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GEG 210 University at Buffalo Deforestation of Amazon Brazil Paper

GEG 210

university at buffalo

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TERM PAPER When thinking of a topic for the term paper, any environmental issue could be potentially addressed. Consider, though, that you will have to focus on a study area, and that you will need to discuss related conservation measures that can be applied to help solve or prevent the problem. Conservation measures include: (1) particular policies designed to protect the environment (like hunting regulations, forestry concessions, pollution regulations), (2) resource management plans, (3) protected-area establishment or management, (4) management of buffer zones, (5) ex-situ conservation measures (like zoos, genetic material libraries, arboretums, botanical gardens, etc.), (6) non-profit initiatives, (7) environmentalist grassroots actions, (8) subsidies, (9) market incentives, (10) international conventions and treaties, (11) renewable energy proposals, (12) sustainable food production, among many others. The final paper should include the following sections. Sections don’t need to be labelled, and if they are, they can have different titles and include subheadings. In general, try to address all the themes in these sections—roughly in the order suggested.

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Fall 2019 Instructor: Mario Cardozo GEG 210-Environmental Conservation Paper guidelines Due dates: Sunday 11/10/2019 – Paper prospect (1-1.5 double spaced pages, excluding references) Sunday 12/08/2019 – Term paper (7-9 double spaced pages, excluding references) Both are D2L submissions (under Assessment/Assignments) PAPER PROSPECT The prospect should address concisely: • • • • The environmental issue/problem: Clearly define the issue, its main causes, and why it is important for specific audiences to consider it. Physical aspects: Mention the most relevant biophysical aspects of the issue. Human-related aspects: If not explained when defining the causes of the issue, mention how humans are involved in creating or amplifying the issue. Extent of problem: The paper should be focused on a study area or small region. Define the study area, and how the environmental problem in the area could be connected with overarching biophysical and human structures (levels and scales). Make sure to include at least three references that you could use to write the paper. One of these references must be a peer-reviewed academic article, academic book, or academic book chapter. TERM PAPER When thinking of a topic for the term paper, any environmental issue could be potentially addressed. Consider, though, that you will have to focus on a study area, and that you will need to discuss related conservation measures that can be applied to help solve or prevent the problem. Conservation measures include: (1) particular policies designed to protect the environment (like hunting regulations, forestry concessions, pollution regulations), (2) resource management plans, (3) protected-area establishment or management, (4) management of buffer zones, (5) ex-situ conservation measures (like zoos, genetic material libraries, arboretums, botanical gardens, etc.), (6) non-profit initiatives, (7) environmentalist grassroots actions, (8) subsidies, (9) market incentives, (10) international conventions and treaties, (11) renewable energy proposals, (12) sustainable food production, among many others. The final paper should include the following sections. Sections don’t need to be labelled, and if they are, they can have different titles and include subheadings. In general, try to address all the themes in these sections—roughly in the order suggested. 1. Introduction (1.5-2 pages) Expand the paper prospect based on the instructor’s feedback. In addition, make sure to connect your paper with a more general narrative associated with the environmental problem at stake. Towards the end of the introduction, include a couple of sentences about conservation measures or possible solutions for the issue. No matter how dire the situation being related, try to be optimistic about a better future. 2. Background (2-2.5pages) Describe the study area, addressing its natural and human aspects. Do not include an extensive review of the geography of the place, but do highlight aspects that will allow the reader to understand the Page 1 of 2 environmental issue(s) at stake. In this section, also include a localized narrative of the environmental issue. How is it different than in other places? For how long is the environmental issue a problem in the area? What have local people and/or the government done—if anything—to help control or solve the issue? If it is an environmental problem that doesn’t exist yet but could potentially occur in the area, explain why there is a threat. 3. Theoretical framework (1-1.5pages) Describe how analyzing the environmental problem in this location may benefit from any of the theoretical frameworks introduced in the course (e.g., Malthus, EKC, Environmental Justice, Political Ecology, or others). Succinctly explain the main focus of the theoretical framework. 4. Conversation measures (2.5-3 pages) Lay out a conservation strategy that could help control or solve the environmental issue under study. Focus on one or two types of conservation measures so that you can describe them with certain detail. Provide specific and feasible conservation recommendations that are adequate for your particular study area. If you are relating conservation measures that are already in place, mention how they can be enhanced or modified to make sure they are more effective. Discuss multi-scale and multi-level interactions considering human and natural aspects of the issue. Finish this section with a concluding paragraph that summarizes your conclusion on why it is important to address this environmental issue, why your proposed conservation measures are adequate for the study area, and how these measures connect to the theoretical framework adopted. 5. References Include at least five references, two of which should be peer-reviewed. FORMAT Write the paper in a word processor following these settings: (1) double spacing, (2) Times New Roman 12 point font, (3) 1-inch margins, and (4) page number in the bottom, middle section of the page. Proofread your paper carefully before submitting it, and please avoid colloquial or poetic language. Follow the APA (American Psychological Association) style and citation guide. Here are some quick considerations regarding the APA style: https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_style_introduction.html Page 2 of 2 ...
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Running head: DEFORESTATION OF AMAZON BRAZIL
1

Deforestation of Amazon Brazil
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation

DEFORESTATION OF AMAZON BRAZIL
2
Introduction
Over 750,000 square miles of Amazon forest have been destroyed since the year 1978
across Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela, and Guyana. But why is the earth's largest rain
forest being destroyed? If anyone tries to answer this question, the likelihood that he or she will
be right is very high. For the course of human history, the primary reason for deforestation in
Amazon has been because of farming activities. The farmers across the Amazon region cut down
trees for the production of crops for their families and local consumption. However, in the late
20th century, this began to change with an increased proportion of deforestation in the region
driven by industrial activities and large-scale agriculture. Another course of deforestation in
Amazon was for cattle ranching, and by 2000s, over three-quarters of the forest clearing was
done for livestock.
Deforestation and industrial activities resulted in forests in the Amazon region being
cleared at an alarming rate between the 1970s and 2000s. Most of the clearing of the forest was
done for cattle pastures, colonization projects, bulldozed for towns, cleared for minerals, and
drowned for dams (Pfaff, Herrera & Sandoval, 2015). An increase in constructions of roads
aimed at opening the previously impenetrable forests to settlement of farmers, speculators, and
illegal logging, played a critical role in the clearing of Amazon. But this trend started to reverse
in Brazil in early 2004. Since the annual loss of the largest rainforest in the world was
declaiming annually by eight percent in the country that contained two-thirds of the forest, Brazil
fuelled several factors to try addressing the problem (Pfaff, Herrera & Sandoval, 2015). These
factors include increased law enforcement, pressure from environmentalists, new protected areas,
macroeconomic trends, private and public sector initiatives, and satellite monitoring. However,

DEFORESTATION OF AMAZON BRAZIL
3
the efforts employed by Brazil were not adopted by other Amazon countries resulting in some
experiencing rising deforestation in the forest since 2000.
Background
Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon is the leading cause of the destruction of
environmental services that are important for Brazil and also to the whole world. The ecological
services being affected most by the removal of Amazon include avoiding global warming,
maintaining biodiversity, and recycling water that provides Amazon, Sao Paulo, and neighboring
Argentina rainforest rainfall. Besides, the rain forest also supports cultures and the human
population livening in Amazonia (Pfaff, Herrera & Sandoval, 2015). Deforestation in the wood
has been in an upward and downward trend over the years. The significant decline was realized
in 2012, with only 4571 square kilometers...

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Cornell University

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