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DMM613 Thomas Jefferson Hurricane Irma Humanitarian Disaster Management Paper


Thomas Jefferson University

Question Description

COURSE NAME: International and Humanitarian Disaster Management

Assignment: Final Paper

Topic: Hurricane Irma

The paper should be a minimum of 16 pages (not including title page, abstract and references), in APA 6th edition format. . This is the opportunity to delve into a topic area addressed in the course and develop an in-depth understanding of the situation. Topics to discuss can include but, are not limited to the following. How is the disaster cycle used? What management model was applied? Discuss disaster management models, logistics, political and capacity related topics as applicable.

- APA Style

- Use your thoughts on the paper.

- It is not enough to simply quote others work. I am interested in reading your thoughts on the topic.

- Please keep in mind this is the final paper .

- Organizer for this course are attached.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

DMM-613 International and Humanitarian Disaster Management Organizer Fall 2019 Week Topics Introduction to International and Humanitarian Crisis Response and Recovery Section 2 8/28 Wed 930 - 1230 Week 1 Aug 26 Student Responsibilities Readings: Sphere Handbook History and Principles of Humanitarian Action, Rysaback-Smith, Heather, Brown University, Dept of Emergency Medicine (a copy of the report is under Readings in the Organizer) Assignments: Begin to develop your topic for the final paper due at the end of week 14. Remember when selecting a topic do not make the topic so broad that it will be difficult to explain all facets of the topic or so specific that you will have difficulty finding supporting literature. Week 8 Paper To begin planning/writing for week below are the topics and examples of points to cover in the paper. 1) Discuss the issues of responding to a complex humanitarian emergency or an international disaster. Choose one a. Haitian earthquake b. West African Ebola outbreak c. Syrian refugee crisis d. Yemen conflict and humanitarian crisis Some ideas to discuss in the paper: ● disaster management models, a. logistics, b. political factors, c. funding, d. capacity, e. recovery, f. other related topics as applicable. The paper must be a minimum of 5 pages of substantive analysis that demonstrate your thoughts and understanding of topics. Discussion Board Questions: DMM-613 International and Humanitarian Disaster Management Organizer Fall 2019 Please introduce yourself to the class. This should include your background in emergency management, public health and any international experiences. Please include work history you would like to share, hobbies, etc. The History Behind Humanitarian Crises Weekly Objectives: Week 2 Sept 2 Discuss the history and principles of international and humanitarian crisis response. Section 2 Attend chat session via webinar, no in class meeting Readings: Coppola – Chapter 1 The Management of Disasters History and Principles of Humanitarian Action, Rysaback-Smith, Heather, Brown University, Dept of Emergency Medicine (a copy of the report is under Topics of Study) Assignments: Chat Session #1 – Introduction and expectations for the course. Discussion Board Questions: 1) The Rysaback-Smith article and the Sphere Guidelines discuss some history of humanitarian aid and the basic principles that govern humanitarian aid. Do you see the manner in which humanitarian aid is provided changing? Please describe the change and how it could impact populations requiring aid as well as the impact on providers of humanitarian aid. Food Insecurity Week 3 Sept 9 Readings: World Food Programme Weekly Objectives ml?appid=a8e9e0ef4b854f3f921b08d296830e28 Introduce the concept (This is a story map best viewed from a computer) of food insecurity. 2019 Global Report on Food Crises Define contributing of food 0000104035/download/?_ga=2.11510196.1820525737. insecurity. 1556655420-1467315122.1555605387 Section 2 9/11 Wed 930 -1230 Discussion Board Questions: 1) Choose a country in the 2019 Global Report on Food Crises (Review each other’s posts and each student choose a different country). Review the drivers of food insecurity for your selected country and provide an overview. DMM-613 International and Humanitarian Disaster Management Organizer Fall 2019 2) Choose one of the drivers and discuss method(s) for addressing this driver. Be realistic in your approach and remember to think about linkages to the drivers that could be addressed. The term “driver” is discussed in the article and is essentially the underlying cause(s) of food insecurity. For example, conflict is a major driver of food security around the world. Linkages to this particular driver could be cultural, geographic, or political. The idea is to discuss the root causes and associate factors that drive and perpetuate food insecurity. Recovery Readings: Coppola – Chapter 7 Recovery Weekly Objectives Understand the recovery process and discuss the benefits of appropriate recovery planning. Week 4 Sept 16 Assignments: Submit your Final Paper topic. Please send me an email with the requested topic for your final paper. Discussion Board Questions: 1) Recovery is an essential part of disaster Discuss differences management. However, it is not well supported. in recovery following I am an elected official that sees far more value in small and large-scale response assets than recovery needs. Change my disaster. mind on the need for recovery. Review the challenges with societal recovery. 2) What role does community and economic development play in recovery? Section 2 9/18 Wed 9:30 - 1230 Ethical and Legal Considerations Week 5 Sept 23 Weekly Objectives: Readings: Kapur & Smith – Chapter 3 Public Health Law, Chapter 5 Emerging Public Health Systems: Post Conflict and post-Disaster Settings Discuss the importance of the Coppola – Chapter 10 Participants- Multilateral Organizations and International Financial Institutions DMM-613 International and Humanitarian Disaster Management Organizer Fall 2019 various Codes of Conduct and how they relate to international disasters. Understand cultural differences related to international or humanitarian responses. The Sphere Handbook-Humanitarian Charter Discussion Board Questions: 1) Please discuss the importance and value of understanding cultural ethics as they are related to international/humanitarian disasters. Similarly, discuss why we as responders must conduct ourselves, and distribute resources ethically. Section 2 9/25 930 -1130 early end Diseases of the Displaced Weekly Objectives: Week 6 Sept 30 Discuss diseases commonly seen in displaced populations. Discuss the cause and effect of disease outbreaks among displaced populations. Readings: Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations Eugene Lam, Amanda McCarthy, and Muireann Brennan, Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (2015) Discussion Board Questions: 1) There are a number of diseases that are consistently seen in displaced populations. Please explain potential causes for these outbreaks. 