Humanitarian Disaster Management Paper

Business Finance

Question Description


How would you as an Emergency Manager:

  1. prevent corruption following a disaster;
  2. manage compound emergencies;
  3. ensure equality in assistance and relief distribution.

Choose one.


The answers should be at least 3 substantive paragraphs, well developed, referenced, and properly formatted. “Substantive” means that the writer has added to the dialogue with referenced facts or pertinent personal experience leading to a reasoned argument that advances the scholarly discussion. Discussion question answers must include at least one reference that is not from the assigned reading.

Reference to appropriate authoritative resources and official websites. Must be accessible online. Use New Times Roman 12 font with 1” margins and APA style.

The required reading & 1 example from another student is attached, but do your original work.

Teaching Points:

The discussion for this week is special considerations. The reading assignment discusses some unique issues and I would like to discuss a few more not covered in the text. The first is special needs populations. To start, a significant challenge is defining a special needs population. How would you as an Emergency Manager describe special needs? Children? The elderly? People with disabilities? Wards of the state such as prisoners, children in foster care, etc.? Nursing home residents? Whom else? What portion of the population could be identified as a special needs population? In recent years special needs populations have been renamed to be somewhat more inclusive to “persons with access and functional needs”. However, regardless of title the underlying objectives remain the same. How to we appropriately care for these groups during an emergency? How do we as Emergency Managers make the difficult decision(s) of allocating potentially scarce resource to a small subset of the population? Isn’t the idea of Emergency Management to do the most for the most? How would you reconcile any fallout of the perception of not appropriately managing special needs populations?

The next special consideration to discuss is more a situation and that is the idea of evacuation. It is a term that is widely used and with any number of varying techniques but, at best it is an extremely challenging undertaking. The first challenge is determining when an evacuation should occur. Unfortunately, there is little evidence that provides an accurate determination of when to conduct an evacuation. While some circumstances provide an easy determination for small scale evacuations such as fires, or chemical releases. The decision for large-scale evacuations become much more difficult and determining why, when, how are equally challenging. So, what are some of the considerations for evacuation? Why are we evacuating? What is the foundational cause of evacuation? Is it a natural, human-caused or technological disaster and how does the cause effect the evacuation?

Let’s put a few questions into perspective and discuss this scenario. You are the Emergency Manager of county along the ocean coast. A Tropical Storm has been upgraded to a Category 2 hurricane and current predictions have the storm building in strength to a Category 3 or 4 hurricane over the next two days. The storm is projected to make landfall approximately 100 miles south of your county and track northward before turning out to sea. What are your thoughts on evacuation at this point?

Some information on your county. Your county has 250,000 residents, a county prison housing 120 inmates, two hospitals and a small university. Does this information change your thoughts on evacuation? If so, what are your other options for protecting all the various populations? There is also a discussion that in my experience is often overlooked when discussing evacuation and this is where are the evacuees being relocated. Do we need to track certain populations? If so, how does this occur?

The point of this exercise is to demonstrate the complexity of evacuation and perhaps open the conversation for other options that are perhaps less complex but will require an equal degree of planning.

What are other special considerations that you have encountered or have in interest in discussing further?

