6/11 5:09 PM How Can Managers Reduce the Pain of a Layoff? As part of a company-wide reduction, several managersR at an . . . [Intel factory in Hillsboro, Oregon,] lost jobs. An engineer who worked for Pat [McDonald, an IntelI executive], Sumit Guha, told me how “she recountedC the contributions of these employees in an open forum, A wishing them luck, acknowledging that these employees were being let go for no fault of their own, and we allR gave these employees a hand in appreciation of theirD contributions.” , Things got worse in early 2009 when Intel announced the factory would cease production at year’s end because it was using older technology—and approximatelyA one thousand workers would lose their positions. PatD not only expressed concern and compassion, she took R a stance that demonstrated she had her employees’ backs. Pat quickly announced to her team that althoughI output metrics would continue to be important, helping people get through the transition was a higher priority— especially finding affected employees new jobs inside and outside of Intel. Pat and her team not only provided extensive outplacement counseling and related services, they personally visited numerous local employers to campaign for new jobs for their people. Managers and employees emulated this behavior. For example, employees shared job search leads and helped each other prepare for interviews, even as they were vying for the same positions. . . . Pat’s emphasis on people and connection with them not only instilled calm, her priorities helped many find good new jobs. And plant performance didn’t suffer a bit; productivity, efficiency, and quality reached record levels in 2009.1 E N N E 1 9 0 2 T S kre29368_ch10_265-297.indd 267 12/6/11 5:09 PM 268 Part Three Group and Social Processes Organizations, by definition, are collections of people constantly interacting to achieve something greater than individuals could accomplish on their own. Research consistently reveals the importance of social skills for both individual and organizational success. For example, a recent study of 1,040 managers employed by 100 manufacturing and service organizations in the United States found 15 reasons why managers fail in the face of rapid change. The top two reasons were “ineffective communication skills/practices” and “poor work relationships/ interpersonal skills.”2 Relationships do matter in the workplace, as demonstrated by Pat McDonald’s compassionate handling of the layoff at Intel. No surprise that Intel was number 51 on Fortune magazine’s 2011 list of the 100 best companies to work for, up from 98 the year before.3 Management, as defined in Chapter 1, involves getting things done with and through others. Experts say managers need to build social capital with four key social skills: social perception, impression management, persuasion and social R influence, and social adaptability (see Table 10–1).4 How polished are your soI improvement? Daniel Goleman recommends an cial skills? Where do you need expanded form of emotional intelligence he calls social intelligence, “being intelC ligent not just about our relationships but also in them.”5 For example, consider how this informal relationshipAevolved into both a win-win business relationship and a stronger community: R D A decade ago, Archie , Williams, the founder of a small printer-toner distribution company in the impoverished Boston neighborhood of Roxbury, happened to play a round of golf with Tom Stemberg, the founder and then chief executive of office supply mega-retailer Staples. Through 18 holes, the pair pitched, A putted, and chatted—and became fast friends. Soon, Stemberg started buying D company, Roxbury Technology. printer cartridges from Williams’s The deal turned out to be aRwin for both Staples and Roxbury—the company and the neighborhood. The office supply giant found a reliable supplier for an I got a partner that could distribute its goods naimportant product and Roxbury tionally. Stemberg soon became E a mentor to Williams’s company, helping with strategic planning, finance, and legal advice. Roxbury Technology is now a preN ferred supplier to Staples . . . [with nearly $17 million in annual sales, and] almost all of Roxbury’s 65 employees N live in the neighborhood or nearby.6 Example. E table 10–1 Key Social Skills Managers Need for Building Social Capital SOCIAL SKILL Social perception Impression management 1 9 DESCRIPTION Ability to perceive accurately the0 emotions, traits, motives, and 2 intentions of others T S TOPICAL LINKAGES IN THIS TEXT • • • • Individual differences, Chapters 5 and 6 Emotional intelligence, Chapter 5 Social perception, Chapter 7 Employee motivation, Chapters 8 and 9 Tactics designed to induce liking and a favorable first impression by others • Impression management, Chapter 15 Persuasion and social influence Ability to change others’ attitudes or behavior in desired directions • Influence tactics and social power, Chapter 15 • Leadership, Chapter 16 Social adaptability Ability to adapt to, or feel comfortable in, a wide range of social situations • Cultural intelligence, Chapter 4 • Managing change, Chapter 18 SOURCE: Columns 1 and 2 excerpted from R A Baron and G D Markman, “Beyond Social Capital: How Social Skills Can Enhance Entrepreneurs’ Success,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2000, table 1, p 110. kre29368_ch10_265-297.indd 268 12/6/11 5:09 PM Chapter Ten Group Dynamics 269 Back to the Chapter-Opening Case How did Intel’s Pat McDonald build social capital with the social skills listed in Table 10–1? Let us begin by defining the term group as a prelude to examining types of groups, functions of group members, social networking in the workplace, and the group development process. Our attention then turns to group roles and norms, the basic building blocks of group dynamics. Effects of group structure and member characteristics on group outcomes are explored next. Finally, three serious threats to group effectiveness are discussed. (This chapter serves as a foundation R for our discussion of teams and teamwork in the following chapter.) I