2) What are potential solutions for addressing these disease outbreaks? Section 2 10/2 9:30 – 12:30 Week 7 Oct 7 Public Health Tools: Epidemiological Studies; Surveillance and Monitoring Weekly Objectives: Readings: Kapur and Smith – Chapter 9 Epidemiological Studies, Chapter 10 Surveillance and Monitoring Discussion Board Questions: 1) Evidence is a key component in identifying trends and changing practice especially in the public health field. Choose a public health topic that you are especially passionate about. (e.g. water and sanitation, vaccinations, infectious disease, etc.) DMM-613 International and Humanitarian Disaster Management Organizer Fall 2019 Define epidemiological studies. Compare and contrast surveillance and monitoring. Discuss how studies/research support your views (for or against). 2) Choose a recent international or humanitarian crisis. What public health issues were associated with this incident? How would you manage these issues? Apply surveillance principles to a disaster or humanitarian crisis Section 2 10/9 9:30 -12:30 Governmental and NGO partnerships Weekly Objectives: Contrast governmental and international agency standards for response. Week 8 Oct 14 Analyze the process of “in-country” integration. Section 2 – no class finish week 8 paper Readings Coppola – Chapters 8 Participants: Governmental Disaster Management Agencies, Chapter 9 Participants: Nongovernmental Organizations (Including the Private Sector and Academia) Kapur and Smith – Chapters 6 Private Sector and NonGovernmental Organizations, Chapter 7 Non-Governmental Organizations’ Response to Crises UN Disaster Assessment and Coordination Field handbook Assignments: Week 8 Paper is due The paper MUST use APA formatting. Points will be deducted for formatting errors Discussion Board Questions: No discussion board questions for this week. Work on completing your paper. Week 9 Oct 21 Integration Complexity Readings: Report of the Independent Panel on the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) DMM-613 International and Humanitarian Disaster Management Organizer Fall 2019 Weekly Objectives: Discuss humanitarian/disaster relief integration challenges. Describe the complexity of integrating various response and recovery partners. Week 10 Oct 28 Ebola Response (a copy of the report is under Topics of Study) Haiti Earthquake Response: Mapping and analysis of gaps and duplications in evaluations Discussion Board Question: 1) Research and provide an example of the conflict between a country’s government with the international responding community. (One half of the group) Section 2 10/23 9:30 – 12:30 2) Research and provide an example of the success between a government and the international response community. (One half of the group) Food, Water, Sanitation and Infrastructure Readings: WHO - Food and Nutrition Needs in Emergencies Weekly Objectives: Assignments: Chat Session # 2 – PowerPoint presentation and group discussion. Compare emergency and long-term needs for food, water, sanitation and infrastructure. Discussion Board Questions: No Discussion Board questions this week. Continue to develop your final paper. Discuss the challenges with providing/repairing/ developing these resources. Section 2 10/30 9:30 – 12:30 Week 11 Nov 4 Security Issues, Human Rights, Humanitarian Protection Weekly Objectives: Readings: Peace Corps safety: ments/safety_and_security_highlights.pdf DMM-613 International and Humanitarian Disaster Management Organizer Fall 2019 Review guidelines for personal safety and security when in another country. Discuss how basic safety issues are compounded by the complexity of the disaster. Discussion Board Questions: 1) What role does security play during a disaster or humanitarian response? 2) How is the response/recovery impacted by security concerns? Section 2 11/6 9:30 – 12:30 Week 12 Nov 11 Public Health and Disasters Readings: Kapur & Smith – Chapter 13 Pandemic Influenza, Weekly Objectives: Chapter 14 Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Identify public health concerns during each phase of a disaster. Section 2 11/13 9:30 – 12:30 Humanitarian Response and Recovery Discussion Board Questions: 1) You are an Emergency Manager in your respective country. A highly infectious influenza strain has been detected. There is a limited quantity of the vaccine to prevent this particular strain of influenza. Discuss your plan for distributing this vaccine. Who receives the vaccine and who does not? How did you come to this conclusion? Readings: None for this week. Apply what you have learned and think of creative solutions for this week’s discussion board. Weekly Objectives: Week 13 Nov 18 Compare and contrast humanitarian crises and disaster response. Section 2 11/20 9:30 – 12:30 Discussion Board Questions: 1) The Syrian refugee crisis has been classified as one of the largest humanitarian crises in recent history. Discuss three challenges associated with this humanitarian crisis. How would you recommend managing these challenges? Be prepared to substantiate your ideas. DMM-613 International and Humanitarian Disaster Management Organizer Fall 2019 Week 14 Nov 25 Week 15 Dec 2 Special Considerations Readings: Coppola – Chapter 11, Special Considerations Weekly Objectives: Assignments: Final Paper due Summarize special considerations associated with disasters. Reminder - The paper MUST use APA formatting. Points will be deducted for formatting errors. Discussion Board Questions: Section 2 11/27 No class 1) How would you as an Emergency Manager: a. prevent corruption following a disaster; b. manage compound emergencies; c. ensure equality in assistance and relief distribution. Choose one. The Changing Landscape of Crisis and Evolving Humanitarianism Readings: Planning from the Future Discussion Board Questions: 1) Given what we have discussed this semester and Weekly Objectives: this week’s reading, discuss your thoughts on the evolving causes of crises. How do you see the Discuss the changing described changes impacting humanitarian aid? nature of crisis and How would you prepare and respond to this the evolution of changing landscape? humanitarianism Section 2 final class 12/4 9:30 – 12:30 ...
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Disaster Management in Hurricane Irma
Institution Affiliation