Unformatted Attachment Preview

CHAPTER SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS CHAPTER SUMMARIES 11 International disaster management has become increasingly diverse, encompassing new areas of technical expertise not traditionally considered relevant to the practice. The incidence of disasters is increasing, and populations face growing risk. These trends continue despite efforts to counter them. Disaster management will remain a global topic of concern for many decades to come. In order to continue to develop the field of risk management, the international disaster management community will have to solve several ongoing issues of contention and sources of uncertainty, including coordination of responders, the role of the media, the development of institutional emergency management capacities, the political will to make risk reduction happen, the prevalence of compound emergencies that make management much more complex, the risks associated with donor fatigue, corruption, uncooperative governments, the importance of ensuring equality in humanitarian assistance and relief distribution, the effect of climate change on the incidence and severity of disasters, a need for improved early warning, a true linkage of risk reduction and development practices, and a distinction between development and reconstruction. Terrorism will continue to play a large role in focusing the agendas of government emergency management agencies. Finally, global disasters, where all countries are affected in one way or another, will only increase in number. Key Terms: adaptation; climate change; compound emergencies; coordination; corruption; development; donor fatigue; early warning; equality in humanitarian assistance; global disasters; institutional capacity development; political will; risk reduction; state sovereignty; terrorism; the media. INTRODUCTION International disaster management has become increasingly diverse, encompassing new areas of technical expertise not traditionally considered relevant to the profession. Specialists in many fields, including development, economics, public health, sociology, political science, environmental protection, climate change, communications, and engineering, just to name a few, are finding that their experience and knowledge are being called upon as nations continue to address the snowballing issues of global disaster risk. Hazard vulnerability, disaster risk, and the management of humanitarian emergencies have risen to the top of the global policy agenda in recent years and have remained there because of the onslaught of catastrophic disasters in every region of the world. The disaster events of the twenty-first century have shattered any presumptions that any nation—wealthy or poor—has solved the disaster risk and vulnerability problems. Through their awesome and destructive fury, recent disasters have proven that all nations have much to learn about preparing for, mitigating against, responding to, and recovering from the many forms of disasters that continue to plague us. Chapter 1 described the increasing incidence of disasters throughout the world and the growing hazard risk faced by the world’s population. These trends continue despite considerable efforts to Introduction to International Disaster Management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 681 682 CHAPTER 11 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS counter them and, without a more concerted effort to incorporate the global disaster risk reduction recommendations of UNISDR, the World Bank, the International Recovery Platform, and other movements, little will change. In 2013, there were 41 disaster events worldwide that each exceeded $1 billion in damages, a number that exceeds any previous year. The year 2013 broke all previous records in terms of the number of billion-dollar disasters that occurred worldwide. There were more than 250 weather-related disasters that year, a number that is rising and is indicative of what may soon be considered the norm without greater disaster management efforts by all governments. A recent study by the journal Nature predicted that, by the year 2050, coastal cities will experience an average of $1 trillion in losses each year due to the effects of climate change—in addition to disasters caused by all other hazard forms. Exhibit 11.1 lists a sample of these events. EXHIBIT 11.1 MAJOR DISASTERS AND COUNTRIES WHERE THEY OCCURRED, JUNE 2013 TO JUNE 2014 • Avalanches – Nepal, United States • Commercial airplane accidents with 10 or more fatalities – Laos, Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Russian Federation, United States • Complex humanitarian emergencies – Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo (source country), Egypt, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Mali (source country), Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Sudan, South Sudan (source country), Syria (source country), Turkey, Uganda • Epidemics and pandemics – Benin (cholera), Cameroon (polio), Costa Rica (dengue), El Salvador (dengue), Equatorial Guinea (polio), Guatemala (dengue), Guinea (Ebola, measles), Fiji (dengue), Honduras (dengue), Iraq (polio), Laos (dengue), Liberia (Ebola), Mexico (dengue), Namibia (cholera), Nicaragua (dengue), Nigeria (cholera), Pakistan (dengue), Panama (dengue), Sierra Leone (Ebola), South Sudan (cholera, measles), Sudan (yellow fever), Syria (polio), Timor-Leste (dengue), Togo (cholera), Uganda (measles) • Extreme cold/heat – Bolivia, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Peru, United States • Famine or malnutrition exceeding 25 percent of the population – Burkina Faso, Botswana, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, North Korea, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe • Flooding – Afghanistan, Balkans, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Colombia, Dominica, Georgia, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Laos, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, The Grenadines, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zimbabwe • Hurricanes, cyclones, typhoons – Cambodia, China, Comoros, Fiji, India, Laos, Mexico, Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Viet Nam • Landslides/mudslides – Afghanistan, Bolivia, Brazil, Burundi, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, Tajikistan • Major bus and roadway accidents – Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Egypt, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Russian Federation, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States • Maritime disasters – Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Libya, Malaysia, Malta, Panama, Philippines, Somalia, South