C LO.1 Groups in the Social A Media Age Groups and teams are inescapable features of modern R life.7 College students are often teamed with their peers for class projects. Parents serve on community adviD sory boards at their local schools. Managers find themselves on product planning committees and productivity task forces. Productive, organizations simply cannot function without gathering individuals into groups and teams. But as personal experience shows, group effort can bring out both the best and the worst in people. A excitedly brainstorm and A marketing department meeting, where several people refine a creative new advertising campaign, can yield D results beyond the capabilities of individual contributors. Conversely, committees have become the butt ofRjokes (e.g., a committee is a place where they take minutes and waste hours; aIcamel is a horse designed by a committee) because they all too often are plagued by lack of direction and by E of groups and group proconflict. Modern managers need a solid understanding cesses to both avoid their pitfalls and tap their vast N potential. Moreover, the huge and growing presence of the Internet and modern communication technologies— N social relationships—is a with their own unique networks of informal and formal major challenge for profit-minded business managers. E Although other definitions of groups exist, we draw from the field of sociology and define a group as two or more freely interacting individuals who share collec10–1 illustrates how the tive norms and goals and have a common identity.8 Figure 1 four criteria in this definition combine to form a conceptual whole. Organizational 9 psychologist Edgar Schein shed additional light on this concept by drawing instructive distinctions between a group, a crowd, and0an organization: TO THE POINT What can managers do about social networking technology blurring the line between formal and informal groups? 2 Example. The size of a group is thus limited by theTpossibilities of mutual interaction and mutual awareness. Mere aggregates of people do not fit this definition S because they do not interact and do not perceive themselves to be a group even if they are aware of each other as, for instance, a crowd on a street corner watching some event. A total department, a union, or a whole organization would not be a group in spite of thinking of themselves as “we,” because they generally do not all interact and are not all aware of each other. However, work teams, committees, group Two or more freely interacting people with shared norms and goals and a common identity. kre29368_ch10_265-297.indd 269 12/6/11 5:09 PM 270 Part Three Group and Social Processes figure 10–1 Four Sociological Criteria of a Group Common identity 4 R Collective norms I 2 1 C Two or more freely interacting A individuals R D , 3 Collective goals subparts of departments, cliques, and various other informal associations among organizational members would fit this definition of a group.9 Go to for an interactive exercise to test your knowledge of the four sociological criteria of a group. A D Take a moment now to think of various groups of which you are a member. Does each of your groups satisfy theRfour criteria in Figure 10–1? I E Groups Formal and Informal N assigned to groups, to accomplish various purIndividuals join groups, or are poses. If the group is formed N by a manager to help the organization accomplish its goals, then it qualifies as a formal group. Formal groups typically wear such E committee, corporate board, or task force. An labels as work group, project team, informal group exists when the members’ overriding purpose of getting together is friendship or common interests. Formal and informal groups may or may not 1 overlap in the workplace. For instance, 23 percent of 1,050 women employees who had planned weddings did not9plan to invite co-workers to their wedding.10 Also, for better or for worse, family-run businesses and hiring family and friends can create overlapping formal and0 informal groups.11 2 T Groups Functions of Formal S Researchers point out that formal groups fulfill two basic functions: organizational and individual. The various functions are listed in Table 10–2. Complex combinations of these functions can be found in formal groups at any given time. For example, consider what Mazda’s new American employees experienced when they spent a month working in Japan before the opening of the firm’s Flat Rock, Michigan, plant: Example. After a month of training in Mazda’s factory methods, whipping their new Japanese buddies at softball and sampling local watering holes, the Americans were fired up. . . . [A maintenance manager] even faintly praised the Japanese kre29368_ch10_265-297.indd 270 12/6/11 5:09 PM Chapter Ten Group Dynamics table 10–2 271 Formal Groups Fulfill Organizational and Individual Functions ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS INDIVIDUAL FUNCTIONS 1. Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals. 1. Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation. 2. Generate new or creative ideas and solutions. 2. Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity. 3. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts. 3. Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality. 4. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and R assessments. 4. Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness. I 5. Provide a problem-solving mechanism for C personal and interpersonal problems. A 6. Socialize and train newcomers. R SOURCE: Adapted from E H Schein, Organizational Psychology, 3rd ed (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980), pp 149–51. D , practice of holding group calisthenics at the start of each working day: “I didn’t 5. Implement complex decisions. think I’d like doing exercises every morning, but I kind of like it.”12 A D it wanted—interdependent While Mazda pursued the organizational functions teamwork, creativity, coordination, problem solving,Rand training—the American workers benefited from the individual functions of formal groups. Among those benI efits were affiliation with new friends, enhanced self-esteem, exposure to the Japanese social reality, and reduction of anxieties about working for a foreign-owned comE pany. In short, Mazda created a workable blend of organizational and individual group functions by training its newly hired AmericanN employees in Japan. N Formal-Informal Boundaries Have E Go to for an interactive exercise to test your knowledge of the functions of formal groups. Blurred in the Age of Social Media 1 They have Social relationships are complex, alive, and dynamic. little regard for arbitrary boundaries, especially with today’s real9 time social media. The desirability of overlapping formal and informal groups is problematic. Some managers0firmly believe personal friendship fosters productive teamwork on 2 the job while others view workplace “bull sessions” as a serious damper on productivity. In fact, a recent survey of workers 18 andTolder surfaced the major positives and negatives of workplace friendships. The S positives were a more supportive workplace (selected by 70% of the employees) and increased teamwork (69%). The negatives were gossip (44%) and favoritism (37%).13 Managers are responsible for Some lively sports competition among co-workers can break down job boundaries, open lines of communication, build teamwork, and generate healthy group dynamics. formal group Formed by the organization. informal group Formed by friends or those with common interests. kre29368_ch10_265-297.indd 271 12/6/11 5:09 PM 272 Part Three Group and Social Processes real WORLD // real PEOPLE Russian Culture Embraces Social Media Facebook officially launched its [Russian] site in April [2010] and only ranks No. 5 so far, according to Internet tracker comScore, but its growth has been impressive. From January until August of 2010, its Russian operation has racked up a 376 percent increase in users, to 4.5 million. . . . [T]here is a long tradition in Russia of relying on informal networks for simple day-to-day survival. “In Russia, there is no sense that you can rely on the public or the system, so you’ve traditionally had to rely on a network of friends,” says Esther Dyson, a venture capitalist who has been investing in Russia’s tech sector for over a decade. In a country with weak institutions, “it’s very natural for people to network for what they want.” Even in these less oppressive, post-Soviet times, relationships are critical to everything from landing a job to wriggling out of a problem with authorities. How are social media such as Facebook and Twitter empowering oppressed people around the world today? R SOURCE: Excerpted from J Ioffe, “In Russia, Facebook Is More I Than a Social Network,” Bloomberg Businessweek, January 3–9, 2011, C pp 32–33. A R D on the maturity and goals of the people instriking a workable balance, based volved. Additionally, there is the , ethics-laden issue of managers being friends with the people they oversee. The Social Media Revolution For many years, the term networking simply A meant building a modest list of personal and professional contacts and attempting D to keep in touch on a regular basis. But thanks to Internet tools such as e-mail, blogs, Facebook, LinkedIn, YouTube,R and Twitter, networking has gone hyper and global— 14 with Facebook and Twitter even I playing key roles in the Egyptian revolution. (See Real World/Real People.) Why settle for a static list of contacts when you can have E instant, comprehensive, and impactful interaction with countless thousands? PC magazine offers this working defi nition of a social networking site (SNS): N N Example. A Web site that provides E a virtual community for people interested in a particular subject or just to “hang out” together. Members create their own online “profile” with biographical data, pictures, likes, dislikes and any other information they choose to post. They communicate with each other by voice, chat, instant 1 message, videoconference and blogs, and the service typically provides a way for members to contact friends of 9other members.15 0 2 may not know each other on a face-to-face basis Members of an SNS may or and SNS use is dominated by, T but not restricted to, young people. According to a Pew Research Center survey, 75% of online users ages 18–24 and 30% of online S users ages 35–44 have at least one profile on an SNS.16 As SNSs continue to mushroom and new applications emerge, organizational leaders generally have been left scratching their heads. Their unanswered questions abound: How can we profit from this? How can we embrace and/or control it? Is it a good or bad thing? What are the implications of this massive connectivity for productivity, privacy, harassment, confidentiality, protection of intellectual property, and information systems security? Networking via social media truly is the Wild West of organizational life, with mostly unanswered questions and unknown consequences.17 (Corporate social media policies are discussed in Chapter 14.) Although the lines between formal and informal groups in the workplace have been blurred almost beyond recognition, managers still need to establish some boundaries. kre29368_ch10_265-297.indd 272 12/6/11 5:10 PM Chapter Ten Group Dynamics 273 Should Managers Be Friends with Those Who Report to Them? A long-standing group dynamics dilemma magnified by social media involves manager–employee friendships (see the Legal/Ethical Challenge at the end of this chapter). In their business advice column, Jack and Suzy Welch offered this sound advice: Example. [Y]ou don’t need to be friends with your subordinates, as long as you share the same values for the business. But if you are friends with them, lucky you. Working with people you really like for 8 or 10 hours a day adds fun to everything. That said, remember that boss-subordinate friendships live or die because of one thing: complete, unrelenting candor. Candor is imperative in any working relationship, but it’s especially necessary when there’s a social aspect involved. You don’t want your l ...
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Final Answer