Disaster Management in Hurricane Irma
On September 6, 2017, Hurricane Irma made a landfall on Barbuda, which made it to be
the most powerful Hurricane in Atlantic throughout the documented history (Halverson, 2018). It
was recorded as a Category 5 storm. Its winds were estimated to be moving at 185 miles per
hour, a rate that was maintained for thirty-seven hours. However, there was an unofficial wind
gust that reportedly hit 199 miles per hour. Hurricane Irma’s wind stretched for fifty miles away
from its center. On the contrary, tropical-storm-force winds covered 185 miles away from its
center. Equally, the coastal storm surges were arguably above normal tide levels by twenty feet.
A temperature of eighty-six degrees Fahrenheit sustained the storm. The global warming effect
was captured as the temperatures worsened the situation. Moreover, it had seven trillion watts of
energy, which is double the strength the nuclear bomb dropped in Nagasaki and Hiroshima
during the Second World War. Besides, due to the powerful nature of its force, earthquake
seismometers had to capture it. Also, Hurricane Irma created the highest accumulated energy
within twenty hours.
Hurricane Irma's Damage
The Hurricane resulted in the death of an estimated 129 people. Equally, sixty percent of
the population living in the area was left homeless. Government and local officials, especially
from Florida, ordered more than 6.4 million individuals to evacuate the affected area. There were
450 shelters developed in the location that accommodated at 77,000 people. The government
played a significant role in transferring at least 1,700 residents to Antigua. Barbuda and
surrounding areas suffered heavily since more than ninety percent of houses were destroyed. All