Korea, South Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, Yemen • Rail accidents – Argentina, Canada, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Estonia, France, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Russian Federation, South Korea, Spain, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States • Severe drought – Bolivia, Ecuador, Pakistan, Paraguay • Stampedes – India, Ivory Coast   Coordination 683 EXHIBIT 11.1 MAJOR DISASTERS AND COUNTRIES WHERE THEY OCCURRED, JUNE 2013 TO JUNE 2014—Cont’d • Strong earthquakes – Chile, China, Colombia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Solomon Islands, United States • Structural failures (Brazil, Colombia, India, Latvia, Malaysia, South Korea, United States) • Structure fires – Chile, China, Russian Federation, South Korea, United States, Viet Nam • Terrorist attacks – Afghanistan, Bahrain, Belgium, Central African Republic, China, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Kenya, Kosovo, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Somalia, South Korea, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, United States, Yemen • Tornadoes – Australia, Belgium, France, Japan, United Kingdom, United States • Volcanoes – Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Peru, United States, Vanuatu • Widespread civil unrest – Argentina, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, China, France, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine, United States, Viet Nam • Wildfires – Australia, Canada, Chile, United States As shown by the efforts taken by governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multilateral organizations to find solutions to the skyrocketing financial and human losses from disasters, disaster management will remain a global topic of concern for many decades to come. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) Monitor shows promising indications that the efforts of the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, the various regional organizations, and many nations’ governments have done more in the past decade to reduce disaster threats than has occurred throughout history. And in response to the outpouring of concern by the world’s population to the recent great loss of life and property resulting from disasters such as those listed in Exhibit 11.1 and many others discussed in this text, world leaders have committed to taking serious actions to reduce risk and vulnerability before future disasters occur. In coming years, as the international community seeks to control increasing global risk, and as the international disaster management community begins to assume a more central and organized stance, several key issues continue to pose a challenge. While many of these problems have long existed without being adequately addressed, others are newly discovered and will require new solutions. In either case, these issues stand as challenges to the progress of international disaster management. This chapter presents several of these new and existing problems, which are certain to remain on the forefront of international disaster management for quite some time. COORDINATION Disaster response grows in complexity each year as a greater number of organizations and frameworks expand the realm of international disaster management. Whereas dozens of agencies used to converge upon the scene of an earthquake or flood, there are now hundreds, and occasionally, thousands. These organizations address events in a series of waves, some just in the initial hours and days, and others remaining on site for months or years. In response to the December 2004 tsunami events, for example, more than 200 organizations addressed the single issue of water quality, while thousands more provided food aid, shelter, medical assistance, and many other victim and rehabilitation needs. Operations occurred in multiple countries and multiple regions, and lasted for many years. 684 CHAPTER 11 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Studies have found that, despite coordination attempts, many of the responding agencies still tend to, and in some cases prefer to, work independently and in an uncoordinated manner. This typically increases the severity of delays and inefficiencies in the distribution and provision of relief. Decreased participation in coordination mechanisms results in lags, gaps, and inaccuracies in the vital information on which response and recovery depends. However, at times, the issue is not a failure of initiative or a resistance to participate. Coordination mechanisms, even when they exist, are not always all-inclusive or accessible. There are many instances where very small NGOs and local community organizations involved in response are willing to work together in a more coordinated manner, but are left out of the coordination planning processes before and during disaster response simply because the systems are not in place to include them or there is little awareness of their existence. Coordination in disaster response has always been difficult, especially in terms of civil–military cooperation. As the scope of disaster management grows, coordination will only grow in complexity until a suitable mechanism is agreed on by all actors. Previous shortfalls contributed to the creation of coordination mechanisms such as the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA; see chapter 10). OCHA has proven effective as a coordinator in several disaster responses because of its close relationship to the overall UN system, whose agencies maintain longstanding relationships with developing country governments, where the most catastrophic disasters are likely to occur. However, OCHA lacks the authority to ensure all participating response and recovery agencies operate “on the same page.” While such authority is unlikely to be granted to any single national, international, or non-governmental organization, greater trust in, understanding of, and positive experiences with organizations like OCHA may lead to increased participation in their coordination structures. Increased coordination has been shown to reduce the period of time between when the disaster occurs and when relief is provided. It also helps to increase the area covered by assistance efforts, decrease costs associated with the provision of supplies and assistance, and standardize the quality of relief, among many other positive results. Effective disaster response coordination is the foundation on which increased international disaster response capacity will be built. Some countries have taken steps to develop national-level cluster systems that mirror the UN Cluster System in order to recreate the organizational planning and