Short essay answers
Native inhabitants of America had three forms of lifestyle; non-sedentary, semi-sedentary
and fully sedentary. The lifestyles developed from non-sedentary to fully sedentary
proportionately with time and civilization. For a better analysis of lifestyles of indigenous
Americans before the encounter with Europeans, historians classify them into three groups.
These groups are Paleo-Indians, Woodland Indians and Mississippian Indians (Claggett, 1995).
The Paleo-Indians are described as pure hunters and gatherers (Claggett, 1995). They had
a nomadic lifestyle. They traversed the plains of North Carolina in search of animals to kill and
gather wild fruits and grain for food. Their life was completely non-sedentary. It can be inferred
that this group of inhabitants was the least civilized. They used a group hunting technique due to
the lack of proper hunting tools. Paleo-Indians had less attachment to the land. They kept moving
in search of food, therefore, they had no sense of land ownership.
The second group is Woodland Indians. This group had a semi-sedentary lifestyle. They,
in addition to hunting and gathering, practiced subsistence farming (Claggett, 1995). They grew
crops such as sunflowers, beans, and maize. They would store the surplus for use during seasons
of unproductivity as in winter and early spring. This group developed bow and arrow technology,
making hunting easier. A single person would go hunting as opposed to group hunting in PaleoIndians. The farming had made this group to have an increased attachment to land compared to
Paleo-Indians. However, they needed land when they needed for farming. They would abandon
farming land from one area to another. Also, this group practiced religious activities.
Mississippian Indians, the third group, are considered the most civilized of the indigenous
prehistoric American inhabitants. Their lifestyle was fully sedentary. This group had a wellorganized society. They had a clear political system. Their fighting tactics were advanced. This
group, apart from farming and hunting, they indulged in trading as a major economic activity.
Political leadership was based on hereditary or military prowess. Mississippians had a greater
attachment to the land. They had well-defined boundaries for their territory. They would also
fight to expand and defend their land from other inhabitants.
The collapse of Spanish rule in Latin, that lasted for about three centuries, was attributed
to a long time build tensions and influence of external events. The conflict started in the
eighteenth century when Spanish Bourbons introduced reforms in several sectors (Bethell, 1987).
The reforms included the creation of administrative units called intendancies. Each intendancy
was headed by an official directly answerable to the Crown in Spain. The creation of
intendancies intended to increase revenue. The reform later worked against them as it pitted
Spanish bourbons against Creoles. Creol...
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