communication networks were rendered useless after massive damage. The total cost of the
destruction linked to Hurricane Irma was $50 billion, subject to adjustment based on inflation.
Vast tracts of agricultural land were damaged. Florida is the second-largest producer of
vegetables in the United States of America. Thus, the livelihood of the population was highly
affected after Hurricane Irma threatened the production of crops with an estimated value of $1.3
billion. The prices of various commodities, such as orange juice and sugar, increased days before
and after the storm. However, more devastating effects would have been witnessed if large
plantations in Georgia and California could have been hard hit. Corn, peanut, and soybeans
prices could have risen. Naples experienced the strongest winds, which were at 142 mph,
whereas Miami had 73 mph; equally, Fort Pierce received the highest amount of rainfall. All
streets were flooded, and three cranes were reported to have collapsed.
Notably, building codes in Florida State, especially Miami-Dade, Monroe, and Broward
counties' are considered to have optimal wind standards nationally. Most of the improvements
were integrated into the framework after Hurricane Andrew hit the area in 1992. However,
despite the intensive preparation, the designs did not guarantee enough protection due to the
changing nature of Hurricanes that become stronger each day. Currently, there are no structures
in Miami and other surrounding areas that could withstand winds of more than 185 mph.
According to Zolnikov (2018), more than seventy percent of the houses in the area were
constructed before 1994. Many of these buildings have not been restructured. Thus, the inability
of many houses to fit the wind codes exposes them to adverse effects during storms.
Mitsova et al. (2018) argued that Hurricane Irma could have led to a lot of damages;
however, the Florida state utilized previous experiences from Hurricane Charley and Andrew in



2004 and 1992, respectively. The state restructured its building codes to make sure that the
structures are resilient to the occurrence of hurricanes. Thus, more than eighty percent of the
houses in Florida were constructed to withstand storms. Even though there were new building
codes that were introduced in Florida, it still has the highest insurance for homeowners.
Comparison to Other Hurricanes
Even though Hurricane Irma is considered the most powerful Atlantic hurricane in
recorded history, it is not the most destructive. Equally, it did not hit various cities that are highly
developed in Florida. According to Zolnikov (2018), if Hurricane Irma would have hit Miami
while it was a Category 5, the value of destruction would have gone slightly above $250 billion.
The estimation captures resources such as buildings and other critical infrastructure. Equally, it
involves economic disruptions to business operations and other associated expenses. Hurricane
Katrina remains to be the most destructive hurricane in recent years. When adjusted to inflation,
the effects of Hurricane Katrina can be valued at $160 billion. Also, it was a Category 5
hurricane. It occurred in 2005, flooding every part of New Orleans. A high percentage of the
destruction was attributed to storm surges that overburdened the levees.
The second most destructive hurricane was Hurricane Harvey. It was a Category 4
hurricane and was valued at $125 billion after being adjusted to inflation. In 2017, the rain
associated with Hurricane Harvey led to the flooding of more than ninety percent of Houston.
The third was Hurricane Maria, which hit Puerto Rico days after Hurricane Irma. It was valued at
$90 billion after being adjusted to inflation. The fourth is Hurricane Sandy, which occurred in
2012. It hit both New York and New Jersey. Its estimated damage was valued at $70.2 billion
after being adjusted to inflation. Although it was not well developed to be considered as a



