# EPidemiology and biostatistics

May 27th, 2014
Anonymous
Category:
Science
Price: \$25 USD

Question description

 Question 1.1. Which of the following is not a measure of central tendency? (Points : 2)
Range
Mode
Median
Mean

 Question 2.2. Calculate the Attributable Risk using the following data: A= 191, B=99,809, C=8.70, D= 99,991.30; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2)
182.3/100,000
183.2/100,000
99,991/100,000
191/100,000

 Question 3.3. The reduction of social disability produced by a given level of impairment through the strengthening of a patient’s remaining functions as well as assisting patient to function alternatively is known as: (Points : 2)
Disability
Risk factor modification
Rehabilitation
Limitation of disability

 Question 4.4. When developing a decision tree, which comes first: (Points : 2)
Chance Node
Neither A or B are correct
Decision node
Doesn’t Matter

 Question 5.5. [A/(A + B)] – [C/ (C + D)] is the formula for: (Points : 2)
Risk Ratio
Risk Factor
Attributable Risk
Risk Difference

 Question 6.6. Cumulative Incidence is defined as: (Points : 2)
The incidence of people without antibody protection (i.e. immunity) from a disease
The incidence of death to identified populations during a study period
The total number of epidemic cases that are seen over time
The number of people with a particular disease in a particular area

 Question 7.7. (A / C) / (B / D) is the formula for: (Points : 2)
Risk Ratio
Odds Ratio
Absolute Ratio
Relative Ratio

 Question 8.8. The most basic requirements for a causal relationship to exist and be recognized as such is: (Points : 2)
Valid Reasoning
Association
Hypothesis
None of the above

 Question 9.9. The ability of a measurement to be correct on the average is known as: (Points : 2)
Precision
Accuracy
Reproducibility
Reliability

 Question 10.10. A Type I error is also known as a: (Points : 2)
False Positive Error
False Negative Error
Alpha Error
A and C are correct

 Question 11.11. Reasoning which is learned from mathematics including geometry is known as: (Points : 2)
Productive
Inductive
Deductive
None of the above are correct

 Question 12.12. What is the difference between ANOVA and ANCOVA? (Points : 2)
The type of variance
The type of variable
The number of variables
Nothing is different

 Question 13.13. An immune system that is deemed normal at birth and suffers no damage from a disease such as HIV is termed a/an: (Points : 2)
Innate immunity
Herd immunity
Intact immunity
Objective immunity

 Question 14.14. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 2,8,10,21,46,58,31,2,9,141. (Points : 2)
3.28
328.0
.328
32.8

 Question 15.15. The unusual occurrences of disease is known as a/an: (Points : 2)
Cohort
Epidemic time curve
Priority
Epidemic

 Question 16.16. What is the defining difference between a prospective and a retrospective cohort study? (Points : 2)
Time
Dose
None of the above
All of the above

 Question 17.17. When a death, disease or injury occurs to a person at risk for the  same event at the beginning of a study period it is known as: (Points : 2)
Cohort
Risk event
Susceptible population
Limitation

 Question 18.18. Which of the following is not a part of the procedure for investigating a suspected epidemic? (Points : 2)
Name the epidemic
Establish a diagnosis
Establish the case definition
Define time, place and person
Develop a hypothesis

 Question 19.19. How many steps are there in the process of testing a null hypothesis for statistical significance? (Points : 2)
4
5
6
7

 Question 20.20. Calculate Attributable Risk using the following data: A=1346, B= 100,000-1346, C=200, D=100,000-200; then select the appropriate answer below: (Points : 2)
1146/10,000
1146/100,000
146/10,000
146/1000

 Question 21.21. A vector of disease may be all of the following except: (Points : 2)
Arthropods
Insects
Animals
Man

 Question 22.22. The difference between incidence and prevalence has to do with: (Points : 2)
Personal
Place
Disease
Time

 Question 23.23. Another name for “bias” is: (Points : 2)
Synergism
Differential Error
Syndrome
Error

 Question 24.24. If the cost of preventing a hip fracture is greater than the cost of surgical repair, which of the following is true: (Points : 2)
A preventative strategy still may be indicated
If a hip fracture occurs, it should be managed non-surgically
No attempt should be made to prevent hip fracture until a more cost-effective strategy is devised
The least costly preventative strategy should be chosen

 Question 25.25. The value of alpha serves as protection against which of the following: (Points : 2)
False negative results
Selection bias
Type I Error
Type II Error

 Question 26.26. The three stages of disease in the appropriate order from least to most detectable are: (Points : 2)
Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease
Symptomatic, latent, pre-disease
Pre-disease, symptomatic, latent
Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic

 Question 27.27. Which of the following is an example of secondary prevention? (Points : 2)
Cholesterol reduction in a patient with asymptomatic coronary artery disease
Prescription drug therapy for symptoms of menopause
Physical therapy after lumbar disk herniation
Pneumococcal vaccine in a patient who has undergone a splenectomy

 Question 28.28. How many steps are included in the creating of a decision tree? (Points : 2)
4
5
6
7

 Question 29.29. Please select the appropriate answer for the “median” based on the following numbers: 1,4,9,20,23,27,31,48,56,58. (Points : 2)
15
35
25
52