Part A: Organizational Behavior
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation


Part A: Organizational Behavior

What Is the Difference Between A Group and A Team?

According to Kreitner & Kinicki (2013), a group is a collection of people who interact
either formally or informally through coordination of efforts towards accomplishing individual
goals assigned. Important to mention, it can be used to denote individuals who are working
together in a given organization or organization. Members of a group are independent; thus, each
person is accountable for his or her actions. Needless to say, in an organization of all sizes, work
is handled within groups. For instance, in an organization, people can form an informal group
where they associate with each other without any legal or formal prescription (Hodge, Beauchamp
& Fletcher, 2018). For example, a group of employees who meet at local coffee to discuss political
issues forms what is termed as an informal group. Also, we can have formal groups such group of
managers, engineers, and the rest whose interactions are formal, and they rely on coordination of
individual activities between them to deliver on the core mandate that they tasked to perform.

On the other hand, a team is defined as a group of people that share a common vision,
purpose, and mission of the challenging goals of a project or task. More often, members of the
teams are dedicated to the team's purpose. This is realized through cohesion and cooperation that
results in a strong bond between members. The teams must have a worthwhile purpose and be the
one that brings a reason or sense of collaboration of engaging in something important. In addition,
goals must be specific and clear such that they be easily be understood by team members (Coursey
etl., 2018). Important to note, unlike a group that has one leader, a team usually can have many
leaders where members are interdependent, and they strive to accomplish team goals and
objectives. The best example of a team is a football club, which is comprised of players with


different roles on the pitch, coaching staff headed by the manager and other subordinate staff such
as the sports medicine team and the rest.


Coursey, L. E., Paulus, P. B., Williams, B. C., & Kenworthy, J. B. (2018). The role of individual
differences in the group and team creativity. Individual Creativity in the Workplace (pp.
311-338). Academic Press.
Hodge, K., Beauchamp, M., & Fletcher, D. (2018). Group and Team Dynamics. In Sport, Exercise,
and Performance Psychology (pp. 341-363). Routledge.
Kreitner, R., & Kinicki, A. (2013). Organizational behaviour (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGrawHill/Irwin


Part B
Using Table 11-1 as a guide, what needs to be do...

Carnegie Mellon University

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