Hurricane, it took place in advanced cities resulting in a lot of destruction. Thus, the fifth is
Hurricane Irma that was valued at $50 billion after being adjusted to inflation.
Exploration of Hurricane Irma Disaster Management Cycle
According to Pinelli et al. (2018), developmental considerations are vital to the disaster
management cycle. Enhancement of sustainable livelihoods is a central goal in disaster
management, and it has a direct connection with development. Thus, it plays a significant role in
the underlying issues, which involve the protection and recovery of lives and assets during
emergencies and in case of disasters. The accomplishment of the aforementioned goal implies
that individuals have a higher capacity to address concerns before, during, and after disasters.
Equally, its recovery framework is faster and long-lasting. Usually, in a development-driven
disaster management technique, various goals are covered, which include the following;
decrement of hazards, avoidance of disasters, and promoting readiness for emergencies. Hence,
developmental considerations are expansively integrated into the mitigation and preparedness
stages of the disaster management cycle. In most cases, improper developmental processes result
in increased exposure to disasters and a weakening of readiness during emergencies.
Usually, the disaster management framework is designed to minimize or eliminate
possible losses linked to hazards. Equally, it ensures there is prompt and appropriate help
extended to the victims of the disaster. Besides, it explores frameworks designed to accomplish
fast, effective, and reliable recovery. According to Zolnikov (2018), disaster management cycle
demonstrates processes undertaken by the federal and local governments, business enterprises,
and non-governmental agencies to decrease the effect of disasters. Hence, it includes systems
that promote actions and reactions during and immediately after disasters to enhance the



recovery model. Utilizing proper actions in all disaster phases result in greater preparedness,
increased level of alertness, minimized vulnerabilities, or avoidance of disasters before the
occurrence of the next cycle. A holistic disaster management cycle captures various dynamics,
such as the creation and development of public policies, the establishment of a comprehensive
plan, manipulation of potential causes of disasters, and mitigation of their effects on citizens,
assets, and infrastructure.
In most cases, the preparation and mitigation stages take place when disaster
management improvements are captured when anticipating the occurrence of a disastrous event.
Improvements that are integrated into the overall disaster management cycle contribute to the
mitigation structure and preparation of a community to address the underlying issues effectively.
Usually, when a disaster occurs, various actors in the disaster management model, especially the
humanitarian institutions, participate in responding to the concerns immediately and establish
long-term recovery stages. There are four disaster management phases, which include the
following; mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, do not always occur in a specific
order or isolation. Sometimes some stages overlap. In most cases, the length of one phase can be
longer or shorter, depending on the severity and intensity of the disaster. However, preparation is
always an ongoing process because the dynamics of disasters keep on changing and taking a new
Usually, mitigation activities are designed to remove or decrease the possibility of a
disaster occurring or minimize the impact of unavoidable disasters. Some of the mitigation
measures include the following; building codes, sensitization of the public, protective healthcare,



zoning of areas, land management, promotion of safety codes, vulnerability examination, and
provision of updates. Equally, mitigation depends on the integration of measures from the federal
and local government development planning. Besides, the effectiveness is directly linked to the
accessibility and availability of information on risks, hazards, and countermeasures that should
be undertaken. The entire disaster management cycle, especially the mitigation stage, involves
the creation of policies and plans that have the potential of manipulating hazards or mitigating
their impact on individuals, assets, and infrastructure. In this phase, all stakeholders are involved
and are active participants in the disaster management cycle. According to Xian et al. (2018),
some of the mitigation measures utilized during Hurricane Irma extended from the after-effects
of Hurricane Andrew and Hurricane Charley that occurred in 1992 and 2004, respectively. The
building codes were put in place to minimize the effects of storms. Also, communication
networks across various departments in Florida State were boosted to ensure information was
delivered to citizens in real-time. Moreover, people in multiple counties within the state were
sensitized and educated about hurricanes.
The primary objective of readiness is to attain a satisfactory degree of readiness needed to
respond to disasters and emergencies by using programs that are designed to promote the
managerial and technical ability of communities, local and federal governments, and
organizations. Some of the measures in preparedness phase are structured for logistical readiness
to address disasters. Usually, they are promoted by integrating comprehensive mechanisms and
processes, establishing both short-term and long-term strategies, sensitization of the populace,
developing warning frameworks, and rehearsing on possible courses of action. Equally,
preparedness implies that enough reserves of food, tools, and other vital items are kept to deal



with eventualities and catastrophes. Besides, structures must be designed to fit the required
standards to reduce the effects of disasters on buildings and infrastructures. Ensuring people are
alert and are educated on the appropriate courses of action in case their input is required is also
During the preparedness stage in the disaster management cycle, individuals,
communities, organizations, and governments establish frameworks designed to save as many
lives as possible, reduce the extent of damage that can be caused during a disaster, and put in
place structures that promote response operation...

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