 Question 30.30. Measures of health related “quality of life” are: (Points : 2)
Objective
Subjective
Rejective
None of the above

 Question 31.31. When vaccines are used to confer an immunity such as with children it is known as: (Points : 2)
Passive immunity
Active immunity
Individual immunity
Globular immunity

 Question 32.32. The __________ is used to determine the probability of two things being true. (Points : 2)
Independence Rule
Product Rule
Subtraction Rule

 Question 33.33. Evaluation of which of the following potentially preventable causes of disease is most likely to raise ethical concerns: (Points : 2)
Dietary intake
Genetic susceptibility
Immunization status
Smoking history
Social support network

 Question 34.34. The definition of the word epidemiology includes: (Points : 2)
The study of determining factors of disease in a population
A way in which disease, injury and clinical practice are studied
Neither of the above is correct
Both a and b are correct

 Question 35.35. Herd immunity refers to: (Points : 2)
Genetic resistance to species-specific disease
Immunity naturally acquired by a population
The high levels of antibody present in a population after an epidemic
The vaccination of domestic animals to prevent disease transmission to humans

 Question 36.36. Widely publicized fatalities associated with an “emerging” disease such as Hantavirus may be an example of: (Points : 2)
Active surveillance
Case Findings
Iatrogenesis
The first responder response
The iceberg phenomenon

 Question 37.37. Which of the following is a test of statistical significance? (Points : 2)
Student t-test
Means
Both of the above are correct
Neither is correct

 Question 38.38. A false positive error is also known as __________ and a false negative error is known as _____________. (Points : 2)
Alpha/beta
Type I/Type II
Neither is correct
Both are correct

 Question 39.39. The natural history or stages of a disease are three in number; which of the following is the correct stages in the correct order or occurrence? (Points : 2)
Latent, pre-disease, symptomatic
Latent, symptomatic, pre-disease
Symptomatic, pre-disease, latent
Pre-disease, latent, symptomatic

 Question 40.40. Which of the following is not a common type of intervention? (Points : 2)
Modification of environment
Putting a barrier to the infection within the hosts
Treatment of diagnosed individuals
Identification of surveillance methods

 Question 41.41. Precision is also known as: (Points : 2)
Reproducibility
Reliability
Ability of a measurement to give the same results with repeated measuring
All of the above are correct

 Question 42.42. A comparison of the ratio of risk in an exposed group to that of an unexposed group is known as: (Points : 2)
Absolute Risk
Relative Risk
Attributable Risk
Relative Ratio

 Question 43.43. Which of the following is not a measure of dispersion? (Points : 2)
Mode
Range
Mean Deviation
Variance

 Question 44.44. Which of the following statements about semilogarithmic graphs is correct: (Points : 2)
Is made up of a non-logarithmic scales
Is made up of a vertical y-axis and a horizontal x-axis
Is made up of a horizontal y-axis and a vertical x-axis
Is generally graphed using a stem and leaf plot

 Question 45.45. A method of depicting data which includes bars that are vertically arranged with sides not touching is known as: (Points : 2)
Stem and Leaf Diagram
Boxplot
Histogram
Quantiles

 Question 46.46. Ten children were weighed prior to the beginning of a nutritional study. The weights are: 81, 79, 92, 112, 76, 126, 80, 75, 68, 78. What is the median? (Points : 2)
79
112
80
92

 Question 47.47. A Type II Error or false negative error is also known as a/an: (Points : 2)
Alpha Error
Beta Error
Omega Error
Delta Error

 Question 48.48. Please select the appropriate answer for the “mean” based on the following numbers: 1,4,9,20,23,27,31,48,56,58. (Points : 2)
25.7
27.0
2.70
27.7

 Question 49.49. The systematic distortion found especially in retrospective studies is known as: (Points : 2)
Recall bias
Biological Plausibility
Confounder
Internal Validity

 Question 50.50. The main difference between clinical and classical epidemiology are: (Points : 2)
The time of the investigation
The place of the investigation
The population being studied
A and c are correct
B and c are correct

 Question 51.51. An example of a nominal variable is: (Points : 2)
1,2,3
Yes/No
Male/Female
Both B and C are correct
All are correct

 Question 52.52. The Decision Node: (Points : 2)
Is a point where clinicians await outcomes
Is a point where clinicians have to make a decision
Is only related to undesirable outcomes
Is only related to desirable outcome interpretation

 Question 53.53. The administration of human immune globulin after exposure to Hepatitis B is an example of: (Points : 2)
Cross-reactivity
Health promotion
Hypersensitivity
Passive immunity

 Question 54.54. It is important to consider beta error when: (Points : 2)
The differences under consideration is not clinically meaningful
The difference under investigation is statistically significant
The null hypothesis is not rejected
The null hypothesis is rejected

 Question 55.55. A most imposing formula used in medicine dealing with probability of a person having or not having a disease based on test results is: (Points : 2)
Cramer V-value Theorem
Plasmodium Theory
Calmette-Guerin Theory
Bayes Theorem

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(Top Tutor) Kenneth K
School: UIUC

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