operations it facilitates in disasters that do not rise to the international level. Other countries are exploring expansion of the Emergency Support Function concept to include non-traditional and non-governmental organizations and resources. There is no one-size-fits-all solution, and every event is unique with regard to coordination needs, so this area of focus will continue to be a central area of focus as disaster management capacity is addressed at all functional levels. THE MEDIA It is well known that the news media capitalizes on the spectacular nature of crises and disasters, broadcasting vivid images, heartbreaking tragedies, harrowing tales of survival, and public accusations of blame. This kind of reporting attracts viewers or readers and increases ratings. For centuries, the news media has exploited death, destruction, and victimization—first in newspapers, and later on radio and television. Today, thanks to technological advances, the media has found access to once unimaginable places. Because of nonstop news coverage and the expansion of Internet- and wireless-based news   The Media 685 services (such as cellular and handheld computer systems), the world today receives real-time disaster information, which only a decade ago would have been old news by the time it reached consumers. Disaster management officials and the news media have traditionally enjoyed a love/hate relationship, with disaster management agencies viewing the media more as an adversary than an ally. The media, likewise, viewed responders as standoffish, untrusting, and secretive. With the advent of effective media partnerships and increased disaster-specific education for members of the press, however, the news media is beginning to be recognized for the significant benefits it may offer disaster management. For instance: • Through media partnership, more effective risk communication is possible. Chapter 5 described studies that identify the media as the primary source of risk reduction information for many significant hazards. The media is able to reach individuals and households in ways risk managers could never do on their own or through alternate sources. • No system has proved more effective than the news media in alerting emergency management organizations and citizens alike about the onset of sudden disasters. Early warning messages broadcast by emergency managers via television, radio, and the Internet have proven highly effective. The news media has proven capable of transmitting messages about evacuation, medical assistance, and other emergency-related information. Additionally, emergency managers often learn of impending disasters by watching or listening to media outlets. The news media maintains some of the most effective methods for recognizing events in progress and transmitting that information rapidly. For instance, it was discovered in the after-action reporting on the response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States that many, if not most, US government officials first learned of the attacks from media giant CNN. • The media is effective at alerting the world to slow-onset disasters that may otherwise go unnoticed until becoming a full-fledged catastrophe. Drought, famine, and many complex humanitarian emergencies develop over a long period of time, during which intervention is much more effective. Even where knowledge of certain slow-onset emergencies exists, the media provides images and stories that allow citizens to understand and prioritize the events in relation to other existing issues. The media can thus mobilize concerned citizens, who pressure governments and multilateral organizations to take proper action. This coverage is also effective in motivating the same concerned citizens to increase philanthropic giving, on which humanitarian organizations depend. • The news media is effective at identifying corruption and mismanagement, helping to reduce both. In their investigative role, news outlets help raise awareness about unethical and inappropriate forms of response and recovery that often stymie disaster management efforts. The information they gather proves valuable long beyond the disasters, as it is later used to guide the improvement and restructuring of future response and recovery efforts. • The media is able to act as a member of the emergency management team if provided the tools to do so. The media relies on accurate data and informed officials to provide viewers with usable information. By providing the media with these resources and helping them to understand the dynamics of disaster management, disaster managers can increase the likelihood that the public is well informed. Of course, many of the grievances emergency managers have against the media are based, in part, on truth and experience—and many of these problems persist. For instance, the media is not consistently accurate in their emergency assessments and has made some situations appear worse than they 686 CHAPTER 11 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS actually are. The media often select “experts” who are likely to provide alarmist viewpoints that reflect worst-case scenarios and extreme predictions. As a result, resources can be directed away from more important but less publicized issues. The media can cause donor fatigue because of the excessive coverage of disaster after disaster. This blanket coverage can result in lower concern for the plight of disaster victims, which can negatively impact philanthropic giving. Donors may feel that the world’s problems are so extreme that their individual efforts are meaningless, which leads them to decrease or even cease their giving. Accuracy of information is also an issue of ...
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Final Answer



Humanitarian Disaster Management
Institutional Affiliation




Humanitarian Disaster Management
Humanitarian response incorporates providing the material and logistical assistance to the
different people in different countries. The occurrence of the large-scale disaster presents a huge
impact on the community or the country. Most of the time, some of the impacts that are
associated with large scale disasters include loss of life, loss of property, including food, house,
and clothes. After the occurrence of the disaster, the affected community immediately requires
heath assistance, evacuation, food, clean housing, and clothing assistance. Humanitarian
agencies need to ensure that they have enough resources to support the affected community.
However, in some instances, the humanitar...

agneta (54974)
New York University

Really helped me to better understand my coursework. Super recommended.

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